First, the findings demonstrated that pre-service teachers’ scientific epistemological beliefs were positively related to their goal orientations. In scientific epistemological beliefs, higher scores indicated tendency toward traditional (positivist) science view and lower scores indicated tendency of constructivist (non-traditional) view of science. Previously, epistemological beliefs have been found to antecede mastery goals and performance (approach and avoidance) goals (Bråten & Strømsø, 2004; 2006; Kizilgunes, Tekkaya, & Sungur, 2009; Mason, Boscolo, Tornatora, & Ronconi, 2013; Phan, 2009). The results of this study were consistent with the previous findings in a domain specific epistemological beliefs and 2X2 goal orientation framework. Specifically, the impact of traditional scientific view was more significant over mastery-approach goals and followed by mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals respectively. Mastery goals adoption were reported to be related to more sophisticated epistemological beliefs (Neber & Schommer-Aikins, 2002; Muis & Franco, 2009; Paulsen & Feldman, 2005). In this study, mastery-approach orientation was predicted by pre-service teachers’ traditional epistemological views on science. However, in terms of scientific epistemological beliefs, constructivist view in science was related to sophisticated conceptions of learning science (Pamuk, 2014; Tsai, 1998; Tsai, Ho, Liang, & Lin, 2011). For instance, it was revealed that teachers’ scientific epistemological beliefs, teaching beliefs and instructional practices were correlated (Tsai, 2006). Teachers who had more constructivist beliefs in science tended to focus on student understanding and application of scientific concepts, while they allocated more time and supported student inquiry activities or interactive discussions among students. Whereas teachers with more traditionally oriented in scientific beliefs tended to emphasize students’ test scores and spend more instructional time on teacher-directed lectures, tutorial problem practices, or in-class examinations that was counted as a more passive or rote perspective on science learning of students.
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achievement than their colleagues who do not (accuracy defined here as the degree to which assigned grades are valid measures of academic achievement). The importance of this finding is underlined by the bulk of studies showing that teachers of all grade levels and content areas regularly violate these recommendations (Brookhart, 1994, 2013a, 2013b; Cross & Frary, 1999; McMillan, 2001; McMillan & Lawson, 2001; McMillan & Nash, 2000; Randall & Engelhard, 2010; Stiggins, Frisbie, & Griswold, 1989). Though a number of external factors contribute to this discrepancy, the most significant internal factor appears to be a teacher’s personal philosophy towards teaching and learning (McMillan & Nash, 2000). However, despite these findings, very little is known about the specific traits and beliefs that lead some teachers to adopt recommended grading practices while others do not. This led Brookhart (2013b) to call for additional research focused on determining the precise nature of these qualities.
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For the analysis of the preservice teachers‘ content knowledge this study does not use the three subsections given in Hill et al.‘s (2008) characterization of subject matter knowledge. This is due to the fact that this study is not trying to measure subject matter knowledge in such fine grained detail. Instead, using the work of Kvatinsky and Even (2002) the analysis of preservice teachers‘ content knowledge will draw upon three of the seven aspects of their framework for teacher knowledge of probability. One aspect looks at alternative ways of approaching probability. When asked to estimate or interpret a probability of an event, it is of interest to know whether a preservice teacher uses a classical approach, frequency approach, or a subjective approach. Regardless of which approach or interpretation they use, we also want to record whether they recognize or show an awareness that the other approaches are possible to use. This is obviously influenced by, and can be characterized using the four orientations described in the previous section.
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The first research question was to assess the psycho- metric properties of the instrument created by Kulinna and Silverman (1999), in order to measure Greek PE prospective teachers’ beliefs toward four PE curricular outcome goals. We conducted a four-factor CFA with maximum likelihood structural equation modeling pro- cedure. All CFA’s fit indices ranged from slightly lower than optimal to very good, supporting the four-factor depended model, as proposed by Kulinna and Silver- man (1999). Item 24 had a moderately low factor load- ing (.20 < |f ij | < .30), yet it was decided to remain in the questionnaire for four reasons: (a) to keep the origi- nal structure of the questionnaire, (b) not to reduce its content validity, (c) the CFA fit indices were very high even with the presence of this item and a final, practical reason, was that (d) of having adequate data to perform the profile analysis. An important remark to be made is that the original instrument proposed by Kulinna and Silverman (1999) had two items (no. 28 and 35) with structure coefficients lower than .30.
