During the last century, much of the prairie within the Northern Great Plains has been plowed for cropland, planted with non-natives to maximize livestock production, or otherwise developed, making it one of the most threatened ecosystems in the United States. The NationalPark Service (NPS) plays an important role in preserving and restoring some of the last pieces of intact prairies within its boundaries. The stewardship goal of the NPS is to “preserve ecological integrity and cultural and historical authenticity” (NPS 2012); however, resource managers struggle with the reality that there have been fundamental changes in the disturbance regimes, such as climate, fire, and large ungulate grazing, that have historically maintained prairies, and there is the continual pressure of exotic invasive species. Long-term monitoring in national parks is essential to sound management of prairie landscapes because it can provide information on environmental quality and condition, benchmarks of ecological integrity, and early warning of declines in ecosystem health. BadlandsNationalPark (BADL) was established in 1939 as a National Monument and in 1978 became a NationalPark with a mission to protect and preserve 242,756 acres of rugged badlands, mixed-grass prairie, and rich fossil deposits. The vegetation is a mosaic of sparsely vegetated
BadlandsNationalPark in South Dakota is home of one of the largest, protected mixed-grass prairies in the United States (Durant and Harwood 1988). Well known for containing the world’s richest Oligocene epoch fossil beds, the area provides an ideal source for clues in determining the history of landscape and climate (Durant and Harwood 1988). Many animals’ evolutionary stories have been depicted in the park’s buttes, pinnacles, and spires through fossils and remains. This study focuses on the discoveries in and around a collapsed cave 7m high, 20m deep, and 10m high. Among the various species of invertebrates, there were a number of herbivorous grasshoppers and beetles. Parasitic invertebrates included nematodes, fleas, mosquitoes, and tapeworms discovered with the remains. Some of them are known parasites such as Howardula benigna, a nematode parasite of Diabrotica undecimpunctata, the cucumber beetle (Poinar 1983).
The known history of the area can also aid the analysis of the cave site. BadlandsNationalPark and the surrounding plains have been the home to various native cultures for over 11,000 years. The mummified cadaver belonged to the Early Plains Archaic Period, in which Paleo-Indian groups inhabited the northwestern plains (Fagan 1995). Around the time of the mummified individual, various native cultures descending from the ancient Clovis culture are believed to have occupied the Badlands area and lived as hunter-gatherers. They survived primarily on the hunting of bison, smaller game animals, and plant foraging (Fagan 1995). Excavations of known Clovis and other Native American sites have yielded evidence that early cultures relied heavily on the hunting of bison and other game to provide food and other necessary materials (Fagan 2001).
The Service will pursue opportunities to improve natural resource management within parks and across administrative boundaries by pursuing cooperative conservation with public agencies, appropriate representatives of American Indian tribes and other traditionally associated peoples, and private landowners in accordance with Executive Order 13352 (Facilitation of Cooperative Conservation). The Service recognizes that cooperation with other land and resource managers can accomplish ecosystem stability and other resource management objectives when the best eﬀ orts of a single manager might fail. Therefore, the Service will develop agreements with federal, tribal, state, and local governments and organizations; foreign governments and organizations; and private landowners, when appropriate, to coordinate plant, animal, water, and other natural resource management activities in ways that maintain and protect park resources and values. Such cooperation may include park restoration activities, research on park natural resources, and the management of species harvested in parks. Cooperation also may involve coordinating management activities in two or more separate areas, integrating management practices to reduce conﬂ icts, coordinating research, sharing data and expertise, exchanging native biological resources for species management or ecosystem restoration purposes, establishing native wildlife corridors, and providing essential habitats adjacent to or across park boundaries. In addition, the Service will seek the cooperation of others in minimizing the impacts of inﬂ uences originating outside parks by controlling noise and artiﬁ cial lighting, maintaining water quality and quantity, eliminating toxic substances, preserving scenic views, improving air quality, preserving wetlands, protecting threatened or endangered species, eliminating exotic species, managing the use of pesticides, protecting shoreline processes, managing ﬁ res, managing boundary inﬂ uences, and using other means of preserving and protecting natural resources.
Our final objective was to recommend ways to effectively inform visitors of traffic issues in the park. In order to do this, we first researched how visitors plan their trips to learn what resources they use and when they access them. We then dove into analytics of visitation to the NPS websites for ANP & GNP so we could identify how visitors navigate through the website so we can make traffic and congestion information easily accessible to viewers. We also researched how national parks communicate traffic, congestion, overcrowding, and related transportation information. We investigated these characteristics across many nationalpark websites including Acadia, Glacier, Zion, Arches, Mount Rainier and Grand Canyon NationalPark. The four major aspects we looked into were what information is provided, where the information is located, how it is displayed, and how the information can be accessed.
