Battle of the Somme

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Bibliography of the Battle of the Somme: Part 2 [of 2]

Bibliography of the Battle of the Somme: Part 2 [of 2]

Yet Hilda did hold her brother’s papers and solicit more. Unfortunately, she had not registered them by the time of her death (1948) and so the archive seemed to be lost. In 2003, an American scholar, James Kissane, published a synoptic study from published sources.(22) In fact, the Hankey archive had been recovered by then, although was not yet publicly-available. It was to form the basis of a successful DPhil and the first comprehensive and referenced critical biography. In 2015 Lord Hankey presented the archive to IWM. The absence of A Student in Arms from Somme bibliography may indicate that there may be are other lacunae, ‘lost’ writers who, even now, could offer historians fresh material for research. The mesh of the Web is fine enough to catch if not categorize useful leavings from the ‘cultural sieve’ and ‘winnowing flail’. Gliddon’s 1996 bibliography reproves Middlebrook twice over, once because although acclaimed as a ‘masterly account of the opening hours’ The First Day on the Somme ‘has often been criticized for concentrating on one day of a battle which lasted until mid-November 1916’.(23) That’s on p. 21 of Gliddon. Turn to p .4, however, and it is clear that one of those doing the criticizing is Gliddon himself. Middlebrook:
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Bibliography of the Battle of the Somme: Part 1 [of 2]

Bibliography of the Battle of the Somme: Part 1 [of 2]

Heinrich Himmler apart, former poultry farmers don't figure much in the bibliography of military history. Martin Middlebrook, however, proves to be the outstanding exception. With this one book, his first, Middlebrook prised open a new window onto Great War studies in general, and in particular onto the 1916 Battle of the Somme. As part of the Somme centenary publishing effort, Pen & Sword Military republishes the hardback edition of Middlebrook's The First Day on the Somme. Based upon original, indeed ground- breaking, research, The First Day on the Somme has been and remains an entry-point into Somme studies for students ever since first published by Allen Lane in 1971. Penguin cannily holds onto the paperback rights, and that edition has never gone out of print. Now, nearly half a century later, historians – academic or otherwise – continue to draw upon and cite The First Day on the Somme.(1)
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Unit 2 Review.doc

Unit 2 Review.doc

 The first day of the Battle of the Somme in France was 1 July 1916  It was the single most disastrous day the British Army had suffered..  At 7:30am a British officer jumped to the t[r]

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Sites in the imagination: The Beaumont Hamel Newfoundland Memorial on the Somme

Sites in the imagination: The Beaumont Hamel Newfoundland Memorial on the Somme

Working with Nangle he reshaped the dishevilled remnants of the landscape, giving it two principle components: a focal point in the form of a monument on a raised stone cairn, and around it, the contextual setting of the devastated landscape retained in its battle configuration. Designed by the English sculptor Basil Gotto, the monument is an immense bronze caribou (the emblem of the regiment) atop a pile of granite boulders and shrubs which acts as both pedestal and viewing point. (Figure Two) A low wall with brass direction pointers indicates the main features of the Somme battlefield. In an attempt to recreate a fragment of the Newfoundland landscape, Cochius imported plant material native to that region and the caribou is surrounded with white spruce, birch, dog- berry and juniper.
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Non-battle injury & non-battle psychiatric illness in deployed Air Force members

Non-battle injury & non-battle psychiatric illness in deployed Air Force members

Data on non-battle injuries was obtained from medical surveillance data collected on-site at deployed locations in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom from 11 September 2001 to 31 October 2006. These databases capture all medical information for the deployed Air Force population including clinical visits that occurred in the deployed environment. Data regarding injuries diagnosed during clinical visits were obtained through the Global Expeditionary Medical System (GEMS) and were coded to the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) (15). All injuries with an assigned ICD-9-CM diagnosis code in the range 800-929 were included (Table 26). External cause of injury (E-code) is not reliably captured by this data source and therefore E-codes were not utilized in the analysis. Non-battle injuries were defined using a database indicator for combat vs. non-combat injury assigned in the clinic at the time of visit. Only the first visit for each injury episode was included. These injuries include both work-related and non-work-related events.
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Effects of Battle Rope Training in Individuals with Sedentary Lifestyle

Effects of Battle Rope Training in Individuals with Sedentary Lifestyle

population day by day which can potentially contribute to ill health and evolving forms of exercise like the battle rope training which provides more results in less time can induce interest in the sedentary population. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of battle rope training on the upper extremity endurance, lower extremity endurance and VO 2 max on sedentary lifestyle

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Relative Exercise Intensity and Energy Expenditure of Battle Rope Exercise

