Bangladesh and community based adaptation to climate change

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Community Based Risk Assessment and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Coastal Wetlands of Bangladesh

Community Based Risk Assessment and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Coastal Wetlands of Bangladesh

In recent decades, community based adaptation to climate change has gained enormous attention from scientists, policy makers and development professionals. This paper presents community based risk assessment for identification of risk and local adaptation practices as a response to climate change. The south-western coastal region of Bangladesh was selected as the study area and historical change-chronology study was conducted using statistical analyses and studying community perception. The community’s experience suggests risks are shifting both in magnitude and direction with the increasing frequencies of hydro-meteorological events and their irregularities are threatening adaptation capacities as they are affecting the sensitivity and production of the ecosystem of the region. Communities are increasingly depending on non-agricultural activities while the required time to be spent earning livelihoods is increasing. People are migrating from their traditional occupations towards non-agricultural occupations. In such cases, local adaptation practices are almost absent in the region except for the application of more incentives to compensate production losses. Concerned authorities need to understand the nature of community adaptation and perceptions of climate change in coastal Bangladesh if the country wants to stride forward to negotiate climate change. Keywords: Community, Adaptation, Risk, Livelihood
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Community Shelter Development: A Concept of Climate Change Adaptation in the Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Community Shelter Development: A Concept of Climate Change Adaptation in the Coastal Region of Bangladesh

The concept of Community Shelter Development (CSD) is related to a variety of terms including participatory, local community, community-based, collaborative-joint and disaster risk reduction. The CSD in the coastal area is an adaptation approach by integrating food security and ensuring safe shelter. The study area is located Kashipur village, Tala Thana, Satkhira District under Khulna Division in the south-west coastal region of Bangladesh. The Pair-Wise Ranking is a socio-technical tool to analyze the relative importance of different factors. The SWOT Analysis has been conducted to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Geographic
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Health Impact of Climate Change in Bangladesh: A Summary

Health Impact of Climate Change in Bangladesh: A Summary

Mitigation strategies need to be developed to reduce the impact of climate change through new policies, in- novative technologies and a new life style. Introduction and use of renewable energy for industry and household use should be considered. Solar energy is a viable option for Bangladesh as the country is blessed with plenty of sunlight. Conservation of water sources and rainwater harvesting will benefit many sectors. River-encroachment and river-grabbing should be stopped by enforcing strict policies. Urban zoning laws can help reduce over- crowded pockets in larger cities, especially in Dhaka. Building and developing better facilities in rural areas will help prevent human migration to cities. Community-based solutions should be developed and implemented to make sure that people have a say in decisions affecting their well-being. Such approaches should also include various stakeholders and development partners from different sectors such as health, agriculture, environment, water resources and urban planning. It should also encourage public-private partnerships to monitor change, as- sess impact, facilitate adaptation and develop programs in order to face the challenge of climate change and de- velop holistic solutions. Climate change is not only an economic issue but also essentially a health issue. It has profound implications for public health. Health must be at the centre-stage of any climate change related adapta- tion plans. Moreover extensive and vigorous research is needed to better understand the link between climate change and health. Unless steps are taken and put in place immediately to mitigate and adapt to climate change, Bangladesh will have to pay a heavy toll in terms of productivity and human lives.
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Climate change impact and adaptation for wheat protein

