This study is focused on the application of Azolla Filiculoides (AF) as adsorbents for the removal of the cephalexin (CFX) antibiotic from aqueous solution. Several adsorption parameters including the adsorbent dosage, the initial CFX concentration, contact time and temperature were studied. The kinetic data revealed that the equilibrium time for CFX adsorption was achieved within 75 min. Several kinetic models, i.e., pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Weber Morris intraparticle diffusion, were applied, finding that the pseudo-second order model was the most suitable for the fitting of the experimental kinetic data. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibb's free energy change ( ∆ G 0 ), enthalpy change ( ∆ H 0 ) and entropy change ( ∆ S 0 ) were calculated. The negative values of ∆ H 0 and ∆ G 0 indicates that the CFX adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The study showed that AF can be used as a more efficient adsorbent for the adsorption of CFX From water solution.
Azolla filiculoides were collected locally from paddy fields.Plants were washed and cleaned of contamination organisms. The plants were surface sterilized with a solution of mercuric chloride (0.1% for 30 min) and were dipped immediately into a large volume of sterile distilled water. Plants were then transferred into dishes containing combined-N free 2/5 stength sterile Hoagland’s medium and 0.04mM ferrous ion as Fe-EDTA, pH 5.6.The cultures were grown at 26 o C under a 16:8 (light: dark) photoperiod with light from a combination of incandescent and cool white light fluorescent lamps at a photon fluence rate of 95 µmol m -2 s -1 . Fronds were routinely transferred into fresh medium twice a week to maintain plants in a sterile state. Log phase plants were used for experiments.
Heavy metals are significant environmental pollutants, and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance of ecological, evolutionary, nutritional and environmental reasons. Water pollution is a global problem. The heavy metals are omnipresent in our environment, and higher concentration of heavy metals poses a serious threat to the aquatic ecosystem. The remediation of aquatic environment by aquatic plants i.e. phytoremedition is an emerging area of research. In the present investigation laboratory experiments were conducted to study the accumulation profile of heavy metals in Azolla filiculoides Lam., exposed to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentration of sewage, at the interval of 4 days for 12 days. The results revealed that the accumulation of heavy metals in test plant varies with sewage concentration and duration of exposure and directly proportional to its concentration and duration of exposure. It is evident from the present investigation that the Azolla filiculoides Lam., can be used as phytotool for remediation of heavy metals from sewage.
This work allowed to experiment the action of Azolla filiculoides and compost on the growth and production of pepper. At the end of this study, it was found that all biofertilizers used for this test significantly increased stem height, neck diameter, mass and fruit count. Azolla and compost biofertilizers have proven effective, but Azolla has been shown to be more effective for both vegetative organ growth and productivity. Azolla, by its richness in nutriment thus demonstrated its capacity to increase the output of the pepper. The work has therefore shown that the A. filiculoides biofertilizer gave a better yield in terms of fruit mass with the Sunny variety and this variety is more productive than the Cheyenne variety.
