The first study to test the validity of the balance affect model of burnout among religious leaders was reported by Francis, Village, Robbins, and Wulff (2011) among clergy serving in the Presbyterian Church (USA). The strategy adopted by this study examined the incremental impact on independent measures of burnout of the interaction term created by the product of the two measures of negative affect (Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry) and positive affect (Satisfaction in Ministry Scale) after taking into account the impact of these two factors considered separately. The two independent measures of burnout employed in this study were self-perceived physical health and self-perceived burnout. Self-perceived physical health was assessed by the question: ‘How would you rate your overall health at the present time?’ with the following four response options: excellent, good, fair, and poor. Self- perceived burnout was assessed by the question: ‘To what extent do you think you are suffering from burnout in your current call?’ with the following four response options: to a great extent, to some extent, to a small extent, and not at all. Consistent with the theory of balanced affect, the data demonstrated that the mitigating effects of positive affect on burnout increased with increasing levels of negative affect.
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In a pioneering study conducted among clergy serving in the Presbyterian Church (USA), Francis et al. (2011) set out to test the balanced affect model of the Francis Burnout Inventory employing the two 11-item scales concerned with emotional exhaustion in ministry and satisfaction in ministry. This study employed two independent measures of burnout. Self-perceived physical health was assessed by the question: “How would you rate your overall health at the present time?” with the following four response options: excellent, good, fair, and poor. Self-perceived burnout was assessed by the question: “To what extent do you think you are suffering from burnout in your current call?” with the following four response options: to a great extent, to some extent, to a small extent, and not at all. The research method examined the incremental impact on these two independent measures of burnout of the interaction term created by the product of the two measures of positive affect and negative affect after taking into account the impact of these two measures considered separately. Consistent with the theory of balanced affect, the data demonstrated that the mitigating effects of positive affect on professional burnout increased with increasing levels of negative affect.
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In a study conducted among clergy serving in The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Francis, Village, Robbins, and Wulff (2011), set out to test the balanced affect model of clergy work-related psychological health. The strategy adopted by this study examined the incremental impact on independent measures of burnout of the interaction term created by the product of the two measures of negative affect and positive affect after taking into account the impact of these two factors considered separately. The two independent measures of burnout employed in this study were self-perceived physical health and self-perceived burnout. Self-perceived physical health was assessed by the question: ‘How would you rate your overall health at the present time?’ with the following four response options: excellent, good, fair, and poor. Self-perceived burnout was assessed by the question: ‘To what extent do you think you are suffering from burnout in your current call?’ with the following four
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These findings, based on the balanced affect model of work-related psychological health, carry important lessons for those who hold responsibility for the training and deployment of clergy. It is not sufficient simply to listen to the reports of satisfaction in ministry and to ignore the reports of emotional exhaustion. While positive affect may compensate for negative affect, it does not drive away the ultimately debilitating consequences of negative affect. To promote a psychologically healthy clergy, the ongoing commitment to continuing professional development and education needs to focus on ways of helping clergy to reduce the negative affect and at the same time to promote the positive affect.
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model of burnout in favour of a two-component balanced affect model. This alternative model of clergy burnout, proposed by Francis, Kaldor, Robbins, and Castle (2005) draws on Bradburn’s (1969) classic notion of ‘balanced affect’, according to which positive affect and negative affect are not opposite ends of a single continuum, but two separate continua. According to this model it is totally reasonable for individual clergy to experience at one and the same time high levels of positive affect and high levels of negative affect. According to this model of balanced affect, warning signs of poor work-related psychological health occur when high levels of negative affect coincide with low levels of positive affect. In terms of the work-related experiences of clergy, Francis, Kaldor, Robbins, and Castle (2005) translated negative affect into emotional exhaustion and positive affect into ministry satisfaction. These two work-related constructs were then operationalised by separate 11-item scales: Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry (SEEM), first reported by Francis, Kaldor, Shevlin, and Lewis (2004), and Satisfaction in Ministry Scale (SIMS). Together these two scales comprise the Francis Burnout Inventory (FBI). Recent studies employing the Francis Burnout
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The third strand has employed the Francis Burnout Inventory as originally developed for use among clergy by Francis, Kaldor, Robbins, and Castle (2005). The Francis Burnout Inventory conceptualises poor work-related psychological health and professional burnout in terms of Bradburn’s (1969) classic model of balanced affect, involving high levels of negative affect in the absence of good levels of positive affect. In this model positive affect is accessed by the Satisfaction in Ministry Scale and negative affect is accessed by the Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry. Studies employing the Francis Burnout Inventory have been reported by Francis, Wulff, and Robbins (2008), Francis, Robbins, Kaldor, and Castle (2009), Robbins and Francis (2010), and Brewster, Francis, and Robbins (2011).
