Main types of secondary batterysystems currently avail- able on the market are presented in Table 1. Starting with the lead acid battery, new systems have been de- veloped during the last century and the main achieve- ment has been that the energy density has been increased continuously, enabling the new applications introduced above. Apparently, increase in energy density puts more restrictions on the safety control of these new storage systems. Although the oldest sealed lead-acid technology has a favorable cost advantage, these batteries are heavy and therefore poor in terms of specific energy. Nickel- Cadmium (NiCd) batteries deliver significantly improved specific energy and high-(dis) charge-rate capability, but are obviously not environmentally friendly. The NiMH technology provides a high specific energy and involves no significant pollution but can build up high internal gas pressures, which might generate some problems during prolonged over (dis) charging. A relatively high self-dis- charge rate is another drawback of Nickel-based aqueous batterysystems. The most advanced lithium-based tech- nology offers the highest specific energy and energy den- sity. This battery system has been developed rapidly over the last two decades in response of mobile electronic industry and more recently the automotive industry. The Cobalt-oxide based Li-ion batteries were fairly criticized because of their poor safety properties. Introduction of mixed-oxides and iron-phosphate cells has improved the
BatteryManagement System (BMS) is simply battery monitoring which keeps checking on the key operational parameters during charging and discharging such as voltages, currents, and temperatures (internal and ambient). The BMS normally provides inputs to protection devices which generate alarms or disconnect the battery from the load or charger when any of the parameters become out of limits. The major objectives of BMS are [1,2]: (1) to protect the cells or the battery from damage; (2) to prolong the life of the battery; and (3) to maintain the battery in a state in which it can fulfill the functional requirements of the application for which it was specified. Thus, the BMS may incorporate one or more of the following functions: cell protection, charge control, demand management, state of charge (SOC) determination, state of health (SOH) determination, cell balancing, communication, and etc.
In order to begin either diagnostics or prognostics, an accurate estimate of the current health must be available. State-of-charge (SOC) is a common metric used in many deployed batterymanagementsystems, especially consumer-grade batteries, which defines the remaining charge before the voltage is depleted. This is useful in the short term, but does not answer the question as to how many discharge-recharge cycles will this battery be able to withstand before needing to be replaced. The state-of-health (SOH) of the battery meets this requirement. SOH is an indirect metric attained by extracting the feature from direct measurement data. It represents the remaining capacity of the Li-ion battery, measured in Amp-hours (Ah). Critical systems designed for long-term reliability cannot depend solely on the SOC of their Li-ion systems, so the SOH must be considered. This work does not detail different methods of extracting the SOH, as that is application-dependent.
Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are ordinarily used for moveable physics and electrical vehicles and are growing in quality for military and part applications. Over the past many decades, the quantity of electric vehicles has continued to extend. Projections estimate that worldwide quite a hundred twenty-five million electrical vehicles are going to be on the road by our future generations. At the guts of those advanced vehicle is that the lithium- particle [Li-ion] battery that provides to needed energy storage. This project gift Li-ion batteries and their associated batterymanagementsystems, similarly as approaches to enhance overall battery potency, state of charge, voltage and current analysis, life span. The planned work helps to analysis the battery that aims to develop the Li-ion battery performs higher in action. Additionally, the interior resistance of the battery is going to be analyzed for the longer-term scope for increasing the generation, similarly as opportunities to repurpose and recycle the batteries.
