Methods. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Embase, PsycLIT, and reference lists of articles were searched. Randomized trials testing all types of ex- ercise therapy for subjects with nonspecific low backpain with or without radiation into the legs were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Because trials were considered heteroge- neous with regard to study populations, interventions, and outcomes, it was decided not to perform a meta- analysis, but to summarize the results using a rating sys- tem of four levels of evidence: strong, moderate, limited, or none.
Low-backpain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent health problems in industrialized countries, engendering signifi- cant disability and costs. Backpain will generally resolve itself in the short term, with only a minority developing prolonged disability. However, this minority is responsible for the majority of costs and has the poorest health outcomes. There is also scientific consensus that predictors of prolonged disability are more psychosocial than biomedical in nature. Interdisciplinarity has also been shown to be effective in addressing the multidimen- sional aspects of prolonged disability related to LBP. Thus, a shift of clinical focus from pathophysiology to the prevention of prolonged disability is needed in primary care clinicians involved in LBP management.
Methods: We examined two sets of cohorts, where each set was comparable in all other aspects, but one cohort in each set had been followed with weekly SMS-questions about the presence of spinal pain for 6 years and 1 year, respectively, whereas the other cohort had not answered any questions for research purposes before. At the end of the follow-up period, two cohorts, consisting of pupils from 5th and 6th grade, completed the Young Spine Questionnaire about spinal pain, one cohort in 2010 and the other in 2014. The other set of cohorts, consisting of low backpain patients in primary care, completed an extensive questionnaire about their backpain (2011 to 2013). Results: In both sets of cohorts there was a statistically significant difference in pain intensity with the pupils/ patients who had been subject to frequent follow-up over long periods of time reporting lower intensity of pain. Other differences were small and not statistically significant.
This review was needed to synthesise current evidence in relation to backpain and injury prevention in nurses. A lack of high quality studies and infrequent trial replication resulted in no strong evidence for or against any intervention method. Whilst no definitive statements can be made, moderate evidence from multiple trials suggests that multidimensional strategies are effective and manual handling training in isolation is ineffective. For all other interventions there is conflicting evidence or only single trials are available. The specific findings of the review merit discussion in relation to current policy and evidence from other populations.
muscle loss, especially appendicular muscle loss with the fat condition remaining relatively stable, may lead to an increased load on the structure around the neck and shoulder during ADL and result in the onset of neck and shoulder pain in Japanese subjects, in contrast to previous reports in which the fat condition is associated with low backpain or neck pain [7, 20, 22]. However, younger age was associated with the presence of neck and shoulder pain, and also age was negatively corre- lated with the intensity of neck and shoulder pain, des- pite the fact that the muscle loss was correlated with the intensity of neck and shoulder pain. This fact suggests the possibility that the muscle loss in neck and shoulder pain was not associated with age-related muscle loss (i.e., sarcopenia [35, 36]). More detailed research is ne- cessary to understand fully the relationship between neck and shoulder pain and muscle loss.
A total of 180 persons with chronic backpain (defined as backpain that has persisted 3 months or more) and German mother tongue were recruited via the Internet. The survey was promoted on websites of several patient organizations and support groups for chronic pain patients in Germany as well as in an inpatient rehabilitation center (MediClin Klinik am Hahnberg, Germany). All participants provided informed consent to participate, and the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Department of Psychology, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
Thirteen randomized trials were included. Eight had a high risk and five had a low risk of bias. One study was published in German and the rest in English. Massage was compared to an inert therapy (sham treatment) in two studies that showed that massage was superior for pain and function on both short and long-term follow-ups. In eight studies, massage was compared to other active treatments. They showed that massage was similar to exercises, and massage was superior to joint mobilization, relaxation therapy, physical therapy, acupuncture and self-care education. One study showed that reflexology on the feet had no effect on pain and functioning. The beneficial effects of massage in patients with chronic low-backpain lasted at least one year after the end of the treatment. Two studies compared two different techniques of massage. One concluded that acupuncture massage produces better results than classic (Swedish) massage and another concluded that Thai massage produces similar results to classic (Swedish) massage.