Ultimately, stakeholders, including the FWC, NPS, and local organizations, were in general agreement on the costs and benefits of cooperative federalism in the Park. On the one hand, most found that forced engagement caused delays and frustration at the outset of the management planning processes, as institutions were unfamiliar with the operational styles and regulatory requirements of their partners and often came to the table with divergent views on the optimal use of park resources. In most cases, however, the shared authority over fishery management was viewed positively because it brought together human and financial resources, more effectively engaged constituents and other stakeholders, and bridged the gap between state and federal jurisdictions. While the marine reserve zone promises to reveal further conflicts between the FWC and NPS in the months and years to come, both agencies look favorably upon the statutorily mandated cooperative federalism arrangement they must both continue to navigate.
Enjoy a spectacular sunset and the peaceful seclusion of a heritage listed lightkeeper’s cottage at Cape Borda or Cape du Couedic and be mesmerised by the continuous flash from the lighthouse beacon, warning mariners of the land ahead. Alternatively, there are rustic huts and other heritage cottages available in the park. All accommodation can be booked online at parks.sa.gov.au/kiaccommodation, or by phoning (+61 8) 8553 4410.
Japan’s first marine park, Kushimoto Marine Park is a registered Ramsar site. As a result of the Kuroshio Current, temperate and subtropical creatures live together in the area’s coral reef communities. You can learn about these creatures and the ocean they live in at the center’s aquarium, and even head underwater with the center’s undersea facilities to directly observe the area’s sea life in its natural environment.
Chase et al. (1998) have argued that methods such as contingent valuation and stated preference are “more flexible” than the travel cost method because the former can capture non-use values. True enough if we were interested in determining a total value of a site. However, our intent is a marginal objective - to determine an optimal price to charge for entry into Kruger Park. Obtaining estimates of existence value is not appropriate for solving this problem. Moreover, as long as something like an individual’s existence value is not a function of use value, then we are not guilty of omission, not considering a social externality of increasing price that could result in the marginal loss of existence value.
Emerging web-based technologies such as social media and mobile applications have rapidly altered how individuals search for, find and learn about new information (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Individuals are increasingly turning to their online social networks to obtain desired information. However, many public trust resource management agencies have been slow to adopt the use of these technologies, often citing concerns over not knowing how, or even if, members of the general public would use the content they post to these platforms (Bertot, Jaeger & Hansen, 2012). This is unfortunate, as social media-based content has the potential to dramatically change how members of the general public engage with individual agencies and the resources they manage. This is particularly true for the NationalPark Service (NPS), an agency whose resources and outstanding recreational opportunities attract visitors from across the globe. Visitors to NPS-managed recreational resources are already posting, tweeting, instagramming and sharing video recordings of their experiences through social media.
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process blends multiple sounds into one sound scene. Watson’s techniques use more modern equipment. Watson’s microphone of choice for his sound recordings is any in the HKN series. Specifically, he uses the MKH 50 microphone to record directional sounds (Tv-bay, 2015). These approaches to recording have been brought together by Damon Joyce. He studied the rise of noise levels and their impact on national parks (Lynch, Joyce, & Fristrup, 2011). He also studied bioacoustical activity within national parks to find patterns between the many different nationalpark sites. His research creates a map that predicts bioacoustical activity throughout the United States (McKenna, Mennitt, Lynch, Joyce, & Fristrup, 2013). This kind of mapping makes it possible for people to find the optimal place to listen to or record the most ecologically active sounds.!
Areas of particularly poor coverage that should be improved can be found in the carriage roads, around Jordan Pond and Sand Beach. In all these areas signal can be reached, but it is quite dreadful. Making phone calls and using the internet is out of the question and texts can take multiple tries to send. This spotty coverage can be seen on the Jordan Pond loop, where there is a small strip of -90 to -81 dB signal. The same is seen around Sand Beach and throughout the carriage roads. These three areas are of interest as they are hug tourist attractions in the park, where many people expect there to be signal. Jordan Pond, in particular, is an area where we believe cellular signal absolutely needs to be improved. This is an area where people go to eat lunch, take pictures, shop in the gift shop, and regroup for the carriage roads. The ability to access the internet at such a location will improve Acadia’s social media presence, the customer satisfaction at Jordan Pond House, and will allow for access to online maps and routes so people will no longer be lost in the carriage roads. It is because of this, that improving signal at Jordan Pond is a top priority. Once that is improved, efforts to improve coverage in Southwest Harbor and the northern part of the island should be pursued.