Azolla (water fern) is a unique freshwater fern, being one of the fastest growing plants on the planet due to its symbiotic relation with a cyanobacterium called Anabaena (Fig. 1). Azolla filiculoides is a species of Azolla, native to warm climates and tropical regions of the Americas as well as most of the old world, including both Asia and Australia (Khosravi and Rakhshaee 2005; Sadeghi Pasvisheh 2016). During the last few years, there have been extensive studies to evaluate the potentials of Azolla to be applied as a green manure in rice fields, feed supplement for aquatic
From our results, we observed that, only treatments T1 and T4 from diet enriched with few amount of Azolla filiculoides maintained a low C: N ratio during the experiment. However, Azolla contains 28.24 % of lignin [27, 28] as consequence it may slow down the decomposition process of the organic residue. From this value,  reported that, C and N content regulate the early phase of decay while, lignin become more important for explanation thereafter. With treatments T2 and T3 diet containing 30% and 47.5 % respectively of Azolla filiculoides the C: N ratios were high after a week. These results corroborate with  results studying litters decomposition in the soil and found that, the slow decomposition is mainly caused by the very highest C: N ratio due to the important lignin + polyphenol content in the residues. Furthermore,  reported also that, the amount of nutrient released can be correlated with C : N : P ratio. Manure from diet T3 has the highest value of N at the
Agbede et al. (2001) have conducted a study to evaluate the preferential feeding of fishes among 3 aquatic weeds such as Azolla filiculoides (water fem), Elodea sp. and Pistia stratiotes (water lettuse) .Sixty juvenile Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) were fed with (three species) of aquatic weed, namely Azolla filiculoides (water fem), Elodea sp. and Pistia stratiotes (water lettuse) reared to determine which of the weeds will be selectively consumed, and preferred of all. A control group of twenty fishes were fed with compounded feed. The selectivity of the weeds was observed based on their utilization as food source, and Azolla filiculoides was found to be highly utilized than Elodea sp and the roots of Pistia stratiotes. Highest growth parameters were observed in fishes fed with compounded feed followed by Azolla filiculoides and Elodea sp. On the other hand, fishes exhibited negative growth trend when fed with Pistia stratiotes. Thus the results of the study proposed that Azolla filiculoides can be effectively used as feed ingredient for Oreochromis niloticus.
Azolla Filiculoides was collected from Anzali wetland, Iran. The collected materials were then washed several times with distilled water to remove all dirt particles. The washing process was continued till the wash water contained no color. The washed materials were then dried at 50 ℃ for 12 h. The dried materials were then ground, using steel mill. The adsorbent was sieved through 1-2 mm sieve. The crushed particles were then treated with 0.1M HCl for 5 h followed by washing with distilled water and then kept for shaded dry. The resultant biomass was subsequently used in sorption experiments.
percentage is significantly(P<0.01)increased at 5% level of inclusion but giblet percentage at 15%.Best dressing percentage of 72.16 was obtained when azolla was fed at 5% while at 0,10 and 15% inclusion level it was 69.38,68.24 and 68.78% respectively. The giblet percent at 15% was 6.44% but in other groups it varied from 5.55-6.01%.Feeding 5% azolla powder significantly(P<0.05) increases carcass yield(%) in male broiler chick (Cobb-500)while lowest percentage was noted in 15% azolla supplemented group. Thigh,breast and gizzard yield(%) followed similar trend. The cost of broiler production is significantly(P<0.05) low if azolla is supplemented @5%[35,36]. Azolla as unconventional nutrient source can be fed upto 10% of basal diet in white Pekin broiler ducks  .Moreover azolla fed group in terms of profit/bird shows higher economic efficiency. Feeding of broilers on azolla result in similar body weight and growth like those kept on maize-soybean meal  . In an attempt to utilize aquatic plants in swine ration for nutrients and for reducing feed cost Azolla filiculoides has been used in sow diet  and as partial protein source replacer in growing fattening pigs [17,37].Other plants used in ration are water hyacinth, duckweed and salvinia molesta. Azolla as a protein source has also been used in laboratory animals like Rabbits [51-55].
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their diets, in terms of final mean weight and SGR. These trends in growth variation were similar to those reported with other terrestrial and aquatic plants, as substitutes for FM. As in this study, El-Sayed , Fasakin et al.  and Fasakin et al.  reported reduced growth of Nile tilapia when Azolla pinnata R. Brown., Duckweed (Spi- rodela polyrrhiza L.) and Azolla africana Desv. were used, respectively. According to several studies, factors that limit the use of macrophytes in fish diets are their content of antinutrient factors, or a deficiency in amino- acids and phosphorus. Dato-Cajegas  pointed out phosphorus as the major mineral that limits Nile tilapia Table 5. Growth, feed performance and body composition (% fresh matter basis) of Nile tilapia fed in ponds with diets con- taining increasing level of Azolla filiculoides for 90 days. Data are mean ± S.D. of three replicates. A 0 to A 50 : diet with 0% to
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Azolla is a small aquatic fern. In fact, it is a symbiotic pair of Azolla filiculoides and a heterocystous blue-green alga Anabaena azollae. It has been used as a fertilizer in botanical gardens because of nitrogen-fixing capability . The development of an Azolla-based biosorbent for wastewater treatment, especially in developing countries, may benefit environmental problems, by removing heavy metals from water using this weed .
