The dynamics of Information Communication Technology (ICT) expanded the scope of Education Science and, consequently the Educational Technology has reached various emerging areas such as: E-LEARNING, B-LEARNING, M-LEARNING. This article is part of research being conducted in the PhD Program in Science Education - Specialization in Educational Technology at the University of Minho (Braga-Portugal). The method used was the bibliographical research supported by systematic review of the literature (SRL) methodology in databases, whose research protocol was based on the adaptation of SRL methods . E-learning is defined as a type of interactive learning, where learning content is available online and automatic feedback of student learning activities is assured. Online real-time communication may or may not be included, but the focus of e-learning resides more on the content of learning than on the communication between students and tutors . This paper covers e-learning in its varied aspects. The terminology of the word e-learning is firstly discussed, as well as its respective definitions and concepts. The main cornerstones in the development of e-learning as a teaching method are presented, then extended to the areas of b-learning and m-learning. This section also describes the historical aspects and the generations which arose from Distance Education. Furthermore, the technical and pedagogical approaches to e-learning are related. A table is subsequently presented, displaying the advantages and challenges of the e-learning practice. Finally, it analyses the e-learning system, together with new platform trends, namely the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC). The traditional and contemporary paradigms are antagonistic. For this reason they are in frank tension, the first virtual learning environment (VLE) that serve to support classroom courses or closed courses and are fully virtualized. And on the other hand, MOOC appear with the goal of extending these courses through the network, and are therefore open to all users who want to take the course. This remarkable change of paradigms are the major challenges and excel in both aspects of pedagogy, after all this situation reveals that the Human Computer Interface (HCI) is fulfilling its main objective which is to make more accessible interaction and easy to be used by all users for more heterogeneous than they are.
After establishing the B-learning instruction, we found that students’memorization level increased 16%; identify level increased 18%, comprehension level increased 22%, application level increased 15% and, finally, analysis level increased 23%. We can consider those values satisfactory, because at the beginning of the course those levels were very low (10/24 points, in pretest) and at the end of the course students reach 18/24 points in posttest. So, students’ responses in pretest reached 42% but after instruction they reached 75% of correct answers; this is a good result from our methodology because students could achieve almost twice of their academic performance on the test. Hake gain indicates that B-learning has been a very good teaching strategy because its value was 0.69, while control group value was 0.45. In the other hands, hypothesis test values was 3.018 which is larger than t-value (1.648), this indicate there is statistical differences between traditional and B-learning strategy; we remark that B-learning promotes a higher learning about volume concept. Our results indicate that our proposal sequence is on a correct way; working with playful materials and Khan academy website, students could develop (step by step) specific math abilities such as memorization of formulas, identify and classify geometric figures and analyze to solve geometric problems, in general they understand in an easier way area and volume concept of prism, pyramids, etc. Another important fact is that our students worked in teams in order to give support one each other, they comment about each activity and share their knowledge. We have to point out, teacher have to make a feedback at the end of each activity in order to remark the most important process or concept studied in class. Finally, we have to recognize that using active learning methods (like B- learning) in or out classroom tend to improve students’ performance on these topics, but in traditional teaching students did not obtain good results.
Sir Ken Robinson, PhD, is an internationally recognized authority in creativity and innovation in education and one of the world’s leading speakers. Videos of his famous talks to the prestigious TED Conference are the most viewed in the history of the organization and have been seen by an estimated 300 million people in over 150 countries. Called “one of the world’s elite thinkers on creativity and innovation” by Fast Company magazine, Sir Ken has received numerous awards and recognitions for his groundbreaking contributions. His 2009 book, The Element: How Finding Your Passion Changes Everything, was a New York Times best seller and has been translated into 21 languages. The 10 th anniversary edition of his classic work on creativity and innovation, Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative, was
It is important to mention that by using a b-learning environment in the research, it is possible that variables may arise that were not controlled in the study; such as the interaction between peers during the development of a learning task, aspect that could be studied furthered in subsequent research. Also, time control for the development of learning tasks, which was not systematically recorded. The study of this variable, regarding time management, would open a research area with regards to self-regulation of learning and the monitoring of set goals. Finally, it would be interesting to study students’ motivation toward online learning; variable that could be analyzed in-depth in high school students with the purpose of preparing them to undertake the challenge of continuing with university studies supported by mobile technologies.
terment process” . This approach is more or less an imitation of the learning process of every intelligent be- ing. Intelligent beings tend to learn by performing a trial (i.e. selecting a control input) and observing what was the end result of this control input selection. After that they try to change their behaviour (i.e. to pick up a new control input) in order to get an improved performance during the next trial. Because, a) the overall idea of ILC and the procedure results in a controller that learns the correct control input, and b) learning is done through iteration, the term Iterative Learning Control is nowa- days used to describe control algorithms that result in the “betterment process” as suggested by Arimoto . In this work an optimal iterative learning algorithm for discrete linear systems is analyzed and a solution for its attain- ment is proposed. Finally the mathematical proof of the algorithm’s causal formulation is also provided in its complete form, since its implementation requires its causal formulation.