Climate change impact and adaptation for wheat protein

Asseng et al. (2015) recently suggested a combination of delayed anthesis with an increased grain filling rate as possible adaptation for wheat to increased temperature. Such trait combination has never been shown yet to exist in the current available genetic material. Therefore, here we first explored a wide range of existing field experiments. We selected field experiments where a number of culti- vars were grown across different temperature environments to search for the existence of such trait combination and if such culti- vars are indeed better adapted to a warming climate, that is, these cultivars yield higher than other cultivars under warmer conditions. In these data sets, we looked for pairs of cultivars where one or more had a delayed anthesis in a warmer environment combined with an increased grain filling rate, and yielded higher in the warmer environment than a control cultivar (without these traits). Only the cultivar pairs which fulfilled these conditions are mentioned here. Four field experiments were considered and included experiments from Egypt, Italy, USA and CIMMYT. In each experiment, cultivars were compared under growing environments with increasing temper- atures (through delayed sowing or growing at warmer locations). The Egypt experiment included three cultivars grown over 3 years under full irrigation (and sufficient N) across four temperature environ- ments along the River Nile with two sowing dates. The Italy experi- ment included two cultivars grown over 2 years under full irrigation (and sufficient N) at one location with two sowing dates. In the Italy experiment, the same experiment was repeated with N limitations. The USA experiment included four cultivars (three cultivars were used as a control) grown for 1 year under full irrigation (and suffi- cient N) across 11 temperature environments along a transect in the south ‐ east US with one sowing date. The CIMMYT experiment included data from the International Heat Stress Genotype Experi- ment (IHSGE) (Reynolds, Balota, Delgado, Amani, & Fischer, 1994), with two cultivars grown over 2 years under full irrigation (and suffi- cient N) across six temperature environments (experiments in differ- ent countries) with two sowing dates. For details see Supporting Information Data S1.
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Dairy Farming Systems’ Adaptation to  Climate Change

Dairy Farming Systems’ Adaptation to Climate Change

more specific information to Azorean dairy farms (Holstein breed). In the Azorean dairy farms it reaches the value of 115.5 kg of methane per cow per year. To estimate the emissions of methane in the Azores the formula of [16] was used. The data was calculated based on the average dairy cow in the Azores (Holstein breed) con- sidered having a live weight of 580 kg and producing18 kg milk/day (based on 5500 kg per year-305 days of lactation). To convert methane into CO 2-eq , the conversion index of 1 ton of CH 4 = 25 ton of CO 2-eq [16] was

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Sinking Nations and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

Sinking Nations and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

Alternatively, the global relocation strategy will prove significantly more difficult to implement. While it would assure placement for inhabitants of SIDS that are no longer habitable and would keep families and cultures together, its implementation is virtually impossible. This strategy suffers the same difficulties as the global immigration strategy: the international community would have to agree to implement this strategy, which could prove very difficult. Also, developed nations would have to accept fault and give up sovereign territory. While the developed world may accept fault, it is unlikely that a country would willingly cede sovereign territory. Even if a country agreed to give up territory, there are numerous issues concerning how the relocated nation would live and develop. While the relocation adaptation strategy would better assure that families are kept together, cultural practices are preserved, and SIDS remain sovereign, the strategy will likely never be implemented. Therefore, the international community should focus its efforts on developing a global immigration strategy assisting SIDS that will soon be uninhabitable due to the effects of climate change, such as the rising sea level.
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Adaptation as a Response to Climate Change: A Literature Review

Adaptation as a Response to Climate Change: A Literature Review

All dimensions works in the major areas of human health, coastal area and sea rise level, agriculture and forestry, ecosystem and wildlife, water resource and, energy. Like in human health, many diseases and health problems that may be exacerbated by climate change can be effectively prevented with adequate financial and human public health resources, including training, surveillance and emergency response, and prevention and control programs Urban tree planting to moderate temperature increases Weather advisories to alert the public about dangerous heat conditions Grain storage, emergency feeding stations Adjusting clothing and activity levels, increasing fluid intake (EPA, 2009)
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Climate change: seed production and options for adaptation

Climate change: seed production and options for adaptation

germplasm which also has a higher level of tolerance to higher temperatures is also available [149]. Similarly, the Program for Africa’s Seed Systems is seeking to promote the development of seed systems that deliver improved, locally adapted crop varieties to small-scale farmers and the uptake and use of released cultivars [150]. The Millennium Seed Bank, in collaboration with the Global Crop Diversity Trust, is collecting, protecting, and preparing the wild relatives of the world’s most important food crops in a form that breeders can readily use to produce cultivars adapted to future climatic conditions that farmers in the developing world will soon be encountering [151]. However, the question remains, can seed of cultivars adapted to climate change be produced in (i) developed countries at a price which farmers in developing countries could afford to pay or (ii) in developing countries in sufficient quantities to meet local demand? In 2013, African countries imported around 40,000 tons of field crop and vegetable seed while countries in Asia imported 79,000 tons [2], only minor contributions to the total demand. For many countries in Africa for example, the annual seed demand exceeds production, and over 80% of seeds which are available to the farming community are not certified and are of unknown quality [150]. Farmers’ access to quality seed of a diverse range of adapted cultivars is still impeded by insufficient and inefficient seed production and distribution systems, poor seed quality assurance, inadequate seed policies, and seed price [15,119,150]. Many of the obstacles within seed production can be overcome [119], but the time which will be required to do so is cause for concern. The challenges for seed production which exist presently in developing countries will increase with changing climates [15].
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Planning Climate Change Adaptation Activities for Turkey

