psychopathology in the prison sample. Increases in self-reported impulsivity were also related to an increased frequency of crack/cocaine use, problem gambling and a positive screen for personality disorder. These findings are again consistent with the large body of evidence supporting the association between self-reported impulsivity and substance use in both prisoners and general population samples that was reported in the introduction. However, while there was some evidence for associations between the behavioural measures of impulsivity and substance use these were less consistent than those with self reported impulsivity. Furthermore, behavioural measures of impulsivity not independent predictors of addictive behaviours or a personality disorder screen when regression models included both domains. Taken together these findings do not support the idea the behavioural measures capture any additional variance in impulsive behaviour in prisoners that is not already explained by a self- report measure.
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LCM is a novel drug that targets the slow, inactivated state of VGSCs to promote time spent in the refractory state and hence directly reduce neuronal firing rate. The slow inactivation state of neurones is induced under con- ditions of repetitive neuronal firing and/or under condi- tions of slight or sustained membrane depolarisation. This is likely to be the case for the OA condition because spon- taneous and enhanced evoked activity of joint nociceptors and dorsal horn neurones have been reported [10-17], as has sensitisation of spinal nociceptive withdrawal reflexes , indicating that the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model is associated with hyperexcitability. Given the afo- rementioned evidence for altered primary afferent activity in this model and the fact that blocking sensory fibre in- puts with local anaesthetics blocks OA pain , our aim was to study the effects of LCM on spinal neuronal acti- vity evoked from stimuli applied to the ipsilateral hind paws of rats using in vivo electrophysiological techniques. These techniques allow spinal nociceptive processing and central sensitisation to be studied experimentally and pro- vide information on suprathreshold responses, which are likely to equate to high levels of pain transmission as re- ported by patients, as compared with behavioural data on the basis of which the analgesic effect of drugs on thresh- old responses are generally measured. The effects of sys- temic administration of LCM on behavioural measures of hypersensitivity were also tested.
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Abstract Bribery involves individuals exchanging material benefits for a service of a public institution. To understand the process of bribery we need to integrate measures of individual behaviour and institutional attributes rather than rely exclusively on surveys of individual perceptions and experience or macro-level corruption indexes of national institutions. This paper integrates institutional and behavioural measures to show that where you live and who you are have independent influence on whether a person pays a bribe. The analysis of 76 nationwide Global Corruption Barometer surveys from six continents provides a date set in which both institutional and individual differences vary greatly. Multi-level multivariate logit analysis is used to test hypotheses about the influence of institutional context and individual contact with public services, socio-economic inequalities and roles, and conflicting behavioural and ethical norms. It finds that path-determined histories of early bureaucratization or colonia- lism have a major impact after controlling for individual differences. At the individual level, people who frequently make use of public services and perceive government as corrupt are more likely to pay bribes, while socio-economic inequality has no significant influence. While institutional history cannot be changed, changing the design of public services is something that contemporary governors could do to reduce the vulnerability of their citizens to bribery.
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The finding that response bias differed between the ears from affective classifications of brief melodies during dichotic presentation is perhaps the most interesting ear difference observed. That participants were more likely to respond “pleasant” when a stimulus was presented to the right ear is very similar to Marzoli and Tommasi’s (2009) finding that a request for a cigarette was more positively appraised when presented to the right ear than the left. This behavioural effect is distinct from sensitivity or reaction time measures which indicate that one hemisphere might be better able to recognise the emotional valence of a target in that it shows that the emotional response to a target varies depending on the ear to which it is presented. In both this study and Marzoli and Tommasi, stimuli presented to the right ear seemed to be appraised more positively. Thus, the ear of presentation might not only enhance the ease with which certain emotions are processed but influence the valence of the emotion experienced. However, this effect was only evident from the affective appraisal of brief melodies presented dichotically. Thus, affective stimuli might be required to be brief and be presented dichotically to detect such effects.