(Mace, Marquit, and Bates, 2013). However, the public only accepted the mandatory system after the benefits had been carefully designed and well promoted (Mace, Marquit, and Bates, 2013). Like visitors to Acadia, visitors to Zion were first concerned with losing the advantages of using their personal vehicles. Mandatory shuttle services have been adopted less frequently than optional systems as they reduce visitor freedom and inconvenience the elderly, the disabled, and people carrying large amounts of cargo (Mace, Marquit, and Bates, 2013). Furthermore, using mandatory shuttle systems requires the closing of roadways which leads to complaints from local residents who make use of these roads for non-tourist activities (Holding and Kreutner 1998). Because of these effects, local business owners in the Bar Harbor community have been wary of removing cars in the past (Zimmerman, Daigle, & Pol, 2004). The latest reports from park officials indicate that they are searching for a solution that is car-friendly to account for visitor and resident demands (NationalPark Service, 2016).
Segetal flora of the Wigry NationalPark (Poland) was studied in the period 2008-2010 within an area occupied by 33 villages. The analysis was based on 195 phytosociological relevés taken in fields of cereal crops, root plants and in stubble fields. The total number of species recorded in agrocenoses was 181 and they represented 36 botanical families. The most nume- rous families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Brasicaceae. The segetal flora of the Wigry NationalPark included mostly native species of apophytes (53.6%) that predominated over anthro- pophytes. Among apophytes, meadow apophytes (35 species) and those from waterside habitats (26 species) were noted most often, archaeophytes (74 species) were predominant among an- thropophytes, while epecophytes (9 species) and ergasiophytes (1 species) were much less abundant. Among the life forms ana- lysed, therophytes (61.9%) predominated over hemicryptophy- tes (27.1%) and geophytes (11%). The number of short-lived species in the flora of this Park was much greater (68.5%) than that of perennial ones (31.5%). The flora of the Park included 31 rare species classified in different categories of threat. Among them, Centaurium pulchellum and Centaurium eryth-
Minjary NationalPark consists of locally high peaks (ranging from 550m to 763m) falling sharply to the surrounding valley floors at approximately 280m above sea level. The majority of the park is steep and undulating sharing two basic geological types, those being a conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone sequence and an aplitic granite/leucogranite sequence. The two dominant soils of the area are generally skeletal and show minimal profile development, dominated by weathering rock and rock fragments. Both soil types typically lack organic content, are susceptible to dispersion by water and are generally deficient in nutrients. Water holding capacity is greatly reduced by the friable, open structure of the soils and both are highly erodible when exposed. Early to mid-Silurian Age marine deposition is evident in the formation of the sandstone/siltstone sequence. The Gilmore Fault, which dominates the formation of the landscape as it is seen today, runs in a north-west/south-east alignment to the west of the park.
After stopping for lunch somewhere picturesque on the northern coast of Tenerife we will head back to the northeast and the Anaga Peninsula. Here, within the boundaries of the Anaga Natural Park we will look for some very localised plants such as the spectacular Echium simplex, the locally distributed Limonium macrophyllum and the scarce Lugoa revoluta all to be found in a most spectacular setting near the locality of Chinamada. If time allows we will have our final look for the endemic pigeons at the Pico del Inglés (Englishman's Peak) and any other of the species occuring in the area.
In 1969 mining for minerals sands such as rutile, zircon and monazite began on the coastal side of The North Entrance Peninsula, despite a plan to preserve the area having been proposed as early as the 1950s and subsequent proposals for the area to become a nationalpark. A campaign to "save the red gums" from mining was led by the North Entrance Peninsula Preservation Society. In 1972 public pressure resulted in the Supreme Court forbidding mining on North Entrance Peninsula "without prior consent” of Wyong Shire Council, who invoked a Tree Preservation Order which prevented destruction of the trees west of Wilfred Barrett Drive. Although contested, the Privy Council endorsed the Supreme Court decision in 1974 and a substantial portion of the red gum forest became a reserve under Council management. Sand mining on the peninsula ended in 1976, and some restoration work was undertaken in accordance with conditions set out by the Local Government Appeals Tribunal. However in 1988 the North Entrance Peninsula Preservation Society reformed to oppose development on the peninsula and to strive for a nationalpark.