Planning Climate Change Adaptation Activities for Turkey

As such, various environmental problems are still experienced in Turkey regarding infrastructural works such as significant losses in electricity and water transmittance. It is also recommended that climate change effects of all sorts of transportation systems and networks like railways, highways, airports, harbours and marine transportation have to be evaluated under this sector. The conception of green infrastructure within the context of climate adaptation has been referred in many recently published articles [22], [23]. Even though there is still a high necessity for accelerating infrastructural developments, the speed of superstructure applications performs just the opposite due to rapid urbanization efforts in Turkey. The population increase and migration from the rural parts of the country towards urbanized regions is among the major reasons of this trend that finally results in more illegal, unplanned and irregular structures that necessitates proper urban and watershed planning with the fulfilment of infrastructure. Moreover, there appears a requisite for initiating pioneer studies considering appropriate material selection, resource utility, waste recycling, efficient use of water and energy, and less carbon emissions in individual buildings to minimize the probable effects of climate change. Urban transformation has become a popular trend particularly in the megacities; thus, in these new residential sites, climate change effects have not yet been sufficiently considered as depicted and analysed in a recently published book [24]. In that sense, superstructure is also addressed as another vital sector.
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Climate change adaptation in acid sulfate landscapes

Climate change adaptation in acid sulfate landscapes

In practice, underwater storage methods have been used for disposal of mine tailings that are potentially acid-producing. Tailings Storage Facilities (TSFs) are designed to contain and keep the tailings materials under a layer of water in order to minimize contacts of sulfide minerals with oxygen. However, the engineering design of many TSFs in existing mines might not take into account the potential effects of climate change. It is likely that during future prolonged drought events, the strong evaporation rate will result in a thinner than designed layer of overlying water in the TSFs or even temporary drying out of the TSFs, leading to enhanced oxidation of sulfide minerals contained in the TSFs.
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Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation. A case study of the role of homeowners in the process of climate change adaptation in Copenhagen

Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation. A case study of the role of homeowners in the process of climate change adaptation in Copenhagen

Assemblage 1: Independent solutions to private sites rainfall Copenhagen is expected to receive more rain in the future and it is possible to identify an assemblage relating to this issue. Here, the problem to solve is the 30 % increase in precipitation and the solution is to take care of the rainfall very locally. This is the assemblage from which the first climate adaptation plan origi- nated; a plan where SUDS is constituted as the main solution. It is also this assemblage that shapes the practice of disconnecting 30 % of rainwater from sewerage in as many places as possible, as Signe and Diana at the city council’s Centre of Urban Design demonstrate. In this sense, all parts of the city are looked at in- dependently in relation to how they will be able to drain or in other ways handle the extra rainfall they will receive. Each private site would play a role in handling its own rainwater. Key actors in this assemblage include climate change scenarios predicting higher average rainfall, home and property owners through- out Copenhagen, certain municipal departments, the funding schemes they administer enabling property owners to install SUDS solutions, the existing sewerage infrastructure, and various techniques to retain rainwater locally. This assemblage is partly maintained by the practices of the committee of A/B Park, and especially by the practices of the Centre of Urban Design.
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Climate change and climate variability: personal motivation for adaptation and mitigation

Climate change and climate variability: personal motivation for adaptation and mitigation