Relative Exercise Intensity and Energy Expenditure of Battle Rope Exercise

Introduction: Battle rope (BR) training has become increasingly popular in recent years. Very few studies have evaluated the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to BR exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative exercise intensity and energy expenditure of a battle rope (BR) interval workout. Methods: Fourteen male volunteers (aged 19.6 ± 1.86 yrs) served as subjects in this study. Each subject performed a graded exercise test on a treadmill and completed a 14-minute BR workout. The exercise included in the BR workout were alternating arm waves, double arm waves, double arm power slams, in and out waves, snakes waves, inward arm circles, and outward arm circles. Each exercise was performed for 15 seconds with a 45-second rest period between exercises. HR, VO 2 , and RPE were monitored throughout the BR workout. Results: The average HR
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The role of battle narrative in the Bellum Gallicum

The role of battle narrative in the Bellum Gallicum

Thucydides, who not only recorded the siege of Amphipolis at which he commanded, but claims to have interviewed other participants in the Peloponnesian war, and presumably drew on their experiences for his account of battles he did not witness personally. 58 One of the most immediate eyewitness accounts of battle is given by Xenophon, who was present at the battle of Cunaxa described in the Anabasis, and who probably included information provided by other participants, such as the death of Cyrus at which he was not personally present. 59 Polybius also personally witnessed the fall of Carthage in 149 BCE, and may have extended his history to cover this particular battle. 60 Another direct record of battle comes from the period of civil war that followed the death of Caesar as Galbaʼs letter to Cicero provides a first-hand account of the battle of Mutina. 61 Another notable eyewitness account appears in Ammianus Marcellinus, who recalls the siege of Amida in considerable detail. 62 Of course many of the surviving sources do not share this proximity to the original event. Livy in particular wrote on battles from the early history of Rome in which he was highly dependent on a variety of sources, including Polybius. 63 Most surviving sources for the battles of the late republican period, such as Dio, Appian and Plutarch were all reliant on other sources due to their distance from the original events. 64 Caesar therefore occupies a privileged place of proximity to battle, alongside other military writers who were witnesses to the battles they recorded, or who were in a position to receive first-hand accounts of the events they recorded.
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Effect of Slam Waves Battle rope Exercise and Up down Waves Battle rope Exercise to Arm Strength And Arm Endurance (Study of boxing exstracurriculer at senior high school 3 Kediri)

Effect of Slam Waves Battle rope Exercise and Up down Waves Battle rope Exercise to Arm Strength And Arm Endurance (Study of boxing exstracurriculer at senior high school 3 Kediri)

Based on the results of the training and the mean test stated that the slam waves battle rope training gives better results compared to the training of the up down waves battle rope on endurance. While the up down waves battle rope training gives better results compared to the slam waves battle rope training on arm muscle strength by giving training to extracurricular boxing students at SMAN 3 Kediri. From the results of a significant test using a post hoc test stated that there was no significant difference in the effect of the results of the training of slam waves battle rope and up down waves battle rope on the endurance and strength of arm muscles in the extracurricular boxing students of SMAN 3 Kediri. This is in line with the conclusion that slam waves battle rope training and up down waves battle rope is an effective exercise to increase endurance of arm muscles and arm muscle strength. So that it can be used as a reference in exercises to increase endurance and arm muscle strength in sports that focus on using endurance and arm muscle strength.
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Redan Battery and the Battle of Queenston Heights

Redan Battery and the Battle of Queenston Heights

1988: 502). The 18-pounder Redan Battery garrison gun would have loaded canister packed with 62, 4 oz. shot or 82, 3 oz. shot, both appreciably larger than the examples recovered. Though it was fired against American troops embarked on the river, U.S. forces may never have employed the captured Redan gun against the British. Regardless of whether the British gun crew spiked it before retreating, or if an American put it out of commission during Macdonell and William’s counteroffen- sive, Wool did not order his men to drill the gun and bring it to bear on the village until after the second attempt to retake the battery. Wool then retired to the American shore to have his wounds tended as Chrystie arrived to take command (Cruickshank 1902a: 155). Drilling a vent hole is time consuming. As no mention is made of U.S. fire on the village from the battery, they may not have completed confusion of battle, a uniform, even if only an
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New Hampshire Effect: Behavior in Sequential and Simultaneous Election Contests