Azolla pinnata is a symbiotic system which fixes atmospheric nitrogen with the help of the endophyte Anabaena to meet the nitrogen requirements of the association (Mayashree, et al., 2017). Azolla is capable of growing in nitrogen free media (Ray et al., 1979) as Anabaena supplies ammonia to the fern, and the fern in turn provides the cyanobacterium with photosynthetic assimilates (van Hove and Lejeune 2002) thus helps to maintain the C-N balance in the association. The ammonium supplied by the cyanobacterium is assimilated by the fern with the help of Glutamine synthetase (GS), which catalyzes the incorporation of ammonium into glutamate and generate glutamine (Tobin and Yamaya, 2001), which provides nitrogen groups, either directly or via glutamate for the biosynthesis of all nitrogenous compounds in the plant (Lea et al., 1990). The GS activity is dependent on the ammonium concentration, thus the measure of GS activity
iron as well as amino acids e.g. alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine could significantly adversely interfere on the development and reproduction of the nematode (Thomas et al., 1980 and Francisco et al., 2000). Consequently, the decomposing dry Azolla plants as green manures could help in improving the plant growth. Similar results has been attained by Patel et al. (1989 & 1994) as they found that dry A. pinnataas soil additives reduced the stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris population and consequently improving the plant growth, as well as, Ismail (2015) found that both of A. caroliniana and A. pinnata as green manures reduced the root-knot nematode, M. javanica and improving the tomato growth. Fresh materials of both A. filiculoides and A. pinnata decreased M. incognita and improved the plant growth (Abadir and El-Hamawi, 1995). Moreover, the extracts of both fresh and dryA. Pinnata plants inhibited egg hatching of M. javanica and M. incognita (Thaker et al., 1988). Further studies are needed to clearly elucidate proper effect against plant-parasitic nematodes.
Like chlorophyll, protein of the Azolla microphylla was also inhibited by enhanced doses of pesticide which is in agreement with results of earlier work of [30, 31] and recently by  also reported inhibition in the protein content of Azolla fronds following different doses of pesticides and it could be co-related with reduced photosynthetic activity, nitrogen metabolism and nucleic acid damage under pesticide stress . Recently  have shown reduction in growth (Protein) of cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum under monocrotophos stress which is in agreement with our findings. The reduction in heterocyst frequency is an indirect evidence for reduced nitrogen fixation. The heterocyst frequency is known to control the growth rate and nitrogen fixation in Azolla fronds . It may be inferred that monocrotophos at higher concentration hastens the onset of senescence in plants leading to loss of chlorophyll and decreasing biomass yield and reduction in nitrogen fixing ability. The nitrogen starvation in the cells would result in the reduction of protein synthesis  and ultimately decrease in growth of cyanobacterial population. 
Effect of Azolla on biomass of French bean in terms of fresh weight and dry weight are presented in Figure 2. An increase in French bean biomass was observed in Azolla treatments compared to controls. Maximum biomass was recorded in T2 (25 g) after 15, 30 and 60 days of sowing compared to the controls. Similar results were observed in Pisum sativum (Bhindu, 2013). The effect of Azolla on pod
ABSTRACT: Phytoremediation includes all the natural processes taking place within certain aquatic plants to accumulate or degrade polluting compounds. Water hyacinth and Azolla are amongst aquatic plants that are being investigated for removal of heavy metals Chromium and Copper in the present work from synthetic solutions having 50 and 10 ppm separately. Based on observations, results & discussion, it can be said that water hyacinth can survive in copper and Chromium concentration less than 50 ppm for around 15 days. The effective uptake for 50 ppm initial concentration is observed to 29% and 14% for copper and chromium respectively for 15 days. Similarly Azolla is effective to the extent of 6 and 62.5% copper and chromium removal respectively over 28 days period. The same figures for 10 ppm initial concentration for Water hyacinth are 13% and 71% for copper and chromium removal respectively..The present study has successfully addressed to the novel and upcoming method of removal of metallic ions by plants.