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Reduced brain activation in MTL and frontal regions has been previously reported using explicit memory tasks in AD [27,57-60] and MCI [61,62]. However, the effects of emotional scenes on incidental learning in MCI and AD have not been thoroughly investigated using fMRI. As for the behavioural measures, the AD group showed the most impaired pattern of functional activation and together with the MCI group, they both showed no behavioural benefit derived from the emo- tional content of the stimuli. Potential accounts for these results were discussed above. An additional account for this functional impairment could be a poor encoding of emotional information. It might be possible that AD and MCI patients did not perceive the emotional content of the pictures as HC did. In fact, we screened this hypoth- esis in a subgroup of participants (5 HC, 7 MCI and 3 AD patients b ) which were asked to rate the images after the post-scan test as emotional or non-emotional. AD rated as emotional only 37% of the scenes presented within this category whereas they rated as neutral 84% of the neutral scenes. MCI patients rated as emotional 60% of the scenes and neutral 66.9%. HC rated as emo- tional 75.5% and neutral 77.8%. However, the perceptual impairment observed in this small group of patients did not hold during the functional assessment of the whole group. As we suggested above, the subtle difference across the emotional categories for some of the images chosen for the present study may account for the lack of a differential impact on functional activation. In fact, correlation analyses with behavioural and neuroimaging data showed that the relation between MTL activation and successful performance in the post-scan test across the two set of images was significant. An alternative ex- planation for the current findings could be that MTL regions are relevant to the overall episodic memory component of the current task but less so to its
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There were no group differences on neural measures of im- pulsivity, nor any of the behavioural measures except for the Kirby delay discounting task. One explanation would be that most of our behavioural and neural measures assess state im- pulsivity, which undergoes change during and immediately after dependence, whilst self-report measures (together with the Kirby task) assess trait impulsivity that is relatively imper- vious to such changes. Whilst this conclusion is intuitively appealing, it is at odds with evidence of increased SST impul- sivity in siblings of stimulant dependent individuals (Ersche et al. 2011) implicating behavioural impulsivity as an endophenotypic trait. It is also important to note that in the present study, length of abstinence was related to BIS-11 Non- Planning Impulsivity, UPPS-P Negative Urgency and Premeditation, as well as BIS/BAS Fun within the alcohol AbD group. Kirby discounting scores were also seen to de- crease with length of abstinence within the polydrug AbD group. Thus self-reported (and Kirby discounting) impulsivity appear to decrease with extended abstinence, a pattern not
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Many behavioural measures, such as the time devoted to a particular behavioural pattern, represent, probably, a gross outcome of numerous behavioural decisions and therefore the argument of the central limit theorem underpins the normality assumption. Unlike this, the latency reflects a single decision to evoke particular behaviour, even though the underlying mechanisms may be very complex. Therefore, a random decision- making process similar to radioactive decay (when the event may occur at any time with some constant probability) would result in an exponential distribution of the
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Numerous studies have found that children from low-SES back- grounds show higher prevalence rates or mean symptom counts of behavioural problems (Amone-P'Olak, Burger, Huisman, Oldehinkel, & Ormel, 2011; Costello, Compton, Keeler, & Angold, 2003). However, this relationship between SES indicators and antisocial behaviour mea- sures has not always been reported and its strength has substantially varied across studies. Previous reviews have addressed the relationship between SES and child development (Bradley & Corwyn, 2002) and one other study has conducted a meta-analytic review (Letourneau, Duffet- Leger, Levac, Watson, & Young-Morris, 2013). This meta-analysis only included studies that employed composite measures of SES, such as the Hollingshead's Index (Hollingshead, 1975), and therefore excluded many studies that relied on a single SES indicator, such as family income or parental education. Consequently the review identi ﬁ ed only eight studies, all addressing aggression, and reported overall a small signi ﬁ - cant relationship with SES (Hedges's g = .06). To date, therefore, a sys- tematic and comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between SES and antisocial behaviour that includes all SES indices and can address the heterogeneity in antisocial behaviour has not been con- ducted. Here we summarise ﬁ ndings concerning the relationship be- tween SES and child and adolescent antisocial behaviour, addressing both the broad antisocial construct and more speci ﬁ c antisocial sub- types. Given the comprehensive nature of this meta-analysis, heteroge- neity within the results is expected. Therefore, certain study and sample
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Response times and error rates were assessed for responses to both the Dilemma Stage and Probe Stage of the Self/Other Differentiation Task, to assess differentiation in performance (i.e., speed and accuracy) between ‘Self’ and ‘Other’ oriented trials. Prior to analysis, data was screened for outliers in overall reaction times by removing response times that were outside of three standard deviations from the overall reaction time mean. At both the Dilemma and Probe Stage, response times were time-locked to the onset of the three answer image options (i.e., once a participant was able to provide a response). Responses to the dilemma question were analysed using a paired samples t- test, comparing responses to ‘self’ and ‘other’ oriented dilemmas. Responses to the probe question were analysed by taking into account whether there was a shift of perspective between Dilemma Type and Probe Type. For trials in which there was no perspective shift, both the Dilemma and Probe addressed either the self (Self-Self) or the other (Other-Other). For trials in which there was a perspective shift between Dilemma and Probe stages, the shift could be from either ‘self’ at the dilemma stage to ‘other’ at probe stage (Self-Other), or from ‘other’ to ‘self’ (Other-Self). To analyse the probe question responses, a 2 (Perspective Shift: No Shift vs. Shift) x 2 (Contents: Expected vs. Unexpected) x 2 (Probe: Self vs. Other) Repeated-Measures ANOVA was conducted.
