It is suggested that the new scale could be developed when a lack of studies had taken place that related to the particular current research topic (Hair et al., 2013). Previous studies on the theme of emergency fund have mainly adopted life-cycle hypotheses and the precautionary saving motive theories. Some factors, such as income and age, are becoming more important in determining the adequacy of emergency fund holding. As such, the behavioural perspective requires more focus in order to understand the actual financial behaviours (Xiao, Ford & Kim, 2011). Thus, this research adopted factors from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as part of the conceptual framework. Anong & Fisher (2013) argued that their study used secondary data, which limits the measurement of variables when using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. They also suggested that the future research could also involve experimental or primary behavioural research to study its effects in consumer decision-making and implementation. The attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were tested as the predictors in this research model. The intention 7 to perform emergency fund behaviour was treated as mediating 8 variable in this research. In addition, this research also included an additional factor: propensity to plan as predictor variable in the model. The discussion on the theory of planned behaviour is as mentioned in Section 184.108.40.206 previously.
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Kohli and Jaworski (1993) developed MARKOR method as a tool for measuring market orientation from behavioural perspective. It includes three components – generation of market information, dissemination of information and responsiveness capacity with 20 items (detailed statements can be seen in Results). The MARKOR method appears to be able to gain information about specific behavioural reactions of business on critical aspects of a market such as competition, customers, regulation, social and macroeconomic forces (Day and Wensley, 1988; Jaworski and Kohli, 1993; Kohli, Jaworski, Kumar, 1993). Questionnaire contains Likert-scales items which have positive or negative character. Negative formulation is used as a control tool for sustaining attention of respondent. We used 7-point Likert-scale items and followed the studies of several authors (Narver, Slater, 1990; Pitt a kol., 1996; Puledran a kol., 2003; Hooley a kol., 2003). Moreover, we slightly modified some items on the basis of qualitative pre-research realized with marketing managers of businesses.
Citation: Rzewuska, M., Charani, E., Clarkson, J. E., Davey, P., Duncan, E. M., Francis, J. ORCID: 0000-0001-5784-8895, Gillies, K., Kern, W. V., Lorencatto, F., Marwick, C. A., McEwen, J., Möhler, R., Morris, A., Ramsay, C. R., Van Katwyk, S. R., Skodvin, B., Smith, I., Suh, K. N., Grimshaw, J. M. and JPIAMR (Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance, (2018). Prioritising research areas for antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals: a behavioural perspective consensus paper. Clinical Microbiology Infection, doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2018.08.020
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Issue 1 can be partially addressed when using a tool. As mentioned previously, the tool displays the call stack that has led to a given method and provides a ‘backwards’ but- ton to skip back to the previous method (see figure 5). The solution is only partial, because a mental abstraction of the functionality produced by the chain of calls is needed. Is- sue 2 clearly needs to be addressed and is an important area of future work. Issue 3 is another feature that could be pro- vided by tool support. Issue 4 needs to be taken into account by any static object-oriented comprehension approach. Dif- ferent objects of the same type may have different states. This is a clear challenge when trying to understand the code from the dynamic perspective and must be taken into ac- count when addressing issue 2.
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Assessing individual behaviour through Questionnaire survey is a well adopted approach in behavioural sciences research. A large number of researchers adopt this approach to identify the significance of several cognitive, emotional and other factors on individual behaviour. Nagy and Obenberger(1994), Tomola Marshal obamuyi(2013) have identified 34 contextual factors grouped into 5 categories such as Personal and Financial needs, Accounting information, Neutral information, Firm image and Advocate recommendations have an influence on individual investor behaviour.Dimitrios I.Maditinos, ZeljkoSevic, Nikolas G.Theriou(2007) concluded that individual investors rely more on news papers/ media and noise in the market when making their investment decisions, while professional investors rely more on fundamental and technical analysis and less on portfolio analysis.