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Quantitative data. VOI-SF (Chen, et al, 1997) was used to examine how PTs prioritize the five value orientations and whether these value orientations change over the course of a 15 week student teaching experience (7.5 weeks elementary placement and 7.5 weeks secondary placement). See appendix A for a copy of the VOI-SF tool. The VOI-SF consists of 50 items across the 10 sets that each of five items under each set representing one of the five value orientations. The items unlabeled are randomly arranged in each set. Participants will rank order each of the five items in each set according to their priorities ranging from 5 (highest priority) to 1 (lowest priority). By doing so, the composite scores from each value orientation range from 50 to 10, reflecting a priority for items in one of the value orientations. Likewise, the composite score gained from each value orientation represents the value orientation profile of participants. Data gained from the VOI-SF showed participants’ initial value orientation as preexisting beliefs formed by their past K-12 physical education experiences and learning experiences during their PETE program. From there, this study identified how their value orientations evolve as they experience student teaching in elementary and secondary schools.
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There have also been contradictory claims concerning the dimensionality of the AC scale. Snelgar (2006) has criticised studies (Stern et al., 1993; Stern et al., 1995b) employing a theta scaling procedure because this avoids dimensionality tests. There is no agreement as to how many dimensions the AC scale measures, although the original goal was to assess beliefs relating to the three value orientations. Another major problem has been the high correlation between subscales. Subscales are reported to share the same variance as follows: 18.50% – 36.00% for Stern et al. (1993), 29.16% – 38.44% for Joireman et al. (2001) and 8.24% – 14.98% for Snelgar (2006). While Stern et al. (1993) foresaw the potential for significant correlations between the three AC beliefs, the amount of shared variance is worrisome. Stern et al (1993) take the high correlation between the subscales as an indication that “value orientations may be part of a single perceptual package” (p.340). This conclusion has been supported by studies where principal component analysis (PCA) yielded a one factor solution (Stern et al., 1995a; Stern et al., 1995b). The authors concluded that, rather than being a measure of the three value orientations, the AC scale measures a single construct, the aforementioned GAC. Spash (2006), however, found a three factor solution with the first loading most on egoistic and social items, the second on social and biospheric, and the third combining all three value orientations. Snelgar (2006) found from two to five factors could be extracted using principal axis factoring both with varimax and direct oblimin rotations, and also PCA. She concluded: “no clear structure was obtained with any of these analyses. Thus it is not appropriate to attempt to label any of the factors/components” (p.91).
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Further studies of belief orientations enhance and extend the findings of these early studies as a “continuum of categories of conceptions” (Samuelowicz & Bain, 1992). Samuelowicz & Bain (1992) proposed five orientations to teaching and learning which were subsequently analysed to reveal constituent beliefs. Some studies focus on specific aspects of teaching. For example Dunkin & Precians’ (1992) study of award winning university teachers, helps us to understand that although these teachers’ beliefs are not remarkably different from those in other studies, these teachers do carefully consider certain aspects of the teaching context when they go about their teaching. This study explored four dimensions of teaching: teaching as structuring learning; teaching as motivating learning; teaching as encouraging activity and independence in learning; and teaching as establishing interpersonal relations conducive to learning. In a similar vein, Ballantyne, Bain & Packer (1999) studied teachers who were nominated for “exemplary or noteworthy teaching practice” and noted that these teachers’ accounts support the claim that there is a strong link between teacher beliefs and practices. Some studies went on to develop quantitative instruments (Gow & Kember, 1993) that could be used with larger samples, to support generalisable claims about teacher beliefs which are framed as learning facilitation and knowledge transmission. Gow & Kember (1993) state that “this study suggests that the methods of teaching adopted, the learning tasks set, the
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“If he could feel the pain in my heart, if he could feel the hole that he left in my life, then that would be justice” (Umbreit, 2001, pp. 273– 274). These were the thoughts of a woman whose son was murdered before she decided to meet the murderer for victim-offender mediation (VOM). In the beginning, she was clearly opposed to the idea of meeting the offender and only agreed to participate after seeing concrete examples of the healing process which is often initiated by VOM (Umbreit, 2001). Similar reactions might be observed in persons of the general public who have no direct involvement with any crimes. They may wonder what the purpose of VOM is and why the offender should deserve such an opportunity. It may also be that they have not even heard about the existence of VOM. The present study attempted to investigate the public’s orientations toward s justice and whether these orientations can predict their attitudes and beliefs about VOM after a serious crime. Furthermore, it was examined whether providing information about the effectiveness and punitiveness of VOM to the public can make their attitudes and beliefs more positive.