Abstract: The battery consists of one or more electrochemical cell and it transforms stored energy into electricity. Batteries are widely used in flash lights, smart phones and electric cars. BatteryManagement System (BMS) plays a prominent role in monitoring and controlling of rechargeable batteries. The key terminologies in BMS are as follows, the prime selection of battery chemistry is essential for meticulous applications followed by technologies in batterymanagementsystems it includes battery monitoring, diagnostics ,control of charging and discharging cycle, state estimate, protection, equalization of charge, heat control and management, early failure detection and assessment to improve overall system performance. An
he degradation of performance of battery packs in battery based power systems as result of mismatch of cell performance or aging can affect the overall system performance so batterymanagementsystems (BMS) have an important role to minimise these effects in order to improve the performance and energy utilization of the battery pack and by reducing the stress on weaker cells, prolong its life time. The high voltage bus required by the traction system of electric vehicles requires the use of a large number of series connected cells. Therefore, the capacity of battery packs with series connected cells may be limited by the weakest cell in the string, i.e. if one of the cells lost 10% of its capacity compared to the majority of cells, the overall capacity of the pack will lose 10% as a result as the week cell will reach first the fully charged/discharged condition, and in order to prevent further degradation of this cell, the operation of the whole pack needs to be stopped. Although the mismatching
The APR maintains active power balance under reverse power condition, by providing a control signal ( ) to BESS by measuring frequency error( ). The APR contains proportional and derivative controllers where the proportional controller controls the battery operations based on the frequency error( ), the derivative controller improves the system speed response and stability.The term in equation (4) prevents the DG reverse power and steady state frequency error. The , values are given in the appendix. The APR simulation schematic is shown in below figure
On the other hand, battery needs particular care in the EV applications. Incorrect operations such as too high or too low temperature, over charging or discharging will speed up the degradation process of battery dramatically. Besides, battery pack in EVs is generally composed of hundreds of battery cells connected in series or parallel con ﬁ guration to satisfy the high power and high voltage requirement for the vehicles. Particular care also needs to be taken to operate such a complicated battery pack. Therefore, a proper BMS is crucial in protecting batteries from damages, which needs be carefully designed [4,5]. In this paper, some key technologies including battery modelling, battery state estimation and battery charging which are required in designing an effective BMS in EVs will be surveyed. The relationship of these key technolo- gies is illustrated in Fig. 1. In the applications of EVs, battery current and voltage can be detected by on-board current sensor and voltage sensor directly, and surface temperature of battery pack can be also detected by temperature sensor or thermocouple conveniently. Then the well-trained battery models together with suitable estimation methods can be adopted to achieve independent or joint state estimations of battery SOC or internal temperature. After capturing battery electric and thermal behaviours, battery charging approaches can be optimized by proper optimization algorithms, and further to charge battery from initial state to ﬁ nal target with the equilibra- tion of various charging objectives such as fast charging, high ef ﬁ ciency of energy conversion and low temperature rise. If any abnormal situations of battery states occur in the operation process, the alarm module and safety control module will work to record or eliminate these cases accordingly. Therefore, battery modelling, state estimation and battery control are vital technologies in the BMS, and
ESS should be utilised by SGOBs in order for them to be fully engaged in a bidirectional exchange of power with the smart grid and have the capacity to provide balancing services. It is also hypothesised that by configuring their building design and the ESS specifications and operational strategy, SGOBs can be techno-economically optimised for the needs of the smart grid. Therefore, they are anticipated to have specific design and ESS characteristics, constituting a building type that significantly differs from zero energy or low carbon buildings . It should be highlighted that the balancing services market was worth £1 billion in 2014 , indicating the potential financial opportunities for SGOBs as energy storage vectors in the energy market. Nevertheless, this will only be possible by establishing a proper regulatory framework with specific financial motives and rewards for the participating buildings. The current paper presents the first results from a simulated non-residential building, capable of shifting its daily energy demand and therefore adapting its daily electricity profile, by using its battery storage system (BSS) to respond to real-time electricity prices. Concerning its loads, the building is assumed to be fully electric, enabling in this way the potential for a full interaction amongst the building, the BSS and the power network. In this context, the continuously increasing usage of electricity as the primary fuel, in the commercial and services sector, and the expected electrification of heating and hot water through heat pumps should also be taken into serious consideration.
As the technology supporting electric vehicles (EVs) is rapidly progressing and the cost of EV components is reducing, EVs are becoming more feasible for use in Australia and in many countries around the world. However, the public perception of EVs and their perceived limitations result in a slow uptake of the technology, partially because of the uncertainty regarding the ability of an EV to meet the driving needs of the general population. Range anxiety is a particular concern with drivers having fear of being stranded by a depleted EV battery. This study explores means of reducing range anxiety by taking into account a variety of environmental and behavioural factors. By considering such factors and implementing it in conjunction with a recently proposed improved state of charge (SoC) estimation method by the authors, a range estimate can be produced that is much more accurate than the conventional methods which consider the SoC and vehicle efficiency alone. This range estimate can be used to inform the driver of the capabilities of the EV and advise if a recharge is required to reach the intended destination.
