Having studied the application of AHP in evalu- ating urban forestry statistical methods, Jafari et al. (2012) stated that using AHP, the importance of each criterion and option could be calculated. The results suggested that the sampling method using aerial images which obtained the top prior- ity in most criteria was chosen as the best method. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the canopy composition of beech trees with accom- pany trees based on soil quality indicators accord- ing to Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Using the results of this study, we can introduce suitable stands for increasing the quality and efficiency of soil in destructed ecosystems in the northern for- ests. Although the recent research has been in this regard, more about single trees and less has been expressed about the canopy composition of Fagus orientalis Lipsky trees with other trees. Since Fa- gus orientalis Lipsky is considered as valuable trees in the north of Iran, maintaining the production conditions in habitats by this species during ex- ploitation is in the direction with continuous and optimal production by forest managers. Therefore, the study of the environmental conditions of this species is a necessity. So, the present study aimed to prioritize of foreststands based on soil and litter quality indices in hyrcanian beechforeststands. These results assist managers in managing degrad- ed areas in north of country by employing suitable species with habitat conditions.
In 2003 and 2004 we studied macromycete spe- cies diversity, abundance and distribution of fruit- ing bodies and species dominance in mycocoenoses in three beech monocultures with diﬀerent load of air pollutants. Over the research period we deter- mined in total 121 macromycete species and one species of imperfect fungus on the research plots. We found relatively balanced values of abundance, fruiting body distribution and species dominance on all the examined plots. The species diversity in groups consisting of the most dominant species was practically the same on each plot. In addition, on each plot there also occurred species speciﬁc to the given environment only. The most domi- nant species were: Ascodichaena rugosa, Diatrype disciformis, Hypoxylon fragiforme, Valsa ambiens, Pseudovalsa spinifera, Polyporus varius, Stereum hirsutum. On the examined plots these species were the most frequent and reached high abundance and distribution of fruiting bodies. As for the ecotrophic requirements of individual macromycetes, we can conclude that the diversity of lignicolous parasites decreased from the RMP Žiar nad Hronom to the EES Kováčová. This trend can follow from the air pollutant load to a certain extent that is highest on the RMP Žiar nad Hronom. All the parasitic spe- cies determined on the research plots are listed in Table 5. Examining Table 5 we can see that on two plots there was massive occurrence of fungi of the Nectria genus causing the epiphytoty of beech bark disease on tree stems. The epiphytoty entailed a high mortality of beech trees, primarily on the plot Žiar nad Hronom. We also found relatively balanced numbers of lignicolous saprophytes and terrestrial saprophytes on each research plot. The air pollutant stress also inﬂuenced the species spectrum of ecto- mycorrhizal macromycetes negatively (only 6 species on RMP and 21 species at EES – Table 4).
In 1980, five 1 ha permanent research plots (PRP) were established in even-aged beechforeststands of the NNR in order to analyze their stand structure. In 2004, four of these plots (plots 1, 3, 4 and 5) were used again for a broader evaluation of their structure (Ta- ble 1) involving the measurement of dbh (diameter at breast height), total height, crown height, species, social status (dominant, codominant, subdominant and less than 20 m) and horizontal distribution using the Fieldmap equipment (IFER Monitoring and Map- ping Solutions Ltd., Jílové u Prahy, Czech Republic). The evaluation of horizontal distribution included a description of the crown projection of each live stem by measuring a minimum of five cardinal crown radii per tree. For the study of the natural regeneration, a regular matrix of 20 × 10 m was set throughout the ex- tent of each 1 ha PRP. Each intersection of the matrix (marked with a wooden stake) indicates the corner of a 1 m 2 square subplot, in which the quantification
Measurements of sap flow rate. The sap flow of model beech trees was estimated by direct non-destructive and continuous measurements by the tree-trunk heat balance method (THB) with internal heating of xylem tissues and sensing of temperature. THB method involves the heat- ing of a xylem segment using 35 electrodes inserted in the conductive system. The arrangement of measuring points was as described by È ERMÁK et al. (1976, 1982) and K UÈERA et al. (1977). The temperature difference be- tween the heated and unheated part of xylem was moni- tored by a battery of four copper-constantan thermo- couples according to È ERMÁK and K UÈERA (1981). The output from the thermocouples was measured using a data logger and the mass flow was obtained by simple calcula- tion based on the differential heat balance equation (K UÈERA et al. 1977). There were two measuring points at the opposite sides of the trunk at a 2m height to record possible variations in the sap flow within the stem caused by variability in xylem width. The measuring points were insulated using 30mm polyurethane foam covered with a 0.5mm aluminium shield. The insulation covered about 1 m of the trunk length. The whole installation was cov- ered with plastic foil fastened in a watertight manner to the bark surface above the measuring points. The sap flow instruments were made in Ecological Measuring Sys- tems (Brno, Czech Republic). The measurements of three representative beech trees are presented for the growing season 1996 (from 1 May to 20 October). The mensura- tion variables of representative trees are given in Table 1. Measurements of the microclimate. Air temperature, air humidity, global radiation, wind speed and precipita- -20
Since 1995 also the monitoring on so called “Level II plots” has been performed. Investigation of some of those plots is carried out in the frame of the projects solved by the Ministry of Environment. This intensive evaluation of health state is currently carried out on 14 plots, eight of them are in Norway spruce stands, two are in mixed stands and four are representing broadleaved. All together 918 trees of 14 species were assessed according the common me- thodology. Crown condition – defoliation, increment, number of needle year classes, phytocoenological obser- vations, foliage, soil and tree ring analyses, deposition, both bulk and throughfall, were observed and measured and also meteorological parameters are continuously as- sessed at several plots.