New Hampshire Effect: Behavior in Sequential and Simultaneous Election Contests

There are several possible explanations for the significant over-expenditure observed in the sequential contest. 20 One explanation is that subjects fall prey to the sunk cost fallacy (Staw, 1976). The payoff maximization problem underlying the multi-battle sequential contest equilibrium regards the expenditure in previous battles as sunk cost, and therefore ignores them. However, evidence from various behavioral studies suggests otherwise. Friedman et al. (2007) state that there are at least two distinct psychological mechanisms that might create an irrational regard for sunk cost. One mechanism is cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957) or self- justification (Aronson, 1968), which induces people who have sunk resources into an unprofitable activity to irrationally revise their beliefs about the profitability of an additional expenditure, in order to avoid the unpleasant acknowledgment that they made a mistake. In our experiment, subjects who get to battle 3 have already made some expenditure in the previous two battles. If the sunk cost hypothesis is true, it should entail that subjects who spend more resources in battle 1 and battle 2 are also more likely to spend more in the final decisive battle 3 – to increase their chance of winning the prize and recoup some of their expenditure. A simple random effect regression shows a positive relationship between the expenditure in battle 3 and the total expenditure in the previous two battles (p-value = 0.06). Extending it temporally, cognitive dissonance would imply that the observed decline in expenditure in battle 1 and battle 2 over periods is associated with a similar decline in expenditure in battle 3. Data summarized in Figure 1 clearly supports this conjecture. Second mechanism underlying sunk cost relates to the prospect theory – specifically to a fixed reference point and loss-aversion (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979). This also postulates that subjects who spent more in previous battles should spend more in the current battle to avoid potential losses. We find that expenditure in battle 2 is
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The Order of Battle in Constitutional Litigation

The Order of Battle in Constitutional Litigation

The Order of Battle in Constitutional Litigation SMU Law Review Volume 60 | Issue 4 Article 8 2007 The Order of Battle in Constitutional Litigation Michael L Wells Follow this and additional works at[.]

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Mathematical Battle   Ground Decisions

Mathematical Battle Ground Decisions

When making a preference between two or more options, one may not always know the odds of a favourable outcome. Preference- making under ambiguity and under explicit risk are two examples of preference-making without knowledge of the outcome. The author indicates that most Battle - ground leader’s experience is afflicted with mathematical Battle - ground leader preference trap number 9 - Not keeping track by: 1) Missing feedback - lack of information on the key question 2) Entwined feedback - evidence is effected by actions taken by the mathematical Battle - ground leader preference maker and associates after making the initial judgment, these factors are called treatment effects 3) Confuse feedback - uncontrollable, unpredictable factors, ‘random noise’ that affect mathematical Battle - ground leader preference outcomes; 4) Ignore feedback - incomplete use of information on outcomes they already possess Learning from experience is especially difficult when you face an uncooperative environment like missing feedback or ambiguity due to random noise or treatment effects. To improve with experience, consequently, we need to: 1) Regularly analyse what you are learned recently and how you could be learn more 2) Conduct experiments to obtain feedback you could get in no other way and 3) Learn not just from the outcomes of past mathematical Battle - ground leader preferences but also by studying the processes that produced them. The 10th mathematical Battle - ground leader preference trap is Failure to audit your mathematical Battle - ground leader preference process. Here, we should analyse your own mathematical Battle - ground leader preferences making and identify a few key steps we ought to take to improve our mathematical Battle - ground leader preferences. Once we are located the few crucial errors, we will find that our mathematical Battle - ground leader preferences making can be improved much easily. Often than not, the author indicates that this is the most neglected or misunderstood barrier of the ten mathematical Battle - ground leader preference traps.
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Descriptions of battle in the Wars of Procopius

Descriptions of battle in the Wars of Procopius

Towards the end of the Persian Wars at 2.30.15 Procopius goes into considerable detail about some measures taken by Mermeroz to strengthen Petra. This comes following Dagistheus’ withdrawal after his failed siege attempt; when we consider that the siege of Petra in Lazica is the last siege described in the Persian Wars, and only two other conflicts remain in the narrative, namely the Roman stand in the pass near the River Phasis and the Battle of the River Phasis itself, it seems a bit out of place. When we remember that most of the sieges involved the Persians assaulting a Roman fortress or city, this little digression perhaps should be read as a synopsis of Procopius’ precepts for withstanding a siege. Much like Buzes’ speech, besides the mention of issues that surfaced in Procopius’ description of sieges, many of the points raised in this discussion are also found in the military handbooks. The Persian defenders had been keen to avoid alerting the Romans of their low numbers (2.30.16). Maurice (Maurice Strat. 10.1) mentions similar concerns, though when discussing sieges he refers to the attackers and not the besieged; however, not alerting the enemy of one’s numbers is a common enough concern in his treatise (see, Maurice Strat. 7.B.3, 7, for example). With the walls in a bad state, and a lack of suitable provisions not present, Mermeroz gets his men to fill up gaps in the wall with the linen bags used to carry provisions with sand (2.30.19). Maurice (Maurice Strat. 1.2.42) refers to the satchels that Roman soldiers brought along on campaign to carry some of their supplies and, although Procopius is here describing Persian practice, there is no reason to believe that it is not relevant for the Romans.
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The Battle of Hastings: A Geographic Perspective