Asymmetry in the pelvis and lower extremities could cause asymmetry in biome- chanical loading on joints, especially during weight-bearing activities. Accordingly, assessment of lower body asymmetry is part of the postural evaluation undertaken by health professionals when treating patients with musculoskeletal problems (Subotnick, 1981). A common musculoskeletal complaint, low backpain (LBP), is often ascribed to skeletal asymmetry, and efforts to correct asymmetry are used to treat LBP symptoms (Lee, 1989).
Of course, we don’t all have perfect position in the saddle. Riding is more " f o rgiving" than other sports that demand a high degree of balance, such as cycling and skiing, because a loss of balance won’t necessarily cause you to fall. Lots of riders manage OK – at least for a while – despite poor posture, an incorrect head and neck position, or a rigid lower back. Sooner or later, if these position faults go uncorrected, not only will they hamper your horse’s ability to move freely, but they’ll also lead to shoulder pain, neck pain, lower-backpain, or all three.
Methods. Using the health care register in Southern Sweden (population 1.2 million), including diagnoses (International Statistical Classiﬁcation of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision) by physicians, we identiﬁed all patients who in 2009 were diagnosed with LBP, deﬁned as lumbago with sciatica, low backpain, or other/unspeciﬁed dorsalgia. We deﬁned ﬁrst-time consultation as a consultation in 2009 without a record of an LBP diagnosis in 2004 –2008. Standardized health care utilization ratios were calculated for LBP patients compared to the general population seeking care.
Epidural injections of corticosteroid preparations, with or without added anesthetic agents, are considered experimental and investigational for all other indications (e.g., non-specific low backpain [LBP] and failed back syndrome) because their effectiveness for indications other than the ones listed above has not been established.
symptom defined as discomfort in the lumbosacral region of the back. The dis- comfort may or may not radiate to the legs, hips, and buttocks. LBP is considered acute if the discomfort persists 6 weeks or less and is considered chronic if persists longer than 12 weeks. While the population of patients suffering from LBP contin- ues to expand, the clinical challenges of effectively treating backpain persist. This reflects the multidimensional nature of LBP and heterogeneity of the population it affects. In the past decade, emerging treatments and preventive approaches of care for conditions such as respiratory and circulatory diseases have been successful in reducing the cost of social security disability. This contrasts with LBP, where the population of disabilities beneficiaries continues to expand despite an array of therapeutic measures. 2
The specific etiology of LBP is still unidentified in most of the patients presenting to healthcare but listening to the patient gives the physician the best opportunity to identify the causes of LBP . A full history and physical examination is essential in developing a diagnostic plan to identify the cause(s) of symptoms and administering a therapeutic regimen to relieve the pain. A focused history and physical examination are essential in evaluating patients presenting with LBP to assess them for serious symptoms of neurologic compromise, inflammatory, or medical conditions. Most of the patients can be evaluated by history and physical examination alone if the dura- tion of backpain is less than one month  but a through history and physical exam can guide clinicians for further indicated diagnostic studies in serious underlying conditions (see Figure 1). In the majority of cases, the pain is self-limited so no specific treatment is required.
by stressors such as heavy lifting, contact stress (repeated or constant contact between soft body tissue and a hard or sharp object), vibration, repetitive motion, and awkward posture. Using ergonomically designed furniture and equipment to protect the body from injury at home and in the workplace may reduce the risk of back injury. In this module, authors have provided background, etiology, risk factors and prevention of backpain. Adopting correct postures is ated correct postures with the help of eleven colour
The Qi and the Blood flow can be affected by the external pathogenic factors: wind, cold, dampness, heat and etc. and when they invade the low back, they cause low backpain. If they are present in the upper body, cold or flu appears. Low backpain caused by wind is very achy, and caused by cold, the pain is lo- cated in one point, very sharp and severe. Cold is also causing Blood stasis. Pain caused by dampness is fixed, but very heavy and usually chronic. If there is swel- ling, it results from too much fluid accumulation. Heat causes swelling, redness and inflammation, especially in the joints. A person also must have strong Liver and Kidney, so the invasion of the external pathogens will be short and acute.