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The paper examined the relationship between individual background (sex, age and social class) and the level of awareness, knowledge and practices of solid waste management in Port- Harcourt city residents. It defines solid waste management as the process of collecting, storing, treatment and disposal of solid wastes in such a way that they are harmless to humans, plants, animals, the ecology and the environment generally. The objective of this research is to ascertain the relationship between individual background (sex, age and social class) and the level of awareness, knowledge and practices of solid waste management in Port-Harcourt city residents. The research question addressed the extent of relationship between individual background (sex, age and social class) and the level of awareness, knowledge and practices of solid waste management in Port-Harcourt city residents. This research is based on Ajzen (1991) theory of planned behaviour which states that attitude towards behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control, has influence in predicting the behavioural intention and actual behaviour of individuals when participatory decisions are voluntary and under an individual control. The research assumes that the background (sex, age and social class) of Port-Harcourt city residents influences their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control thus determining the behavioural intention/actual behaviour i.e. level of awareness, knowledge and practices of solid waste management. 800 Port-Harcourt city residents were randomly surveyed from the two local government areas of the city (Port-Harcourt city and Obio/Akpor LGAs) using structured questionnaire. Data collected were subjected to percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test and chi-square statistical analyses. Findings revealed that Port-Harcourt city residents
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Abstract- Cloud computing has emerged as a technological paradigm to reduce Information Technology costs, foster collaboration while increasing productivity, availability, reliability, flexibility and minimizing response times. Despite cloud computing offering numerous benefits to the health sector, there are only few successful implementations. Adoption is slower in healthcare sector compared to other industries. Furthermore, there is little concerning the adoption and benefits of cloud computing in Kenyan healthcare sector. This study integrated the Technological Acceptance Model, Technology-Organization- Environment model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour to provide a richer theoretical lens for assessing factors affecting cloud adoption. This study sought to determine the influence of technological, organisational and behavioural contexts in cloud computing adoption. The target population for this study were 114 healthcare personnel (facility in-charges and health records and information officers) in Public hospitals. The study employed a cross sectional survey in one-time data collection using questionnaires from sampled personnel. Logistic regression was used to establish the correlation between the projected factors and adoption of cloud computing, and to show the strength of this relationship. The cloud computing adoption prevalence was at 58% among public hospitals. In terms of cloud computing service models among adopters, Software-as-a-Service was at 100%, followed by Platform-as-a-Service at 5% while none had implemented Infrastructure–as-a-Service. The study found out that technological readiness, service quality, expert scarcity, top management support, firm size, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and social influence have a significant effect on cloud computing adoption. The findings from this study will help healthcare organisations to better understand what affects cloud computing adoption and to guide them in the adoption process. Cloud computing providers can also use the findings of this work to address areas of concern thereby offering products and services that have the confidence of healthcare institutions in Kenya.
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Consistent with values and attitudes, safety needs are the most cited motives for saving. Among the reasons given for saving for security needs, unforeseen circumstances, emergencies and medical coverage dominate the responses. A related study by Radipotsane (2006) also concluded that people save in order to build up reserves for unforeseen circumstances. The current study has also indicated that there is a link between personal values and motives for saving, which reinforces the need to study the predictors of saving behaviour drawing insight from a comprehensive framework. While some economic, demographic and socio-cultural factors were perceived as determinants of saving decisions, psychological and marketing factors were more dominant. The study indicated that individuals felt that saving is important but most could not save or save less because of numerous constraints such as low income, lack of financial knowledge, lack personal discipline, high levels of personal consumption, and lack of marketing communication. Therefore, this study provides unique findings because it has revealed the need for rigorous investigations into the role of psychological and marketing factors on saving behaviour. This will help to extend the literature that is predominately drawing insights from the economic perspective. This study also offers an extensive framework of saving behaviour, which integrates a range of factors from the economic, socio-psychological and marketing perspectives, which can be tested quantitatively in further studies.
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Abstract: The present research investigates the behavioural perspective of consumers in terms of satisfaction and behaviour intention towards the Games marketplace technology platform (GMTP). Two behavioural theories, namely the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and Expectation Confirmation Theory (ECT), were utilised as the development model. The model was tested to respondents in the developing country. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used as the analysis tool. A total of 8 hypotheses were developed. The variables were instrumented through the questionnaire, and purposive sampling method was conducted. The result projects the respondents’ behaviour in capturing their perceived towards the games marketplace. Four out of eight hypotheses were accepted. The Performance Expectancy has the most dominant value to Satisfaction, while Satisfaction has the direct dominant influence on Behavior Intention. Several discussions on theoretical and practical implications were noted.
2223 Figure 4. The graphical Euclidian representation corresponds to data given by Table 1 and Table 2. The blue dots and their approximate convexifiction are drawn from Table 2. The red ones correspond to Table 1. The graphical representation shows a clear distinction be- tween highly trained (red) and a healthy individual (blue) with respect to stress and work load. This visualised by the shift to higher Hurst exponent indicating lower complexity of behavioural readings for the highly trained individual. The data analysed were recorded during a typical day for both subjects. The numbers refer to sequential order of the two hours periods into which the fifteen hours of recordings are split correspondingly to segmentation such as shown at Figure 1.