This research focuses on providing a benchmarking methodology that allows any university oﬀering virtual education (e-learning or b-learning) to compare itself to the best international universities in order to improve the quality of the virtual education oﬀered. In order to verify the adequacy of the proposed methodology, it has been applied to the Polish Virtual University (PUW). On the other hand, the Open University of Catalonia (UOC) was chosen as the leading partner university. The benchmarking performed has allowed the author to obtain solid results in order to draw up and implement a complete action plan for improvement, which will make it possible to increase, in the short and medium terms, the quality of the virtual education oﬀered by PUW. It is therefore concluded that the proposed benchmarking methodology is adequate in order to assess and improve the quality of virtual higher education.
IEEE defines a LO as “any entity, digital or non digital, which can be used, reused or referenced during technology- supported learning” . The main characteristics that a LO should have: re-usability and interoperability. We can define LO as : “A Learning Object is an independent and self-standing unit of learning content that is predisposed to reuse in multiple instructional contexts”. Each LO is accompanied by a set of data (metadata) that provide the necessary information to define the content of each LO, the way that it can be used, its special requirements etc. Apart from the definition and the structure of a LO, another matter of dispute is the size (or granularity) of the LO. The basic idea behind this technology is the use of small chunks of information so that they can flexibly be reused to form learning material. This is very similar to the way that objects are used in Object-Oriented Software Engineering. The term Aggregated Learning Object is used to refer to different levels of granularity. The ideal reusable LO should have the following attributes:
Institutional Support. In the program interviews, all (100%) of the respondents stated they had institutional support, which was defined as: operational funds, office space, salaries for at least one full-time staff person and resources for training and workshops. This coincides with the literature review and program interviews. Ed Zlotkowski (1998) and others (Caron, 1999; Mintz & Hesser, 1996; Ward, 1996) discussed specifically in their research the need for the leadership within a college or university to embrace the philosophical and pedagogical reasons for service-learning as a means to be a force for positive change in the campus culture and community. This form of headship provides the practical resources of facilitating the growth of service-learning on a college campus. Aside from operational and staffing funds, institutional support also included: formal encouragement from the administration to the faculty to integrate service-learning into their courses; resources to aid faculty in coordination, design and evaluation of a service-learning course; and recognition of service-learning as a criteria for rank, tenure, and promotion within the institution. Institutional support legitimized the academic component of service-learning and further communicated its importance within the curriculum and co-curriculum. Not surprisingly, the research found that if the cornerstone of institutional support was lacking, service-learning remained dormant or nonexistent on campuses. As a result, this attribute was included in the comprehensive definition of effective service-learning practices stated previously.
Group learning process can be divided into various purposes. For example, if the teachers have a specific purposes, groups can be divided into gender. Group can be classified in terms of individual’s satisfaction. They will join the group with their preferences. However, this should not be often conducted because students may lack the opportunities to work with other people from another group. Specific group is one of learning process. Students with high ability may work with someone’s lower ability. They will finally help each other to carry out their mission.