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performance with the TBI, and allowances were often not made. If left unresolved, behavioural problems could lead to the child being formally disciplined by school- teachers. Teachers gave the following examples of difficult children: “A is very difficult to cope with in class, argues, is late, refuses to work, inappropriate behaviour, singing, laughing, loud, mood swings”; “B can be very disruptive and aggressive, he will attack other pupils without provocation”; “C can be disruptive, calling out, argumentative; he finds it difficult to accept praise or help”, “D is disruptive, lacks co-operation, is
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Right ventromedial prefrontal cortex is strongly associ- ated with impulsive control (Boes et al. 2009), but extra- frontal brain regions, such as the amygdale are also involved in impulsive control (Bechara 2005); our data are consistent with these earlier findings. The planning, selection and execution of voluntary actions from among several alternatives is considered a complex behaviour and EF may play an important role in it. A model of the neural circuitry involved in selecting and executing ac- tions, based on behavioural and electrophysiological data from various response inhibition paradigms, has been pro- posed. This model implies the participation of sub-cortical structures, such as the basal ganglia in a frontal inferior
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Investigations into the contribution of behavioural regulation to the vulnerability to bipolar disorder, in the form of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems, have been limited by cross-sectional designs and the focus on the role of BAS sensitivity rather than BAS dysregulation in determining bipolar-risk. This study investigated the utility of the DYS self- report measure of BAS dysregulation, and the potential interactive effects of measures of behavioural inhibition (BIS) and activation (BAS) on prospective bipolar-vulnerability in an analogue sample. DYS was the strongest predictor of bipolar-vulnerability (as measured by the MDQ) at six months compared to an observed interaction between BAS Fun Seeking and BIS scores. These results provide further support for the BAS Dysregulation hypothesis, rather than the BAS sensitivity approach, as bipolar-vulnerability appears to be associated with a weakly regulated behavioural engagement system towards environmental stimuli [15,17]. The observed BAS Fun Seeking by BIS interaction effect is similar in nature to those noted in clinical bipolar samples , and suggests a potential dysfunctional compensatory mechanism between the impulsive pursuit of pleasure-associated rewards (BAS Fun Seeking) and the deactivation of behaviour (BIS). However, the lack of main effects of the BAS
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We consider a two-lane road section with an additional lane reserved for public transport, where a construction site is installed across both main lanes, see Figure 4. During the time of the road closure, vehicles are permitted to use the public transport lane as indicated by customized road signs. We assume that only a fraction of the AVs in the scenario can process the information of these signs and the others request a control transition in the absence of traffic management measures, i.e. if no further information is provided. For the simulations presented here we assumed that the rate of automated passages would increase from 25 to 75 percent if information about the usability of the bus lane is regularly broadcasted to all AVs. That means in the scenario without traffic management, we assumed that 75 percent of all AVs undertake a downwards transition, and that in presence of traffic management this rate would drop to 25 percent.
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Metamemory refers to the self-reported expectations and beliefs that people hold about their memory and strategies they might use to improve remembering under different memory loads (Craik, Anderson, Kerr, & Li, 1995). It is a relatively recent concept which has been implicated as a factor in memory aging. According to Light (1991), four hypotheses accounting for reports of lowered memory efficiency in older adults have received the most attention in metamemory research- -incorrect beliefs about the nature of memory, incorrect beliefs about strategies appropriate for different tasks, less spontaneous use of suitable memory strategies, and less effective self-monitoring of encoding and retrieval processes. While mixed results have been obtained in research, metamemory concepts have not been shown to cause age differences in actual memory performance (Craik et aI. , 1996; Light, 1991). However, the concept remains relevant in clinical work with older adults since self-reported concerns about memory are frequent but often not reflected in poor performance on memory tests (Bolla, Lingren, Bonaccorsy, & Bleecker, 1991; Ponds & Jolles, 1996). Furthermore, numerous self-report questionnaires have been produced to measure beliefs about memory and memory abilities. These are often unreliable and wrongly substituted for measures of memory performance (Craik et aI., 1996).
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An economic assessment of the carbon neutral strategy is the key to implementation. Mining companies are particularly drawn to the ‘bottom line’ when making investment decisions and only sound financial analysis will facilitate substantial carbon neutral expenditure. LEVI© significantly includes a net present cost (NPC) analysis of all such investment and belies the myth that carbon neutral mine site accommodation cannot be achieved. The paper then presents a carbon accounting methodology of the case study mine site village and set out the results and overall carbon emissions the village is responsible for. This life cycle analysis (LCA) is done from cradle to gate in terms of LCA terminology and represents the manufacture, construction, installation and operation. Energy efficiencies and behavioural changes are then applied and estimated as to their carbon reductive effect on the total carbon, followed by verifiable renewable energy offsets. These offsets are substantiated by a vigorous renewable energy analysis and selection supported by an NPC analysis. An optimum renewable energy system (RE) is then selected (best value for money) and its carbon reducing effect over the current power system calculated. This amount, together with that produced by energy efficiencies and behavioural changes, makes a total carbon reduction and is annualised.