For large lithium-ion battery packs, there are two limitations to these chips. The first limitation is that these chips are designed for low battery currents usually sensed by a PCB-mounted resistor and not for the high currents typically present in large packs sensed using a Hall-effect sensor or a current shunt. Any powerful intelligence in the chips would not be useful without knowledge of the battery current. The second limitation is that these chips could only handle several cells arranged in series. To overcome these limitations, electric vehicles should use BMSs intended for large packs instead those intended for small packs.
Abstract—Extensive testing of a batterymanagement system (BMS) on real battery storage system (BSS) requires lots of efforts in setting up and configuring the hardware as well as protecting the system from unpredictable faults during the test. To overcome this complexity, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation tool is employed and integrated to the BMS test system. By using this tool, it allows to push the tested system up to the operational limits, where may incur potential faults or accidents, to examine all possible test cases within the simulation environment. In this paper, an advanced HIL-based virtual battery module (VBM), consists of one “live” cell connected in series with fifteen simulated cells, is introduced for the purposes of testing the BMS components. First, the complete cell model is built and validated using real world driving cycle while the HIL-based VBM is then exercised under an Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) driving cycle to ensure it is fully working and ready for the BMS testing in real-time. Finally, commissioning of the whole system is performed to guarantee the stable operation of the system for the BMS evaluation.
With the increased concerns on environment and cost of energy, more renewable energy sources are integrated into the power grid in the form of distributed generation (DG). The renewable energy source based DG systems are normally interfaced to the grid through power electronic converters and energy storage systems. A systematic organization of these DG systems, energy storage systems, and a cluster of loads forms a microgrid. The microgrid not only has the inherited advantages of single DG system but also offers more control flexibilities to fulfil system reliability and power quality requirement with proper management and control.
Performance managementsystems (PMS) measure an organisation’s achievement toward “performance indicators [that] quantify the efficiency and effectiveness of service-delivery methods” (Fine and Snyder 1999, p. 24), while quality managementsystems (QMS) refers to approaches to performance improvement that have a focus on management and improving service quality through meeting stakeholder needs (Cairns et al. 2005). PMS’s have been shown to improve management functions, with Moynihan and Ingraham (2004) finding that “setting strategic direction and obtaining performance data allows leaders to judge the performance of existing managementsystems, and make decisions on the reorganisation of the systems for the purpose of closer coordination and greater effectiveness” (p. 430). Bryde (2003) asserts that a stakeholder’s definition of quality in the project environment is affected by the project and by project management performance. However, while PMS research can contribute to understanding how to measure and improve NPO performance, QMS’s are considered more relevant to this study because of their focus on improving management quality and their ability to help implement project management.
The indicator “Improve cultural compatibility” is graded fifth, with a power spectral magnitude of 1.31. As Wilkinson and Dale (2002) indicated, organizational culture is a key issue when integrating managementsystems. There is a relationship between management scopes and cultures, and differences in scope are likely to lead to different sub-cultures in the organizations (Ubius and Alas, 2009). The differences are more significant in ISO 900l: 2000 than in the ISO l400l and OHSAS l800l. While implementing the ISO 9001, mission statements frequently include statements about quality of process to ensure quality for fulfilling customers’ needs (Mackau, 2003). The statement is likely to be less important to those who are not involved in “quality management” than to those who are involved. Those who are not involved may develop a “different culturally based understanding” from those who are involved. Moreover, those who are involved in the ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 may develop their corresponding priority on environmental management and safety management respectively. These different sub-cultures may hinder the development of a strong common culture which emphasizes on the values of co-operation and involvement (Karapetrovic, 2002; Karapetrovic and Casadesus, 2009).