French immersion is a content-based approach to learning French that in- tegrates language-teaching into the rest of the curriculum. In general, English- speaking students are taught subjects such as social studies, language arts, math, and sciences in the target language, French. The immersion approach to teaching a second language was first implemented and studied in the Canadi- an context; it rapidly became popular in Canada and was later implemented in other countries as well (e.g., Australia, Sweden, and the US state of Louisiana). Although French immersion is sometimes assessed critically (Hammerly, 1989; Mannavarayan, 2002), it is still popular in Canada, where 296,428 stu- dents were enrolled in French immersion schools in 2005. Although numbers are growing in some Canadian provinces, other provinces face more challenges in sustaining the program (Canadian Parents for French [CPF], 2005). CPF is a national network of volunteers, most of whom are parents of children in French immersion; they promote and support French-as-a-second-language learning opportunities for young Canadians. Since 2000, CPF has provided
In 2015, the university comprehended the need for an efficient and effective system to help its staff and students in the learning and teaching activities. The students were also in a search for a system which could make their learning experience more interesting. The staff on the other hand, either those in the CCIT or other colleges were in need for a platform which could make the communication between them and the students more effective. For some reasons, the adoption of Moodle at that time was not simple; however, on a testing basis, the system was deployed for a limited number of lecturers (around 15 lecturers) and approximately a hundred students. The initial phase of the system was limited to the sharing the information between faculty and the students. However, later on, some more features of the Moodle system were added. The adoption of the system was found to be useful, thereby giving rise to approximately 90 lecturers in the system and more than 500 students. The system comprises of two servers that were used, in which one of the main Moodle server was acting as the base and another server was acting as a backup server. The system was designed to provide a simple interface and more functionalities for the students to make it effective and elegant. A specific Moodle theme module was designed to provide the best support for the assignments and teamwork with the help of consecutive processing . The goal of this adoption is to support automated assessment mechanism and to encourage more effective communication between staff and students. The use of the LMS has made it clear that having a paperless teaching and learning environment seemed feasible. However, there were some issues that were encountered at that time which will be discussed later in this paper.
Three Indonesian Language Teaching Institutions for Foreign Students (ILTIFS) in Central Java have separated materials between Indonesian language skills and culture information. Based on the previous analysis, we can see the ILTIFS got some problems such as (a) speaking is rarely taught because teachers need special preparation especially if the instructor does not have their own teaching material; (b) there is no adequate audio facilities for teaching speaking; (c) foreign students experienced difficulties in learning culture through text and they rarely learn verbally; (d) another obstacle when using teaching materials from other ILTIFS is understanding the materials and culture which are different in terms of the students' real conditions, (e) most of the materials are not speaking materials according to what happens in everyday life; (f) speaking materials are in the form of reading dialogues so that it results in boredom and less challenge, (g) learning for foreign speakers is not only for the transfer of knowledge but it also focuses on improving communication skills in a social context , (h) speaking material is not limited to practice; there are theories that are difficult for foreign speakers to practice but should be more communicative and in accordance with the local culture where foreign speakers live, and (i) cultural shock experienced by foreign students can be reduced by providing knowledge of local culture and how they can apply it in the Indonesian environment.
The study found that the students’ level of understanding of e-learning is high. The most important factors contributing to their understanding of e-learning are the support and encouragement from lecturers, having knowledge of ICT and skills in computing. The study also found that the first most least factor contributing to their understanding of e-learning is the support from their peers. This shows they are easily influenced by peers. If peers refuse to change their learning methods, then they are reluctant to change too. This finding supports the study done by Tekkol and Demirel (2018) which states that students should be wise to use diverse learning methods without relying on their peers to make e-learning environment attractive. The second most least factor contributing to their understanding of e-learning are having internet facilities and attending courses and training on ICT. This result supports the study conducted by Grover (2015) which indicates that the lack of internet facilities and limited number of computers provided by the management demotivated the students because they have to wait a long time to retrieve materials from the website. The students also understood the importance of attending courses and training related to e-learning. However, understanding is not enough if they are not committed to follow the training until the end. According to Cook et al. (2017), in implementing e-learning, the students should follow the training until the end to develop their skills and understanding in the usage of the electronic materials and hardware. Thus, the management of the university should be aware with the appropriateness of the training given and the suitability of the training time.
Learning accurate classifiers from preclassified data is a very active research topic in machine learning and artificial intelligence. There are numerous classifier paradigms, among which Bayesian Networks are very effective and well known in domains with uncertainty. Bayesian Networks are widely used representation frameworks for reasoning with probabilistic infor- mation. These models use graphs to capture dependence and independence relationships be- tween feature variables, allowing a concise representation of the knowledge as well as efficient graph based query processing algorithms. This representation is defined by two components: structure learning and parameter learning. The structure of this model represents a directed acyclic graph. The nodes in the graph correspond to the feature variables in the domain, and the arcs (edges) show the causal relationships between feature variables. A directed edge relates the variables so that the variable corresponding to the terminal node (child) will be conditioned on the variable corresponding to the initial node (parent). The parameter learning represents probabilities and conditional probabilities based on prior information or past experience. The set of probabilities are represented in the conditional probability table. Once the network structure is constructed, the probabilistic inferences are readily calculated, and can be performed to predict the outcome of some variables based on the observations of others. However, the problem of structure learning is a complex problem since the number of candidate structures grows exponentially when the number of feature variables increases.