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2.2 Balanced scorecard questionnaire: in order to evaluate the balanced scorecard of academic leadership, we used this questionnaire by which 5 micro scales of Financial perspective, Customers Perspective, Internal processes Perspective, Learning and growth Perspective, and Environmental Perspective are assessed as 5 values Likert scale. Been prepared balanced performance measure after reviewing the Arab Studies in this area to be close to the field of application and fit with the surrounding circumstances, and that with the help professors in the field of business management, accounting, statistics, Internal consistency ofلbalanced scorecard were obtained in a pilot study using Cronbach’s alpha as: α = 0.97.
On a theoretical basis, this thesis examines that startups should be incorporated into the cor- porate foresight activities of a firm. Firstly, it investigates from the view of different corporate foresight perspectives how they contribute to corporate foresight and how startups might contribute within each perspective. Secondly, as innovations are inherently important for cor- porate foresight, potential sources of innovation, as well as environmental information, are in- vestigated in general, and more specifically the role of startups as a valuable source for innovations is examined on a theoretical basis. Thirdly, particular advantages and drawbacks of startups over incumbent firms and the benefits of a collaboration between the both are out- lined, describing in detail what makes startups valuable for incumbent firms. Fourthly, the sci- entific work of a specific literature stream on the opportunity, technology, and innovation dis- covery is examined, outlining different methodological approaches on how opportunities, technologies, or innovations can be detected. Theoretically, the thesis contributes to theory and practice by closing the identified gap between the different research streams from a theo- retical perspective and outlines that there is a need to incorporate startups more actively into the corporate foresight activities. Moreover, it shows the requirement for a more thorough methodological approach to identify startups.
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While the associative model is the standard account of drug addic- tions, this is not the case for behavioural addictions. As the following two sections will highlight, an individual difference approach to behav- ioural addiction tends to be the most common within the research liter- ature. Gambling however does have a signi ﬁ cant associative learning research base (Brown, 1987; Dickerson, 1979; Ghezzi, Wilson, & Porter, 2006; Haw, 2008), following Skinner's (1953) analysis of slot machines. Like drug addictions, these have attempted to model differ- ent aspects of gambling play. A signi ﬁ cant research effort has focused on how contextual stimuli drive preferences in equivalent concurrent slot machines (Nastally, Dixon, & Jackson, 2010; Zlomke & Dixon, 2006). Others have focused on the effect of different types of stimulus, such as near misses (Daly et al., 2014; Ghezzi et al., 2006; Reid, 1986) (van Holst, Chase, & Clark, 2014), big wins (Kassinove & Schare, 2001), losses disguised as wins (Dixon, Harrigan, Sandhu, Collins, & Fugelsang, 2010), or the structural features of gambling games (Grif ﬁ ths & Auer, 2013) and their effect on behaviour. Many of these studies have looked at different aspects of gambling, such as machine preference (Dymond, McCann, Grif ﬁ ths, Cox, & Crocker, 2012), rate of gambling (Dixon et al., 2010), post reinforcement pauses (Delfabbro & Wine ﬁ eld, 1999), latencies between gambles (James, O'Malley, & Tunney, in press), ﬁ xed interval schedules in betting (Dickerson, 1979), the random ratio schedule of reinforcement (Crossman, Bonem, & Phelps, 1987; Haw, 2008; Hurlburt, Knapp, & Knowles, 1980) and perseverance during extinction (James, O'Malley, & Tunney, 2016). Similar to drug addictions, these have also looked at the role of different types of reinforcement in addictive gambling and changes in behavioural processes (Horsley, Osborne, & Wells, 2012). The concept that different types of reinforcement drive distinct subtypes of gambler is central to models of problem gambling (Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002; Sharpe, 2002). Nonetheless, it has been argued that the predominant approach to gambling research focuses on individual differences be- tween recreational ( ‘ normal ’ ) and ‘ problem ’ gamblers (Cassidy, 2014). The behavioural literature on gambling is still less developed than sub- stance addictions. Animal models of gambling are still in their infancy (Winstanley & Clark, 2016), and new types of reinforcement are still being discovered (Dixon et al., 2010). There is also a lack of betting relat- ed analysis in this ﬁ eld, some notable instances excepted (Dickerson, 1979; McCrea & Hirt, 2009).