How to assess these percentages from experimental data is yet to be established. A possibility could be to track capacity slippage upon cy- cling. Looking back into recently published 4S1P battery pack data , Fig. 11, and plotting the voltage vs. capacity response of the pack for the entire 50 cycles; it can be seen that the curves are slipping to the left. This is mostly induced by the slight difference in coulomb counting between the charge and the discharge and the lack of high precision coulometer [69,70]. For the room temperature pack, Fig. 11(a), the slippage at the end of charge came to -0.505 Ah after 50 cycles vs. -0.439 Ah at the end of discharge. If no capacity was lost, and slippage only induced by a calibration error, the slippage should have been the same at the end of charge and discharge. The fact that the end of dis- charge slipped 0.066 Ah less (2.5% of the cell capacity, close to the observed capacity loss of 3%) suggest that the degradation likely oc- curred mostly during discharge because less capacity was discharged than charged. Looking at the pack that was cycled at 0 °C, Fig. 11(b), the evolution of the slippage is much more complicated. Slippage was of Table 3
There also are essential disadvantages in the usage of propane or bottled fuel to heat water for pen cleansing or in crop processing packages, or To warmness air for crop drying, together with transportation to the place in which you need the warmth, charges of fuel and protection troubles. For many agricultural desires, the opportunity is solar energy. Contemporary, properly-designed, easy- to-maintain sun structures can provide the strength that is wanted wherein it is wished, and whilst it's far wanted. Those are systems that have been examined and demonstrated around the sector to be cost-effective and dependable, and they are already raising tiers of agricultural productiveness worldwide (Figure1).
As discussed above, in comparison to automatic charging, there are more scopes of error for battery swapping as it involves more steps to replace the depleted battery of an AGV. That is, there is always a risk of accident while swapping a battery (Kӧnig, 2003). So, removing the depleted battery and mounting a fully charged battery should be done with strict adherence to the guidelines of battery manufacturers. According to Technical Marketing Staff of Gates Energy Products (1992), employees operating batteries should not only be careful about the toxic materials of a battery (e.g., sulfuric acid, lead etc.), but also about the potential accidents like short circuits that may be caused by the battery (short circuit current of these batteries can cause severe burns to an operator). So, a firm needs to spend more money on training its employees if it uses battery swapping (particularly if the battery swapping is done manually).
Extended-range electric vehicles (EREV) or range-extended electric vehicles (REEV) were designed to be run mostly by the battery, but have a petrol or diesel generator to recharge the battery when charge becomes low. However, range extension can be accomplished with either series or parallel hybrid layouts. In a series-hybrid system, the combustion engine drives an electric generator instead of directly driving the wheels. The generator provides power for the driving electric motors by charging batteries. In short, a series-hybrid is a simple vehicle, which is driven only by electric motor traction with a generator set providing the electric power. The EREV is unique vehicle, where battery and propulsion system are sized such that the engine is never required for operation of the vehicle when energy is available from the battery. As a full-performance electric vehicle, battery, motor and power electronics must be sized for the full capability of the vehicle. An E-REV does not need to start the engine for speed or power demands and therefore does not need to be on when battery energy is available. The engine is used only when the battery charge is low and to charge the battery in such cases. Unlike an internal combustion engine, electric motors are highly efficient with exceptionally high power-to-weight ratios providing adequate torque when running over a wide speed range. Internal combustion engines run most efficiently when turning at a constant speed. An engine turning a generator can be designed to run at maximum efficiency at constant speed. Conventional mechanical transmissions add weight, bulk and sap power from the engine with automatic shifting being complex. Unlike conventional transmission mechanism, electric motors are matched to the vehicle with a simple constant-ratio gearbox hence multiple-speed transmission can be eliminated.
Lead acid batteries due to the cheap price compared to other batteries and extend the range of available capacity are one of the best electrical energy storages. Using batteries in large number and scale as propulsion power of vehicles such as ships, submarines and electric vehicles is expanding. Energy storage systems in a wide range of applications such as uninterrupted power supply units (UPS), support systems, and uninterruptible power supply and also as propulsion system power supply locomotives, ships and electrical submarines have been used . For example, the batteries which use in underwater vehicles are lead-acid batteries because of their advantages such as less cost of production, more diversity, more endurance during charging and discharging operation and proper electric efficiency. Lead-acid batteries have an appropriate cell voltage (2V/cell) and correspondingly high energy efficiency. The energy stored in a lead-acid battery is chemical energy which is converted to electrical energy . Lead acid batteries, can be charge and discharged with high current . The energy converted by chemical reaction (equation 1) is performed .