Based on the above table it can be seen that 5 students (20%) are below average, 7 students (28%) are on average level. This score gives an illustration that the level of achievement of learning achievement of Tafsir in this group is quite good, it is indicated the achievement of learning objectives reaching 52%. This research proposes hypothesis testing about the mean difference of the eight sample groups, ie group of samples (A1), (A2). (B1), (B2). (A1 B1), (A2B1) (A1 B2), and (A2 B2). To test the null hypothesis of the absence of difference between the rates in the sample - the study sample used two- way ANAVA variation analysis which then continued with Tukey's Test to determine which main effect was higher. The result of data analysis using ANOVA test from score of learning result of Tafseer is presented in Table 4.14, for Tukey test is presented in the table below. From the calculation of ANAVA - two path data for source variance between columns seen that the price of F count was smaller F table (F arithmetic = 2.15 <F table = 3.94). This means that H0 received or H1 is rejected. So it can be said that there can be no significant effect difference between groups of students who are learning by using conventional learning strategy and group of students who learn by using e-learninglearning strategy.
Abstract- Undisputedly, rapidly changing technologies have introduced many unprecedented challenges to almost every sphere of the people’s lives. For one, the educational realm has witnessed many changes made to the teaching and learning process to ensure students can learn with greater efficacy. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the findings of a field study based on an online survey involving 91 students of Sultan Idris Education University, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia. The researchers used Google Form, which is a free survey development tool, for the development of online questionnaire of the survey. The main aims of this field study are as follows: (a) to determine the type of learning video deemed relevant to the 21st century learning, (b) to determine the teaching approach of lecturers as preferred by students, and (c) to determine the relevant teaching approach for subjects that entail logical thinking. Data collected were analysed descriptively, yielding a number of interesting findings. Firstly, 90% of the respondents (n = 82), which constituted an overwhelming majority, stated that they would prefer voice-recorded video and whiteboard animation as the appropriate learning aids. Secondly, at 60% (n = 55), more than half of the respondents indicated that lecturers should use a whiteboard and a portable visualizer to help improve their teaching process. Finally, a significant number of the respondents, at 81% (n = 74), indicated that the
There has been a proliferation of knowledge about how children develop skills that are crucial to academic and lifelong success, with educators increasingly aware of the need to integrate social and emotional learning (SEL) into their school programs. Both in the United States through state-led and federal initiatives such as Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and a growing number of initiatives outside the US such as the iYes Project of ERASMUS+ in Europe (iYes Project 2016) and KidsMatter in Australia (KidsMatter 2017), SEL programs are being widely introduced, supported by recommended stand- ards and funding for implementation. Fueling this effort has been a push toward bet- ter student outcomes and a belief that SEL can improve them. A 2013 US-based study entitled “The Missing Piece” asked educators what they thought could fix the problem of static educational achievements (Bridgeland et al. 2013). Results indicated that teachers
The second issue that proved to be problematic is the development of a fully online course from scratch as this proved to be difficult, time consuming, and lacks some aspects such as the required interactivity between students and instructors (17) .These problems have resulted in making changes to the development methodology for the courses themselves, which has led to UBT to adopt a new methodology for developing its tools and courses using Moodle. The aims of this new methodology are to shorten development time, provide better interactivity, enhance collaborative learning, and meet the requirements of the MoHE in terms of blending online with face to face teaching is argued to be most successful approach for e – learning (35). Technological uncertainty is the third issue. The technology for the project had to be changed because the original specifications for that IT infrastructure were seen to be insufficient. The new technology infrastructure was with better specifications and the change in technology proved to be positive change in the project. Fourthly, the availability and sustainability of human resources involved in the project have been a major challenge and resulted in many changes within the project team, which has also been reflected on the implementation of the project.
In present scenario E-Learning and M-Learning is one of the important aspect of learning process which has enormous implication in the present education system. But in a country like India, which is not free from technical as well as social and educational challenges. Over the post ten years, M-Learning has grown from minor research interest to set significant projects in schools, higher education, workplace etc around the world. This paper also describes a new learning paradigm known as ubiquitous learning or U-Learning. Which is supported by the ubiquitous computing technologies? Instead of that, the paper also aims at providing particular information related to U-Learning for researchers who are interested in venturing this new area of ubiquitous computing. The U-Learning definition and characteristic are discussed. Finally some of the U-Learning applications are explained to further enhance the understanding of U-Learning concept.