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These results are shown in Figure 7, where the oxide heights versus the scan speed on a-, c-, and m-planes of 4H-SiC are compared. The oxide height decreases as the scan speed increases on all a-, c-, and m-planes of 4H-SiC, suggesting that a longer anodization time resulted in an increased oxidation rate. It has clearly been shown that the AFM-LO rate on c-plane 4H-SiC is significantly higher than the other plane orientations,
Initially Low Yield Epoxy Resin is mixed with Hardener HY951 in 10:1 ratio. Graphene is added into the mixture at wt2%. After fine stirring, the mixture is ready for layering. Mould is cleaned properly with silicon spray and a polyester sheet is added at the base before layering. Now a layer of Epoxy mixture (Epoxy + Graphene) is poured over it. Jute fibre is then placed with required orientations above it. This process is repeated for different layers and orientations, Then the entire composite setup is compressed uniformly at 5 bar pressure for 7 hours in open air. 9 distinct plates with different layers and orientations are obtained which is then cut into required ASTM standard dimensions.
The continuous study of JFRP with various fibre orientations and layers give different properties. Generally, JFRP is used to replace the metal with lesser weight but equal in strength to the metals. In order to further improve the strength of JFRP here, we made a composite of JFRP incorporated with graphene with various Jute fibre orientations and tested to obtain the above values and completed our study on JFRP with graphene.
Behavioral beliefs were raised by asking the following questions: What are the advantages of adhering to the prescription drug treatment for high blood pressure? And, What are the disadvantages of adhering to the prescription drug treatment for high blood pressure?.These questions aimed to characterize the patient's attitudes, identifying the attributes related by the patient to their treatment (behavioral belief).Already in the survey of normative beliefs, the following questions were asked: which people, important to you, who consider that you should adhere to the prescription drug treatment for hypertension; and which people, important to you, consider that you should not adhere to the prescription drug treatment for high blood pressure. These questions dealt with the subjective norms of the patient, identifying their groups of references, normative beliefs and motivation to agree with these groups. For the analysis of the data, we considered the beliefs most emitted by the subjects, with a minimum frequency of five times and presenting a proportion greater than 75% of the total beliefs, considered by the theory as salient modal beliefs (Moutinho, 2010). Afterwards, the adherence to the drug treatment was investigated by applying the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale 8-item scale (MMAS-8), a validated scale for Brazil (Oliveira-Filho, 2014 and Oliveira-Filho, 2012), and the most used in studies evaluating adherence to pharmacological treatment for hypertension in adults, in which the maximum score is 8 points, which indicates high adherence; of 6-7 points average adherence and 0-5 points low adherence to drug treatment for hypertension. After the data collection, the data were inserted in a spreadsheet and later submitted to descriptive statistical analysis through the statistical program SPSS version 21.0, and the results presented descriptively and in tables. The research was authorized by the Ethics and Research Committee of the University Hospital Alcides Carneiro, IRB number: 2.065.089 and carried out in accordance with the ethical assumptions of Resolution 466/12 of the National Health Council / Ministry of Health.
The questionnaire was formatted as a paper based sur- vey and was divided into five sections. The first part was about socio-demographic characteristics of the students. This covered age, gender, family residential status like urban and rural background, year of study, family income status, family business, past entrepreneurship experi- ence. The second part evaluates the behavioural belief of the students about pharmacy ownership. The third part includes statements on the control beliefs of students about pharmacy ownership. The fourth part assessed the normative beliefs of study participants’ students about pharmacy ownership. The fifth part of the questionnaire assessed the intent of entrepreneurship among partici- pants. The total survey items comprised of 26 questions, eight questions related to demography of the respond- ents, six questions related to behavioural belief, seven questions related to control beliefs, four questions were related normative beliefs and one question about intent of entrepreneurship among study respondents.
Many applications require AuNP-DNA systems to be mechanically and structurally stable, or to possess long-term stability for drug delivery and biomaterial applications. Additionally, AuNP-DNA systems have different requirements for particle and DNA conformations depending on the desired mechanical properties and behavior of the assembled system. For example, sensing applications requiring specific surface plasmon enhancement are based on tailoring AuNP sizes, orientations, and DNA lengths to achieve resonance (Storhoff, Lazarides, Mucic, Mirkin, Letsinger, & Schatz, 2000). Understanding the mechanical stability of the ensemble, as well as its individual constituents, is therefore essential to predict possible limitations of the system with respect to system stability and mechanical strength. In situ investigations using characterization techniques are lacking because imaging AuNPs and DNA simultaneously requires DNA staining. However, this staining would alter the elastic character of the DNA. Computational approaches, such as molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theories (DFT), while providing valuable physical insights, are not suitable for the relatively long timescales and length scales, which are on the order of hundreds of nanometers.