It is predicted that trials which require participants to adopt the ‘Other’ perspective will be significantly slower and less accurate than trials in which the ‘Self’ perspective is required, supporting the idea that the ‘self’ is processed first, or more automatically, before the ‘other’ perspective is considered – or even that these two capacities are entirely dissociable, independently relying on different brain regions, with ‘other’ processing more demanding than ‘self’ processing, requiring extra cognitive resources that may lead to longer and more error prone processing. It is hypothesised that trials in which Perspective-Shifting is required (Other-to-Self/Self-to-Other) will be more difficult than those in which no perspective-shift is required (Self-to-Self/Other-to-Other), requiring more cognitive effort to switch to a different perspective than to maintain a perspective in no-shift trials. Importantly, it would be expected that trials in which a participant is required to switch from Self-to-Other would be significantly slower and more error prone than trials in which they are required to switch from Other-to-Self, as, in the latter, the ‘Self’ will have been processed egocentrically, to act as a ‘stem’ for understanding the ‘Other’ perspective, whereas in the former, there will have been no need to engage in any extra cognitive processing until explicitly required to do so at the probe stage.
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In support of achieving their consumer and financial goals, the Center has developed numerous goals within the operational perspective. For example, in support of their consumer services goals, the Center has attempted to deepen and improve its relationship with consumers and their families by making the public aware of available services; by making services accessible to individuals with developmental disabilities; and, making certain the staff within the Center is accessible. Further, the Center knows that to reach its consumer goals as well as to improve productivity, it must excel in its operational processes. Specifically, the Center has attempted to provide operational excellence by developing systems to effectively and efficiently deliver services in the natural environment; by developing a comprehensive information system; by insuring that people are served in a timely fashion; by establishing measures and analyzing data on outcomes to continually improve services; by meeting and exceeding regulatory requirements; and, by creating a safe and secure environment for consumers, employees and visitors. The Center also has attempted to identify and implement new service opportunities for individuals with disabilities in an effort to grow its revenue base. Last, by creating a positive image and being actively involved in the community, the Center knows it will create long-term benefits necessary to achieve its goals.
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required of DMs can be onerous. This may be because the judgements relate to a genuinely contentious task (cf. trade-offs between costs and averted radiation doses), or because DMs may find it hard to understand and relate to the questions and tools used (cf. the elicitation of utility functions for life-expectancy, deaths averted, etc. or the use of disaggregate comparisons in general). There is a fundamental question (see e.g. Harrison 1992) about the precision of elicitation methods: whether we could meaningfully elicit point estimates – a common practice in MCDA for nuclear emergency management – or whether instead interval responses is the best possible. Given the evidence reported above, one may indeed raise questions about the validity of such responses, especially in regards to judgements that implicitly place a value on life. The use of incomplete (preference) information can be of obvious help: use can be made only of “cognitively valid” (Larichev 1992) responses, i.e. to questions which the DM is considered able (or reports being able) to understand and relate to; alternatively, the elicitation of ranges can be pursued instead of point estimates. We shall discuss later and in more detail how this may be performed in nuclear emergency decision support and provide an illustrative example. Furthermore, evidence from Behavioural Economics suggests that use of incomplete preference information may also help in avoiding biases. Hey et al. (2009) conduct an experimental study to compare the combined effect of bias and noise using different elicitation methods: pairwise choices (incomplete information) and a number of mechanisms for certainty- equivalent elicitation (point estimates). Their results indicate that pairwise choices are in most cases superior to the precise elicitation mechanisms, “having in general smaller noise and no significant bias”. Our view is that while the use of models relying on incomplete information cannot altogether avoid biases, it may be able to do so partially: if a precise elicitation mode (e.g. eliciting a value for life) subsumes the information conveyed by one using incomplete information (e.g. eliciting bounds on the value for life), one might reasonably expect that the latter should be no more prone to bias than its precise counterpart. In any case, the use of incomplete information can be an alternative to de-biasing techniques: if certain responses are (experimentally) found to or suspected to be biased, then the analysis can proceed utilising only partial (hence incomplete) preference information.