Souček (2001); Hanssen (2002, 2003); Kuulu- vainen and Kalmari (2003); Diaci et al. (2005); Štícha et al. (2010). These studies imply that the occurrence of natural regeneration of spruce is closely related to sites with a special microrelief, mostly on the elevations. Moreover, a strong influ- ence of other factors is shown, especially sufficient moisture, which is very important for seedlings (Kozlowski 2002). In climax spruce stands, the limiting factors are often light and warm, also in relation to the competition of other plants (cf. Va- cek, Souček 2001; Jonášová, Prach 2004); at microrelief elevations it may be the contrary. As to some other factors, let us mention the closure of maternal forest, frost, airflow, snow movement, etc. Influence of forest floor cover type on quantity and growth of regenerating spruce trees is reported e.g. by Vacek (1981); Vacek and Souček (2001); Ulbrichová et al. (2006); the most favourable conditions for seedling regeneration are on dead wood, whereas it is the most difficult in thick ferns (Athyrium distentifolium, Athyrium filix-femina) and grasses (Calamagrostis villosa), and in more humid locations and among bilberry plants.
tion (S, N), soil degradation, change of the natural forest ecosystems during the history, and also global climate changes. Signiﬁcant forest damage due to air pollution has been visible for more than 50 years ago. Vast damage has been observed mainly after an extreme temperature break in December 1978. Similar damage has been observed in all the ridge parts in Northern Bohemia (M ATERNA 1984). In the middle 90ies, about 60% of the foreststands in CR were damaged. Emission of SO 2 , the main pollutant affect-
The size distribution of beech in mixture mostly lags behind the pure stand, is more size-asymmetric, and the mortality shifts from the smaller diameter classes fur- ther to the taller trees than in pure stands. In contrast, the mixing effect of beech on the size size-structure dynamics of spruce and oak is much less pronounced. In this study the community of mixed tree species was conceptualized by its size-structure dynamics. As the species’ roles in a given mixture becomes most obvious in unmanaged stands where silvicultural operations do not superimpose natural dynamics we included just un- managed or moderately thinned stands into this study. We showed how the size distribution, the growth dis- tributions between the trees, and their mortality in mi- xed stands differs from the respective patterns and pro- cesses in pure stands. The analysis yielded promising results, though based on a rather limited number of avai- lable pure and mixed stands. Future application to a broader set of triplets covering different species com- binations, stand density levels and site conditions may lead to a refined understanding of how mixing modi- fies the size-structure dynamics.
the paper presents an evaluation of the growth of newly established foreststands on former agricultural land and furthermore describes the state of the upper part of the soils in these stands in comparison with neighbouring grass- land in the orlické hory Mountains. the new norway spruce stands show an extremely high growth potential, usually significantly higher in comparison with areas forested for more generations/rotations. the formation of the surface humus layer also showed fast progress, the amount of dry mass of soil organic matter reaching values almost typical of permanently forested sites. the soils of newly afforested lands tend to resemble the status of forest soil – there was observed a process of acidification and nutrient depletion, probably connected with accumulation of the tree biomass. Keywords: stand production; soil condition; humus accumulation; norway spruce
of forest tree species has a long tradition (Dušek et al. 1985; Mauer 1997; Jurásek 2000), and modern technologies of intensive growing of this planting stock bring many advantages, e.g. a substantial shortening of the time of growing in a nursery. It is also possible to respond to the increasing demand for high-quality planting material of beech much more quickly. In the technology of growing the containerised planting material on the air layer, the growth of roots is interrupted on the boundary of the container and the air layer, which leads to a subsequent multiplication of fine roots inside the container. A compact root system is formed in this
trees as well as the total area of their leaves. At the same time, leaf area index (LAI) values for both stands could be complementarily determined. To calculate LAI, the surface area of the leaves (needles) was summed and divided by the ground surface area that they occupied. Both areas were measured in the same units, so LAI was dimensionless. We should note that the estimation of an average sample tree faces a number of pitfalls. So long as the trees are free to grow, the common situation in the early develop- ment of young plantations determines correlations between the height of trees and foliar biomass. In the rapidly changing microenvironments of closing and closed canopies, the determination of an average sample tree is more problematic. According to the height and dbh of trees, the amount of leaves in each tree is dependent on its actual social position in the
expanded by 9% to the detriment of FM stands over the last 50 years (Girard et al. 2008). This phenomenon appears irreversible without human intervention (Mansuy et al. 2013). Forest management objectives aim for these areas to be fully reforested in order to maintain the annual allowable cut for some regions in the boreal forest (Bureau du forestier en chef 2013). Knowing that LW sites may once have supported denser FM stands (Côté et al. 2013; Girard et al. 2009), one would expect these “neighbours” to have comparable soil fertility levels, that is, a comparable potential for the soil to sustain tree growth. Also, the persistence of these low-density forested areas for more than 50 years makes them eligible for afforestation projects in accordance with article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol. Therefore, LW afforestation in the province of Quebec has generated great interest as an opportunity for C sequestration (Boucher et al. 2012).