State University ’ s Survey Research Laboratory (SRL) which has been described elsewhere [19]. The SRL is outfitted with a state-of the-art Computer Assisted Tele- phone Interviewing (CATI) system with 20 phone inter- viewing booths. The survey questions appeared on a monitor and were read by the interviewer in a preset order. The survey was designed with complex contin- gency patterns of questions, where sub-questions were automatically branched off to produce skip patterns. Invalid responses were recognized by the CATI system which enhanced data quality. Furthermore, the need for subsequent data entry was omitted since the data were typed directly into the database. Quality control was assured by a centralized facility that monitored the interviews. The original sample of phone numbers was selected based on the census distribution of population density across all U.S. states in order to assure a geogra- phically representative study population. The optimum time for calling was established through call-back proce- dures (three call-backs per number) and interview sche- duling. On average an interview took 17 minutes and the survey was administered over the course of 33 days. Participants were screened for age (> 18 years), compre- hension, zip codes (to assure geographic specificity of respondents) and knowledge of global climate change. Respondents denying climate change as a phenomenon were censured (15%), because all questions pertained to different aspects of climate change [16]. The survey instrument and study protocol was approved by PSU ’ s Human Subjects Research Review Committee (HSRRC Proposal #04157).
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Opportunities and challenges for financing climate change adaptation

Opportunities and challenges for financing climate change adaptation

disasters to increase from (a slightly lower) $9.6 billion per annum, to $33 billion per annum by 2050, due to an increase in the number and value of assets, resulting from population growth, infrastructure density and internal migration. Notably, both estimates specific l ly excl ude the im a p act of climate change

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Review of climate change adaptation methods and tools

Review of climate change adaptation methods and tools

it participatory, it needs to be simple enough for wide application. The learning process provided by adaptation planning has also been highlighted as an important outcome. For example, the experience of developing a municipal adaptation plan for Cape Town in South Africa led to the conclusion that making plans should not be seen as a one-off process, but instead initially applied as a tool to educate key actors (Mukheibir and Ziervogel 2007). This recognises the need for awareness raising and sensitisation about climate change before any planning activities can take place and reflects the important principle of ownership as a requirement for the planning process. This is key because there is often a low level of understanding of climate change at local government levels (Mukheibir and Ziervogel 2007). Related to this is the need to recognise different priorities among relevant stakeholders. De Chazal et al. (2008) describe a method for taking multiple stakeholders’ perspectives into account for vulnerability assessment and the difficulty of dealing with conflicting values. Luers et al. (2004) propose an approach for quantifying vulnerability. The authors acknowledge the limits of this approach, in particular that no single measure will be able to completely capture the multiple dimensions of vulnerability. Qualitative descriptions of vulnerability are not always useful to plug into tools that require data to be quantified. This challenge has led to a great deal of thinking about vulnerability assessments and how they can be improved. Polsky et al. (2007) provide an overview of different approaches and attempt to draw out commonalities between them in an effort to highlight the usefulness of a universal approach. They do this by suggesting a vulnerability scoping diagram. One of the most difficult things in vulnerability assessment is ensuring that the relative nature of vulnerability is not lost in aggregating data. Luers (2005) suggests an initial analytical framework for doing this. Eakin and Bojórquez-Tapia (2007) offer an approach for
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The Gender Aspect of Climate Change in Bangladesh: An Overview

The Gender Aspect of Climate Change in Bangladesh: An Overview

Gender: Gender can be described as the attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that a given culture associates with a person‟s biological sex. Behavior that is compatible with cultural expectations is referred to as gender-normative; behaviors that are viewed as incompatible with these expectations constitute gender non-conformity. In a more descriptive way, gender refers to socially constructed roles, responsibilities and opportunities associated with men and women, while sex refers to biological characteristics which define humans as male and female. Inequality between the sexes is not due to biological factors, but is determined by the learnt, unequal and inequitable treatment socially accorded to women. The socially or culturally constructed roles and relationships between women and men, contextually specific and often changing in response to altering circumstances (Moser, 1993). Gender is a multilinked issue with a number of different determinants, climate change is one of them. In this study, mostly gender will be used as a synonym of women, not to focus on women but to understand the discrimination against women and their gendered roles 1 because of climate change.
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Filipino Farmers’ Awareness and Adaptation to Climate Change