Studies were conducted to find efficient Indole acetic acid producing strains and assessing the effectiveness of combined dose of azolla (dried) and IAA producers on plant growth. Out of ten isolates, only two isolates, viz, F1 and G2 were found to be potent IAA producers and were used for further experiments. It was found that the isolate F1 and G2 produced maximum amount of IAA at 0.9% tryptophan and incubation for 72 h at room temperature. The optimum pH for IAA production for isolates F1 and G2 was found to be at pH 9. The isolates were also assessed for the presence of other plant growth promoting activity, such as hydrogen cyanide production, oxalate solubilization, phosphate solubilization and zinc solubilization. Effect of IAA producers on seed germination was done by pot experi- ments carried out into sets. Isolates F1 and G2 were found efficient for plant growth promotion in desired aspects. Effect of combined dose of azolla and IAA producers on seed germination was assessed by pot experiments. For this, dried powder of azolla was added during sowing of culture treated seeds. No further culture supply was given to the seeds. Azolla has high protein content. Slow protein releasing property of azolla can be useful to provide constant supply of the precursor (tryptophan) for IAA synthesis by isolate. In addition to the plant exudates, azolla may also give constant supply of tryptophan. From all the assessed samples, the isolates FI and G2 showed efficient growth of plants in all aspects. G2 was found to be more potent than F1. So as to assess the compatibility of isolate in natural conditions, field studies were done. Four plots designed having individual size 9 × 5 m, were used. It was found that plots 3 (only culture) and 4 (culture with azolla) showed better plant growth as compared to others. On the basis of IAA producing ability of G2, pot experiments and field studies, it was concluded that isolate G2 can be used alone or in conjunction with azolla as a biofertilizer to get better plant growth.
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The experiment was carried out for a period of four months from July to November 2001 in 9 similar sized experimental ponds (each of 80 m 2 ) in the field laboratory of the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. All the ponds were free from water hyacinth and other undesirable species. Ponds were completely well exposed to sunlight and without inlet and outlet. Three treatments, each with triplicates were used in the study. Treatment 1 was designed with Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla), Mrigal (Cirrhina mrigala), Thai sharpunti (Puntius gonionotus) and aquatic macrophyte Lemna sp., Treatment 2 with same fish species and aquatic macrophyte Azolla sp. and Treatment 3 was designed with similar fish species and without any aquatic macrophyte. The stocking densities were similar in all treatments and densities were of the above three native carps: Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Catla catla and one exotic carp, Thai sharpunti (Puntius gonionotus) were 2,000, 2,000, 2,000 and 5,000/ha respectively.
Nitrate losses were significantly (P=0.022) differ from each treatments and highest amount of loss was observed in Azolla (19.66mg) followed by Urea(17.54mg), sesbania (15.34mg), Giliricidia (13.14mg)and sunhemp(11.2mg ) (Figure 3). Nitrate losses were less in green manure(Sesbania, Sunhemp & Gliricidia) added soil than inorganic fertilized soil with in one month period. Low NH4+-N (Table 3.0) in azolla than other green manures could be the reason for higher nitrate losses in Azolla than other green manures. And also azolla could be decomposed faster than other green manures as C/N ratio (6.2) of azolla was lower than other green manures ( Table 2.0). Hence azolla could be utilized in wet land paddy cultivation as bio fertilizer as there is a hard pan to prevent leachate.
The initial level of nitrate in the waste water is about 12.4mg/l which is much higher than the permissible level 10mg/L for a inland surface water.During the time period of over 24 days R1 reduced nitrate to a effective level 3.2mg/L of about 74%,this shows water hyacinth with papaya stem reduces nitrate to a greater extent in Fig( ).R2 with azolla and papaya stem showed a nominal level in reducing nitrate to 5.3mg/L of about 57%.R3 with