The Battle of Hastings: A Geographic Perspective

Just as spatial analysis can contribute to a better understanding of information flows in the initial days of the Norman Conquest, so too can it provide real clues as to the eventual composition of Harold’s army at the time of its arrival at Hastings. One GIS-based technique is cartographic modeling which can determine the geographic origin of the soldiers who potentially served in Harold’s army. To construct this model, several variables were required. The existing literature describes a relationship between the calculation of wealth (hides) and military service (Figure 4.7). An additional variable relates to Harold’s family, the Godwines. Specifically, if it is assumed that the battle was a direct attack on the Godwines, as is indicated by WP and the BT among others, then individuals who were vassals of Harold and his family (Gyrth, Leofwine, and Godwine, his father) would be more likely to fight for Harold and to maintain his line (Figure 4.5). This, in fact, could represent one of the most important variables in the model. Another
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The egg and the nucleus: a battle for supremacy

The egg and the nucleus: a battle for supremacy

Even advanced donor cells from the endoderm of Xenopus tadpoles have nuclei that can sometimes yield normal individuals after nuclear transfer [data taken from Briggs and King Briggs and[r]

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Battle   Field Decision Preference

Battle Field Decision Preference

Concepts and s from battle - field decision preference making have had unquestionably salutary effects on battlescience research. Battlescience, conversely, has had a much more limited influence on battle - field decision preference-making research in the social sciences. Concepts from battle - field decision preference battlescience now appear in the marketing, game theory, finance and battle - field manager resources literatures. In several striking s, researchers have used battle - field decision preference battlescience experimentation to guide mechanism design in auctions and allocation of public goods. These sorts of conceptual influences can be labeled ‘weak battle - field decision preference battlescience’, or the study of brain function to provide insight into potential regularities, without making novel predictions about real-world battle - field decision preferences. How do people make battle - field decision preferences without having clear inclinations? How do short-lived mental states bias inclinations or battle - field decision preferences outside of the battle - field decision preference-makers’ awareness? How is information updating represented in the brain? What is the role of time perception in intertemporal battle - field decision preference? How can we avoid making unhealthy and dangerous battle - field decision preferences? How do we correct for battle - field decision preference errors? Among the big questions they are trying to answer are:
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Sí, Se Puede (Yes, We Can), Culturally Relevant Biographies: A study on the impact of culturally relevant biographies on social studies instruction

Sí, Se Puede (Yes, We Can), Culturally Relevant Biographies: A study on the impact of culturally relevant biographies on social studies instruction

Polybius’s account of the Battle of the Aegates Islands is interesting for a variety of reasons, but one of the greatest is that he places a large part of blame for Carthage’s inattention to its navy: This “neglect” is all the more striking since Polybius juxtaposes it to the major naval win at Drepana in 249 BCE. What exactly did Polybius mean by the “neglect” of the navy? In Greek, the work Polybius uses is a form of leipo a verb that can mean “leave” in the sense of “leave standing,” “leave aside,” or “leave at home,” which can be interpreted in various ways. On the one hand, it is clear from other parts of Polybius’s narrative that the neglect was not equal to complete abandonment. During Hamilcar’s land battle against the Romans, for example, Hamilcar sent Carthaginian ships to ravage the Italian coasts as far as Cumae in hopes that it would distract the Romans from their attack on Sicily indicating that the navy was still active (Polyb. 1.59.6). On the other hand, the neglect was significant enough to force a lengthy delay in terms of Carthage’s ability to send ships to Lilybaeum after hearing of Rome’s sudden re-appearance off the west coast of Sicily under Gaius Lutatius at the beginning of the summer of 242 BCE (Polyb. 1.59). According to John Lazenby, it took the Carthaginians nine long months to stock ships and arrive to face the Romans. 171
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Medical Arts & Sciences, Volume 2, Number 3, 1948

Medical Arts & Sciences, Volume 2, Number 3, 1948

He requests correspondence with any of our readers who are in a position to secure native or modern weapons of the nature of war clubs, battle axes, maces, or battle h[r]

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The Battle for Portland, Maine

The Battle for Portland, Maine

Consistent with the OMB opinion letters filed with the FCC in other cases involving financial showing requirements, the Commission found here that: (1) the requireme[r]

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