Abstract This paper is about the study of techniques on multiple video streaming, which is going to be used to prevent backpain among manual workers. The method used in this study is by using multiple video streaming which consists of three important elements; webcams , SimpleCV open-source and Python language. There are three techniques to do the video analysis. First is by using “on-the-shelf” software, the second is by combining the “on-the-shelf” software and self-programming, and the third one is by developing the “in-house” programming. The pilot test was held in Manufacturing Engineering Faculty, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. The aim of the pilot test is to know whether the system is successful or not and to upgrade the system if there are any weaknesses.
The present study showed that Low backpain was more frequent in females in comparison to males. This is in accordance with the several previous studies, that showed that Low backpain symptoms were usually more common among females. Schneider et al.  and Hathorn et al.  showed that the rate of Low backpain is higher among females due to the stress of hormonal changes, problems related gynaecological disorders and also childbirth related events .
Purpose: Chronic low backpain is a common clinical problem. As medication, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are generally used; however, they are some- times non-effective. Recently, opioids have been used for the treatment of chronic low backpain, and since 2010, transdermal fentanyl has been used to treat chronic non-cancer pain in Japan. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effi- cacy of transdermal fentanyl in the treatment of chronic low backpain. Materials and Methods: This study included patients (n=62) that suffered from chronic low backpain and were non-responsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Their conditions consisted of non-specific low backpain, multiple back operations, and specific low backpain awaiting surgery. Patients were given transdermal fentanyl for chronic low backpain. Scores of the visual analogue scale and the Oswestry Disability Index, as well as adverse events were evaluated before and after therapy. Results: Overall, visual analogue scale scores and Oswestry Disability Index scores improved significantly after treatment. Transdermal fentanyl (12.5 to 50 μg/h) was effective in reducing low backpain in 45 of 62 patients; however, it was not effec- tive in 17 patients. Patients who experienced the most improvement were those with specific low backpain awaiting surgery. Adverse events were seen in 40% of patients (constipation, 29%; nausea, 24%; itching, 24%). Conclusion: Transdermal fentanyl significantly improved visual analog scale scores and Oswestry Disability Index scores in 73% of patients, especially those with specific low backpain await- ing surgery; however, it did not decrease pain in 27% of patients, including patients with non-specific low backpain or multiple back operations.
Lower backPain is widely considered as a bio-psycho-social issue (Waddell, 2004). It is known that LBP risk increases with the presence of physical and psychological stressors.  This study displays that the occurrence of LBP increased between 20 to 40 years and more in female in functional group, which matches the result ofKostova and Koleva study.  It has shown that women (53.9%) experience LBP symptoms more than men (46.1%). This result is consistent with other studies findings, which reported that LBP is more likely to be reported by females than males (Dempsey, 1997), the high LBP incidence in women could be explained in the fact that women are always under more stress related to their work and their high responsibilities towards their families. In the present study, LBP and psychological distress are significantly associated.The depression represent 15% in organic group, 35% in Functional group, and anxiety disorders 14% in organic group , 20% in Functional group. These results were higher compared to their healthy people. On the other hand, the level of anxiety and depression is the same in patients with excessive and without excessive pain behavior, especially in females, as stated by Dickens et al. (2002). Moreover, studies has shown that LBP and physiological distress are significantly associated (Bener, 2012; Schneider, 2005; Manchikanti, 2003). Researchers have extensively studied the association between depression and pain unexplained medically, and it was positive between depression and somatoform disorders (Al-Shammari, 1994; Delisa, 2005; Palmer, 2000 and Cassidy, 1998). To illustrate the mechanism of how depression can cause unexplained pain, several hypotheses have been arisen (Al- Shammari, 1994 and Palmer, 2000).