In terms of growth trajectories, our data were best de- scribed by M2 which exhibited a monotonic increase of the AGR with increasing diameters (Fig. 3). This result contrasted with other studies in New Zealand (Easdale et al. 2012) and elsewhere (Kohyama et al. 2003; Uriarte et al. 2004; Coates et al. 2009) that reported a hump- shaped response of growth to tree diameter. However, a clear limit of our dataset was the small diameter range (DBH ≤40 cm) compared with results from other studies in Woodside that used inventory data of larger diameter trees (Allen et al. 2000; Ganivet and Bloomberg, unpubl.). This lack of growth data for larger trees in the current study may explain the late humped growth re- sponse in M3 and why the quadratic model did not per- form as well as M2. Maximal growth rates would be expected to be reached at intermediate sizes (around 30–50-cm DBH), while the AGR peaked at around 140- cm DBH in M3 before decreasing. New data with larger tree diameters would be required to re-estimate the pa- rameters and compare M3 with M2. In any case, the monotonic growth trajectory found in this study was consistent with other studies on black and mountain beech (Coomes and Allen 2007; Richardson et al. 2011). Different factors could be relevant to explain this in- crease in growth with tree ontogeny.
The subtropical broadleaved forests showed higher regeneration rate of 211/ha than 122/ha for moist temperate coniferous zone. This can be attributed to high regeneration capability of Quercus, Olea and Punica stumps as well as a longer and favorable growing season in lower zone . An increasing regeneration trend was observed from forest margins towards center, which is significantly correlated with the decreasing grazing intensity away from settlements . Highest seedling concentrations (130-150/ha) were recorded in middle of foreststands as compared to the lower and upper forest margins (80-110/ha) because of maximum canopy coverage and lesser grazing. Upper forest margins showed poor seedling count due to harsh climatic conditions with increasing altitudes. The very initial forest margins showed higher seedling counts at some places, due to some of departmental plantation schemes .
Acknowledgments We are grateful to Brigitte Commarmot (Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL, Switzerland), Ruedi Iseli (Hasspacher und Iseli GmbH, Switzerland) and Mykola Korol (Ukrainian National Forestry University, Ukraine) for their support and coordination in the framework of this project, and to Sergiy Postoialkin, Anna Naumovych, Vasyl Naumovych (Kherson State University, Ukraine), Olexandr Ordynets (V.N. Karasin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine), Volodymyr Savchyn (Ukrainian National Forestry University, Ukraine), and employees of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve for assistance with field work. We also would like to special thank Silke Werth (Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL, Switzerland) for help with the R-program and Silvia Dingwall (Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL, Switzerland) for linguistic corrections to the text. We thank the anonymous referees who helped us to improve the manuscript substantially. This project was funded by the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI).
This study aims to develop stand density management diagrams (SDMDs) for pure even-aged high-foreststands of sweet chestnut in Portugal, defining the appropriate upper and lower limits of growing stock while considering the bio- logical, technological and economic objectives that are expected for these stands. The SDMDs were developed with data collected from high-foreststands in northern Portugal, which is the main representative area of these stands in the country. Data were collected from 23 pure even-aged permanent plots with re-measurement intervals of 4-10 years, 43 semi-permanent plots and 18 even-aged temporary plots; all plots were established in chestnut high-foreststands with a broad range of ages. SDMDs were constructed by simultaneously fitting four nonlinear equations relating stand variables using the full informa- tion likelihood technique. SDMDs for the estimation of stand total volume, stand stem biomass, stand total aboveground biomass, and carbon content in aboveground biomass are presented as bivariate graphs with dominant height on the x-axis and the number of trees per hectare on the y-axis (using loga- rithmic scale). A tool is made available to define an optimal range of stand density for a silviculture oriented to single-stem selection on a tree-by-tree basis, focusing management on the most valuable trees. This tool is aimed to support forest managers in the decision-making process, enabling them to schedule thinnings on the basis of the dominant height growth of the trees with the greatest potential (frame trees), maintaining an adequate growing stock and assessing the corresponding aboveground wood volume, biomass, carbon, and mean diameter breast height.