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The application of PBDs in the construction of related combinatorial systems is of paramount important in the design theory. PBDs were used in the construction of most of resolvable and recursive designs such as: Varieties of Short Conjugate, Orthogonal Quasi-Group Identities, Orthogonal arrays with interesting Conjugacy Properties, Egde- coloured Designs, and Mendelsohn Designs etc. Bose and Shrikhande ([BS60a, BS60b]) used pairwise balanced design to construct Mutually Orthogonal Latin Square (MOLS). Hedayat and Stufken ([HS89]) showed that the problems of constructing pairwise balanced designs and variance balanced block designs are equivalent. Effanga, Ugboh, Enang and Eno ([E+09]) developed a non- linear non-preemptive binary integer goal programming model for the construction of D- optimal pairwise balanced incomplete block designs. PBDs can also be used to construct other designs such as Steiner Triple Systems (STS), Pairwise Additive Designs PBIB etc. It also has greater significance in the application to the solution of existence questions for other types of designs such as t-Designs, Partially Balanced Designs etc. ([IB03]).
High work discipline of employees has managed to improve employee performance. The proof that all employees who are always in place / office during working hours, employees always work in based on the established standards, regulation, authority and responsibility. Discipline, according to Simamora (2006: 245), is a procedure that corrects or punishes subordinates for violating rules or procedures. Discipline is a form of employee self-control and regular execution and shows the level of earnestness of work teams within an organization. However, Hasibuan (2009: 145), stated that performance is the result achieved by a person in carrying out tasks assigned to him based on skill, experience, and sincerity. A good performance improvement must be balanced with the existence of an embedded discipline in each employee’s self.
Reschovsky 2005). In contrast, in response to the 2001 recession, states were much less likely to use tax increases to deal with budget problems (Kalambokidis and Reschovsky 2005; Maag and Merriman 2007). States are also more likely to enact tax increases after gubernatorial elections (Gold 1995). Tax increases have tended to result in a more balanced distribution of tax revenue. For instance, states with more reliance on income taxes tended to increase sales taxes or vice versa (Gold 1995). In terms of relieving fiscal stress in one year, tax increases tend to have delayed effects, since a tax increase in one year will not be felt until the next fiscal year. If a period of fiscal stress extends over several years, then increases in taxes or user fees may then provide needed relief. In addition, if the tax changes broaden the tax base or adjust previously inefficient tax systems, this may contribute to a more elastic tax system that then can protect the state against future periods of fiscal stress or reduce the severity of stress at a future period (Gold 1995). States increase taxes to raise revenues in times of fiscal stress using increases to sales taxes, personal income taxes, corporate income taxes, cigarette and tobacco taxes, motor fuel taxes and alcohol taxes. In the last decade, fee increases are the single most popular method of increasing revenues (NASBO 2010). Fee increases include user fees, university fees, transportation/motor vehicle fees, and business related fees. State efforts to produce the same level of programs or services at lower cost are
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Abstract—In this paper, a new microstrip balanced-to-balanced diplexer is presented and investigated. The proposed diplexer primarily consists of two balanced bandpass ﬁlter paths, and each balanced ﬁlter path can be designed independently based on two identical stub-loaded triple-mode resonators. It should be mentioned that no extra matching networks are required at the common balanced input port in the design. For demonstration, a prototype balanced-to-balanced diplexer operating at 2.30 and 2.83 GHz is designed, fabricated and measured with 3-dB fractional bandwidths of 13.0% and 13.4%. Both simulated and measured results are provided in satisfactory agreement.
Now it is explained that how the developed model can be used to simulate a three-phase, p-pole, symmetrical electrical machine in the stationary reference frame. We start by considering the equations of its input voltages for the given neutral connections of the stator and rotor windings. The three applied voltages to the stator terminals, , , and , need not be balanced for sinusoidal. In general, the three stator voltages are:
The n -dimensional cube or hypercube Q n is the simple graph whose vertices are n -tuples with entries in 0 , 1 and whose edges are the pairs of n -tuples that different in exactly one position. In this paper, we will consider some balanced decomposition of Q n .
Our research focuses on the limits of the Balanced Scorecard. The aim of the work is to provide a basis for in-depth study on the limits of the balanced scorecard. Ac- cording to Tranfield et al . (2003)  we are tackling the topic through a systematic review of the literature. We reviewed articles published in 48 journals, in 3 different subject area of Academic Journal Guide (ABS) 2015: 27 Accounting journals, 17 General Management and Employment Study journals and 4 Strategy journals. This ensured an academic quality of these articles and for each subject area we chose amongst some of the 3, 4 and 4* journals. The contributions of research to the field and the lessons learned from these studies are discussed. Knowledge gaps in existing balanced scorecard research are identified, leading to consideration of several ideas for future research.