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This difference is evident in empirical studies that attempt to concept and self-efficacy. Keeping this in mind is helpful when analyzing empirical studies that attempt to concept and self-efficacy. The concept, for example, tend to ask whether a student believes they are good at math or reading. On the other hand, measurements for self-efficacy will ask about specific tasks, such as the students’ beliefs on whether a multiplication or addition Skaalvik, 2003). Despite the differences in definition and measurement, it is evident that both self-concept efficacy have significant consequences on motivation and academic achievement. As suggested by Albert Bandura efficacy research, “the motivating potential of outcome expectancies is thus partly governed by beliefs of capabilities” (p. 130). Hence, determining why efficacy and self-concept can be affected is of noteworthy interest to educators. Attributional feedback is one such teaching practice that has demonstrated to influence beliefs and has been studied by various leaders e educational psychology field.
The next step in the computer portion involved measuring the orientation (azimuth) of all the lineaments that were identified via ENVI’s directional filter. These compass orientations were measured directly from the color printouts. A procedure was developed to ensure that all lineaments were measured as accurately as possible. First, all lineaments were individually numbered by hand, and each color printout was given its own unique identification code. The lineament directions were then measured using a plotter (a navigational protractor) and ruler (as a straight edge). The values were recorded onto loose-leaf paper containing the identification code of the image. Upon the
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To conclude, research on identities in mobility contributes to identity research by testing out many claims on identity in the context of change, contact and connectivity. It offers an opportunity to examine to what extent one’s membership, affiliation, and sense of belonging to their place or culture of origin and new place of settlement are affected by the process of border crossing and how new identities and dynamics develop through the process. What has emerged through new orientations to identities in mobility is an unprecedented complexity, an emphasis on identification rather than identity and intersection of multiple identities such as race, ethnicity, gender, class or sexuality. There is a greater need to resist the temptation to reification embedded in existing labels and binary contrasts, to normalise contradictories and ambivalence in identification and to see identities as situated and temporal accomplishment as well as in its historicity. Further Reading
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Based on the research that has been done by Martinez (1999I), Martinez (1999A), and Martinez (2001), Learning Orientation is rational and useful in providing theoretical foundations using a comprehensive view of learning. Furthermore, from the research, Learning Orientation could help to recognize dominant psychological factors such as conative and affective, that influenced learning, other than just cognitive aspects. The results of the research also recognized the usefulness of Learning Orientation to analyze and differentiate the students regarding what works for each of them, and to guide the design, development, implementation, analysis, and evaluation of learning solution or environment. Moreover, the research found that the matching of Learning Orientations and learning environment has 99% impacted satisfaction and 95% learning efficacy. Thus, these evidences suggest that it is useful to recognize and being sensitive to Learning Orientations in designing the instructional solution and environment. Tasir, Noor, Harun, & Ismail (2008) found that Learning Orientations are considered useful and rational for online students when considering the impact of emotions, intentions, effort to accomplish learning and success, and social factors on learning.
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lacteal feeding and its associated beliefs among the primary An exploratory study was conducted on 100 primary care givers visiting Pediatric OPD Total 48% received pre lacteal feed from which 50% received with in 1 hour of birth. Honey children received pre lacteal feed from their grandmother. About 50% gave prelacteal feed to develop qualities of prelacteal feed giver. Among the primary care givers with health related belief(s); 55.55% gave it to keep the mouth and throat of Those who had received counseling regarding exclusive breastfeeding, they did not Counseling regarding exclusive breastfeeding during
Cs-corrected high-angle annular detector dark- ﬁ eld scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), which has an enough resolution to represent individual TM atoms as bright dots in observed images of decagonal quasicrystals. On the basis of the structure of a W- (AlNiCo) crystalline approximant, transition-metal (TM) atoms and mixed sites (MSs) of Al and TM atoms are separately distinguished in HAADF-STEM images. Most of TM atoms are arranged with pentagonal tilings of a bond-length of 0.76 nm, and MSs are located inside of pentagonal frames with de ﬁ nite orientations. All of the TM atoms and MSs are located at lattice points of a Penrose lattice of an edge-length of 0.25 nm, and arranged with a bond-orientational order. The present result shows that the structures of Al Co Ni decagonal quasicrystals should be characterized as BOO arrangements of transition-metal atoms, instead of previous models of BOO arrangements of 2 nm atom clusters. [doi:10.2320 / matertrans.M2012340]