By analyzing the vegetation state of stands in management unit II Someș from Codrii Sătmarului Forest District, it was established that it was a precarious one, existing various destabilizing and limiting factors that cause great issues in the management of poplar stands. The total area affected by destabilizing and limiting factors is 62.2 ha, representing 60% (23 stands) of the management unit’s area. In addition to edaphic and hydrological limiting factors, analyses performed on poplar wood slices and fragments sectioned from these, respectively from affected shoots, and macroscopic and in detail observations showed the presence of symptoms characteristic to the attack of Agrilus sp. Moreover, saprophyte agents and pathogens from different genera were identified which occurred due to the weakening of the vegetation condition such as: Valsa sordida, Cytospora sp., Pleurotus ostreatus, Griphola sulfureea, which under these conditions have a high virulence and degree of attack. The social-economic and ecological value of the studied stands does not rise to the level of existing potential, being recommended the rebuilding and substitution of low production and temporary stands, in order to be in accordance to be in accordance to site quality, through the promotion of species that have favourable growing and development conditions in management unit II Someș.
Home range sizes of stoats worldwide vary from 2 to 254 ha (King, 1989). Nearly all the home ranges in our study were in the upper part of this range, with values similar to that recorded in Scottish farmland by Pounds (1981). M87’s range of 368 ha, measured over seven days in February 1992, appears to be the largest recorded over a short period outside the breeding season, although roaming males in Sweden covered much larger areas in spring (Erlinge and Sandell, 1986). Three males and one female in our study were eventually recovered outside their known ranges; one male had slightly different ranges in each of three months, and at least two females we tracked were recent immigrants. Together, these observations suggest that range size and location of stoats in this habitat may not be fixed over long periods. Stoats vary greatly in size across their geographic range (King, 1989) but there is no evidence for a relationship between body size and home range size: Irish stoats (which are similar in size to New Zealand stoats) had very much smaller home ranges (Sleeman, 1991) than those reported here. Vaisfeld (1972) found stoats in Russia had larger home ranges in forest (where rodents were scarce) than in meadows and scrub (where they were common), suggesting that food supply is a more important factor in determining home range size.
New Zealand beech (Nothofagus) forests are characterised by the honeydew secreted by the scale insect Ultracoelostoma spp. (Margarodidae: Homoptera) (Morales, 1991). Honeydew is a sugary exudate and is an important food resource for arthropods (Crozier, 1981; Boyd, 1987; Moller et al., 1987; Moller and Tilley, 1989; Harris, 1991; 1992). The density of honeydew varies throughout beech forests due to the response of scale insects to altitude, sunlight, tree age and tree species (Belton, 1978; Crozier, 1978a, b; 1981; Gaze and Clout, 1983; Kelly, 1990). Variation in honeydew density creates a patchy environment within a forest that may impact upon arthropod distributions. Didham (1993) investigated the role of honeydew in structuring canopy arthropod communities in a mixed forest at Blue Duck Reserve, Kaikoura, New Zealand. He found that arthropod species composition varied between trees infested with scale insects (honeydew trees) and those not infested (non-honeydew trees). Honeydew trees had more Mycetophilidae (Diptera) and Lepidoptera, whereas Blattodea, Thysanoptera and Dolichopodidae (Diptera) were more numerous in non-honeydew trees. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were equally abundant in both tree types.
ABSTRACT: The study analyses the chemical properties of the soil in open-canopy beechstands in relation to the pre- dominant species of ground vegetation. A hypothesis is examined whether the predominant ground vegetation species can represent in chemical terms different site conditions. Four localities were used for testing reed grass, myrtle blueberry, wavy hair grass and vegetation-free patches. Samples were taken from three organic horizons (litter (OL), fragmented (OF) and humus (OH)) and from the humic first mineral horizon. Significant differences between the variants were found only in the OL horizon, in which the vegetation species explained 65% of the variability in data. The OL horizon in the vegetation-free variant showed the significantly lowest pH/KCl and the lowest potassium content. The most distinct particular differences were observed between the blueberry variant and the grass variants. Although the studied variants of vegetation growing under the beech stand represented significant differences in the litter horizon chemistry, the effects on the other humus horizons and on the upper mineral horizon were marginal.