In order to improve the application mode of the Balanced stock cover indicator (presented in the paper “An approach to Lean inventory management by balanced stock cover”, presented at the conference Lean- Tech’13), the authors propose further recommendations for the identification of significance coefficients for each of the elements that constitute the BStC vector. In the identification of significance coefficients for StChs, StCsp and StCle in a complex BStC vector it is also recommended to respect the following two cri- teria: 1) “Characteristics of the market in which the enterprise operates,” and 2) “Identified time series in de- mand of the observed product”. In order to transform such decision into the inventory management policy, the authors propose a comparative analysis of: a) Sales data (identification of trends, seasonality, cycles and variations) and b) Characteristics of the market in which the enterprise operates.
The nature of step responses of proposed model and modelling errors show the advantage and usefulness of the balanced truncated model over the model obtained by Lastman and Sinha  using dominant eigenvalue retention method. The balanced truncated model possesses maximum error in low frequency region. Therefore, such models are more appropriate for high frequency applications. The frequency domain calculations for original and reduced models are summarized in Table 1.
Normally, the balanced cantilever method is used for spans from 60 to 110 m, with a launching girder. One full, typical cycle of erection is placing segments, installing and stressing post-tensioning tendons, and launching the truss to its next position. It takes about 7 to 10 days, but may vary greatly according to the specifics of a project and the sophistication of the launching girder. With proper equipment and planning, erection of 16 segments per day has been achieved.
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This work performs the first practical evaluation of the balanced encoding countermeasure in software. While promising in theory, its standalone effectiveness on the modern microcontroller platform used for this study is significant, especially for CPA, but far from perfect. The countermeasure is of high relevance, as it is orthogonal to other software countermeasures such as shuffling and masking, i.e. it can be applied in addition to those. This is of high relevance for platforms that feature high signal-to-noise ratios, such as modern microcontrollers. It is also noteworthy that implementation costs are higher than conjectured, e.g. in . Overall, we believe that this countermeasure technique is useful for lightweight ciphers in cases where additional hiding countermeasure are desirable.
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A healthy diet is one that helps maintain or improve overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: fluid, adequate essential amino acids from protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and adequate calories. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods. A healthy diet supports energy needs and provides for human nutrition without exposure to toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts. Where lack of calories is not an issue, a properly balanced diet (in addition to exercise) is also thought to be important for lowering health risks, such as obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cancer.
1. Pull Balanced Strategy: Consider the construction of a structural steel building in a congested work site (i.e. the construction of a high rise office building in a downtown area). The management has decided to follow a Pull (JIT) strategy due to limited storage area for steel sections. The steel is scheduled to be delivered to the site on a daily basis. A crew is assigned to attach hooks and rigging devices to lift the steel directly off the delivery truck with a crane. A second crew is waiting at installing points to connect the steel sections to previously erected parts of structure and fasten the initial connection, and a third crew follows to install and tighten all the bolts. Steel is not removed from the truck until all three crews are prepared. The contractor is experienced and skilled in steel erection and knows the production rate of each crew; thus has balanced the crews such that all three have relatively equal production rates and can work at a smooth rhythm with minimal idle time.
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different set of questions. If we think about the ideology of health, as it appears in the corporations we’ve discussed today, I think we should concentrate our attention on how questions of health have become subsumed under principles of management. Like Torkild, I will take the liberty to speak about my partner, who recently finished her nursing studies. They had compulsory courses in management and had to read about teambuilding, motivation, business models, leadership. I find it deeply disturbing that all those things are being taught to future nurses. I think a better idea would be to teach literature or philosophy or any other subject that would at least have some understanding of life and death. I’m not saying that that’s going to make things an awful lot better. But at the very least, you would not have some corporate yuppie, calling you a client, drawing a balanced score card sheet on your stomach before cutting you up. Kristian Gylling Olesen: For a period in Denmark the nurses were actually trained in philosophy on the Danish nursing college. Foucault and Habermas in particular. But it was criticized because the time spent on reading Foucault took away the time the nurses were taught in the practical dimensions of nursing. So they have tried to teach philosophy. But that was not what I wanted to say. As to the question of resistance, perhaps we should also look at the resources we already have at hand – the role of the union. I am thinking about an example from the US, where the union of the freelancers asked ‘What can we do to help freelancers?’ – it’s the ideal type of flexible worker, so to say. They offer health insurance and competence development. One could say that they build their offers on Christian Maravelias concept of ‘freedom as potential’ 7 . The
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