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potential confounding variables (metabolic rate, stimulant tolerance, caffeine usage). As participants engaged with the task repeatedly, some degree of practice effects were suspected. Consequentially, baseline measures were taken to reduce their influence. Additionally, a preliminary mixed model analysis suggested that whilst practice effects had occurred, they did not supersede the effects of drug condition. This approach was chosen rather than incorporating order into the analysis as a between subjects variable because the study was already slightly underpowered due to sample size. As some practice effects were observed, future research may wish to carefully consider the susceptibility of their task to practice effects and choose a design accordingly.
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Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting drug that is becoming more commonly used for off- label for attentional enhancement in healthy individuals despite conflicting evidence to support this. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on behavioural (reaction time & accuracy) and ERP (N1 amplitude) measures of the attentional alerting and orienting networks and also investigate any sex differences associated with these effects. The final sample consisted of 14 females and 22 males who were all healthy and met the screening criteria. Each participant completed two sessions differing by drug condition (200mg modafinil or placebo). The Attentional Network Task was used to assess the effects on both the alerting and orienting network and this task was completed at baseline and at 2.5 hours post-ingestion. As expected, reaction time decreased and N1 amplitude increased as cues became more informative. There was a small enhancement of the alerting network demonstrated by a significant decrease in reaction time from baseline to post-ingestion for central cues in the modafinil condition but not placebo. There was a small significant
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Pre-intervention behavioural affective empathy tasks were validated against existing personality trait assessments. Replicating previous research (Ali et al. 2009; Wai and Tiliopoulos 2012), primary psychopathy was negatively asso- ciated with self-reported valence towards positive faces and positively related to self-reported valence towards negative faces. Wai and Tiliopoulos (2012) argue that the presentation of facial displays of emotion using the SAM (Bradley and Lang 1994) may provide a more accurate measure of affective empathy than trait questionnaires. They argue that picturing another ’ s emotions generates an emotional contagion. Subsequently, the way in which an individual then feels (neg- atively or positively) about this display of emotion is an em- pathic measure derived from the appropriateness of that reac- tion (Wai and Tiliopoulos 2012). The finding that individuals scoring high in primary psychopathy demonstrate ‘… inap- propriate responding’ to sad and happy faces (Wai and Tiliopoulos 2012, p. 797) reflects a deficit in this empathic contagion. The present experiment also extends these find- ings, having observed the opposite trend in individuals scor- ing high in traits negatively correlated with the Dark Triad, including Honesty-Humility, Empathic Concern, and Internalisation. In these cases, emotional responses to facial displays of emotion were appropriately aligned, with happy faces motivating self-reported positive valence and sad faces motivating negative valence.
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The main aim of this study was to investigate employees’ attitudes and potential travel behaviour responses to measures to deal with parking in the workplace. A web-based questionnaire was used to elicit responses from Staff at a university in Dublin, TCD. The web-link to the questionnaire was emailed to all staff (4621 employees) having a college email address, although the email made it clear that the survey was intended for staff that either currently parked at work, had done so in the past, or planned to do so in the near future. It is difficult to estimate how many employees were eligible to complete the questionnaire, as statistics on modes of travel to work are not available. However, there are a total of 457 parking spaces at the college and 1610 parking permits have been issued. The survey was conducted over a one-week period from 27 th May – June 2 nd 2004. A summary of the questionnaire is presented in Appendix 1.
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bility to register for one of 12experimental sessions. They were requested to complete an online version of the ATQ (Rothbart et al., 2000) to finalize their registration. Upon arrival for the experiment participants signed an informed consent form and filled out the LOC scale (Rotter, 1966) and the TCI (Duijsens et al., 2000). Due to computer failure during the experiment, we lost behavioural data of 2 participants. ATQ data was incomplete for another 9 participants. Analysis was performed on 78 participants. The experimental tasks (explained below) were programmed in Visual Basic and presented on a 17" desktop screen. Left mouse clicking was the only way to respond during the tasks. The order of presentation of the tasks was fixed. Time discounting preceded probabilistic reversal learning because impulse control is prone to the depletory effect of a previously demanding task (Joireman, Balliet, Sprott, Spangenberg, & Schultz, 2008). A pilot study (n = 8) showed that the probabilistic reversal learning task was perceived as more difficult and more attentionally demanding than the time discounting task. At the end of the experiment, participants were paid in truth the money earned during the time discounting task (see below), plus a €5 show-up fee. The entire session lasted 2 hours.
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