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Following the collection of qualitative data, the researcher’s initial conceptions of each interview were noted. The interviews were later transcribed and analysed. When conducting IPA research, Smith et al. (2009) highlight the importance of engaging in an in- depth analysis which reflects the underlying tenets of IPA: phenomenology, hermeneutics and idiography. Smith et al. (2009) propose that ‘the essence of IPA lies in its analytic focus…that focus directs our attention towards our participants’ attempts to make sense of their experiences’ (p. 79). The researcher focuses upon each participant individually, carrying out an in depth interpretative phenomenological analysis of one transcript at a time, so as to gain an ‘insider perspective’. This focus on individual transcripts highlights IPA’s commitment to the idiographic. In addition, researchers are encouraged to be reflexive during the research process, noting down any presuppositions in order to promote transparency. This also relates to the concept of the double hermeneutic, ensuring that clarity is provided around how the researcher made sense of participants’ sense making. The authors provide guidelines to complete this process; these were adhered to in this study. These steps of analysis are summarised in Appendix 17.
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behaviours which greatly differ in terms of individual-level triggers (antecedents) and outcomes (consequents). More research is needed to develop this argument further in the context of behavioural operations; particularly to understand whether these three knowledge sharing behaviours play a different role in affecting innovation and/or are triggered by distinct factors. Second, the role of knowledge assets in eliciting knowledge sharing and individual innovation remains unclear. Knowledge assets represent the knowledge, skills and abilities that are available to the individual via codified procedures, databases and evidence-bases (organizational capital) and via the tacit knowledge accessed through social interactions with coworkers, or clients (social capital) (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998; Bontis, 2001). Empirical evidence is needed to understand whether and how these knowledge assets increase employees’ engagement in knowledge sharing behaviours and in the innovation of current operations. Clarifying the mechanisms linking knowledge assets to knowledge sharing behaviours and individual innovation can help operations managers to better engage employees in innovating daily operations. Against this background, our study develops an empirical model to test whether different knowledge sharing behaviours– i.e. sharing best practices, sharing mistakes and seeking feedbacks–(1) differently affect employees’ innovative work behaviours, and (2) are promoted and enabled by different types of knowledge assets.
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This first example of judicial practice not only demonstrates the manner in which judicial decisions can evidence shortfalls in ideational collegiality but can also suggest defects in the operation of the formal collegial process. In April 2016, Trial Chamber V(A) issued a decision at the request of the defence determining whether – owing to the gradual collapse in the Prosecution case due to ongoing difficulties in securing documentary evidence and witness testimony – the proceedings against defendants Samuel Ruto and Joshua Sang should be terminated. 39 The decision was the latest in of six years’ worth of investigations and proceedings into the 2008 post-election violence in Kenya; proceedings that were shrouded in intense political and legal controversy that tested the relationship between the ICC and African Union states to the limits. During this period, actors hostile to the investigation and prosecution of the defendants in this case and the other arising out of the Kenya situation (namely, that against Uhuru Kenyatta, now President of Kenya) engaged in witness intimidation and bribery. Thus, irrespective of the standpoint adopted – whether in favour of the Court’s proceedings in the Kenya situation or against – the credibility of the Court was at this point under considerable pressure. Faced with this, from the perspective of preserving what was left of judicial and institutional validity in respect of the Kenya situation, the conviction with which the Chamber addressed the issue before it was of great importance.
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Personal characteristics and social factors strongly modulate the correspondence between behaviour and professed attitudes (Tarrant and Cordell 1997; Olli et al. 2001). Although the Campbell paradigm offers a perspective on individuals’ propensity to implement their pro-environmental attitude in the face of varying levels of behavioural costs and difficulty, it is unable to explain the circumstances that define the situational thresholds for engagement in specific environmental actions. As discussed in the introduction to this article, environmentally-damaging behaviours have traditionally been proscribed in Nigeria, and other parts of Africa, by social mechanisms (e.g., taboos). However, these mechanisms have become less effective as ever greater numbers of Nigerians abandon cultural beliefs that support environmental protection in favour of non-indigenous belief systems (Babalola et al. 2014). The upsurge in unsustainable practices following the decline of these social mechanisms arguably reflects a general lack of intrinsic commitment to the goal of environmental protection. Poor knowledge of environmental problems, particularly climate change, may also be a significant barrier to engagement in appropriate pro-environmental behaviours (Ajaps and McLellan 2015). A recent study revealed that over two-thirds of adults in several African countries, including Nigeria, have no awareness of climate change (Lee et al. 2015). Some authors have reported a positive link between environmental knowledge and engagement in pro-environmental behaviours in Nigeria (Ajaps and McLellan 2015). On this basis, it seems likely that raising public awareness of climate change and appropriate behavioural responses may prove to be an effective strategy for promoting pro-environmental attitudes and behaviour.
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