Filipino Farmers’ Awareness and Adaptation to Climate Change

The findings of the study afforded the researchers in drawing various suggested activities on climate change of selected farmers in the Local Government Unit of Malvar. Provision of budget and installation of windbreaks may be considered by the LGU of Malvar, through the Office of Agriculture, to conserve soil and its moisture. The LGU of Malvar may encourage the small farmers of different barangays to observe zero tillage to help maintain and improve the environment through orientation, seminar, or general assembly. There is a need for providing new/innovative financing schemes that address the problems of the farmers who lack in collateral, and minimize long processing of documents and other requirements. Different financial institutions as well as the LGU of Malvar may consider taking this into consideration. The LGU of Malvar may orient and train the farmers of other approaches/strategies to adapt to climate change. The proposed extension service activities by the researchers may be implemented, monitored, evaluated, and reviewed to ensure its efficiency on strengthen the farmers’ awareness and adaptation on climate change. Since this study deals with numerous concerns, a similar or a follow-up study may be conducted using other variables.
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Review on Crop Diversity for Climate Change Adaptation

Review on Crop Diversity for Climate Change Adaptation

In many areas, the crop varieties and species currently grown by farmers cannot tolerate these stresses, with resultant losses in productivity, and potentially negative consequences for food security. as climate change related stresses exceed the adaptive capacity of crops grown in particularly vulnerable areas, the countries affected will become increasingly dependent on germplasm of crops, forages and wild relatives that have evolved in other parts of the world, possibly in neighbouring countries, or on other continents The ability of farmers, plant breeders and natural resource managers to identify and access such germplasm is becoming increasingly important as climates continue to change (Halewood et al, 2013).
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Being Prepared for Climate Change. A Workbook for Developing Risk-Based Adaptation Plans

Being Prepared for Climate Change. A Workbook for Developing Risk-Based Adaptation Plans

“Transfer” is a technical risk management term for having another organization take responsibility for reducing the risk. Your risk is mitigated by another party. Buying an insurance policy is an example of transferring risk by having another party reduce the consequences if the risk occurs. An environmental management organization will probably not be buying insurance policies, but transfers can occur when other organizations will act in ways to reduce your risks. Maybe your risk could be mitigated when a highway is rebuilt or as part of other infrastructure work. Maybe you can agree to lead a reforestation effort if a partner agrees to restore some other habitat. Maybe some agency has announced it will be taking hazard mitigation actions that would have the co-benefit of reducing some of your risk. If others’ actions are lowering the likelihood or consequence of your risks then you have transferred the risk reduction responsibility to them. You aren’t mitigating the risk, but it is being reduced. Note that you cannot unilaterally transfer a risk. Other organizations need to affirm that they will actually mitigate the risk; otherwise the risk will still be there. You can opt to transfer some of a risk by partnering with another organization or by making a financial contribution to someone else’s mitigation project. If you are working with partner organizations on your adaptation plan, this is an opportunity to decide which organization is going to be the lead for which risks.
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Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability in eastern Ethiopia

Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability in eastern Ethiopia

hiopia is vulnerable to climate change. Adaptation is one of the options to abate the negative impact of climate changes. This study has analyzed factors influencing different climate change udy were analyzed by using the data obtained from 330 household heads randomly and proportionately sampled from two agroecologies in Eastern Hararghe , Ethiopia. The study used a multinomial logistic ession model to identify factors affecting the choice of adaptation strategies to climate change where changing planting date, irrigation water use, soil and water conservation, and crop variety selection. The result ce of climate adaptation options were sex of household head, family size, education status of household head, agroecology, distance to market, cultivated land, credit access, decreasing linking farmers to fertilizer usage, credit
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Agricultural Adaptation Options against Adverse Effect of Climate Change in Shyamnagar Upazila in the Satkhira District, Bangladesh

Agricultural Adaptation Options against Adverse Effect of Climate Change in Shyamnagar Upazila in the Satkhira District, Bangladesh

have been the viable adaptation option for such climate stressors. Moved to non-farm activities, Integrated farming system, increased use of irrigation, Agroforestry, Soil conservation techniques were ranked 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th respectively (Table 4). Crop insurance (ASI- 79) was ranked as the least important adaptation strategy. This is most likely due to (1) a significant lack of good management of finance institutions in the country underwriting agriculture and offering farm-based insurance products (2) Poor deployment of technical assistance and low-levels of farmer awareness about the use of agricultural insurance (3) Only a very recent abatement of governmental regulations and policies which placed prohibitive restrictions on insurances provision entities and (4) an overall lack of capacity (financial, infrastructure and human) among in-country financial institutions to float insurance programs.
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