Introduction: The current study was performed with the aim of investigating the diagnostic utility of Bender-GestaltTest-II (BDT-II) in two groups of patients with major depression and brain-damage, while comparing them with normal individuals. The study was a causal-comparative research. Method: Major depressive patients (n=30), brain-damaged patients (n=30) and normal subjects (n=30) were compared using BDT-II in copying, recall, motor, and perceptual phases. Data was analyzed via one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test approaches. The patients with depression and also brain-damaged patients were not significantly different in the phases under study; however, the normal individuals had significantly better performances than the patients in all the three phases.
American to Caucasian individuals performance on the BenderGestaltTest (Bender, 1938), African-American children were delayed in their visual-motor skills, with more scoring errors than Caucasian children. Koppitz indicated that this delay in developing visual-motor skills was likely due to distinct cultural differences between African- American and Caucasian children. In a study conducted by Sattler and Gwynne, (1982), visual-motor performance differences existed between African-American and Caucasian children across the age range studied (ages 5- to 11-years old; Sattler & Gwynne, 1982). Additionally, individuals with lower socioeconomic status were found to make more errors on the BenderGestaltTest than individuals from higher SES backgrounds (Hoffman, 1966), which is likely a reflection of increased access to resources in higher SES homes (Bradley & Corwyn, 2002). Due to historical biases on performance of visual-motor skills, including potential biases based on ethnicity and SES, performance across different cultural-linguistic groups should be assessed to enhance the known psychometric properties of the measure. The BG-II has been found to have strong reliability and validity (Brannigan & Decker, 2003); however, an analysis of the cultural invariance of the BG-II has not been previously conducted within the research literature.
higher ε, with corresponding decrease in void ratio (e) and increase in stiffness respectively. However there seems to be a certain range of water content which elicited very similar ε measurements, suggesting a ‘blind’ zone of electromagnetic detection of the changes in the soil. A more refined test programme will be required to ascertain the sensitivity of the test for soil characteristaion purposes. Besides, further work is necessary to identify the influence of other relevant factors on the measurements performed, such as pore water chemistry, confining pressure and presence of different-size particles in the soil.
Methods We used a five-factor (3 depictions × 3 nodes × 2 links × 2 skips × 3 layers) within-subjects design. Depiction of skip links had three levels: color, text, and mixed. The number of nodes also had three levels: 50, 100, and 200. The density of proper links (links connecting directly to the next layer — i.e. not skip links) varied between 25% and 50% of all proper links possible. For example, given 400 cells in a Quilt’s matrices, a density of 25% would result in 100 proper links, and 50% in 200 proper links. The density of skips varied between 25% and 50% of the number of proper links (were skip density much higher, the graph would not be a good candidate for layering). Finally, the number of layers varied across 5, 10, and 15. 18 college students (11 male, 7 female, aged from 19 to 38) participated in the experiment. All had normal or corrected-normal vision and passed a color-blindness test. With 36 different graph treatments (3 × 2 × 2 × 3) and 3 different depictions, participants worked with 108 graphs per experimental session. We asked viewers to find a path between the source and destination nodes. The experiment was performed on a Dell workstation with NVIDIA GeForce 7950 GX2, an Intel Core Duo CPU 2.4 GHz processor, 4GB of RAM, Windows 7 OS, and a 1920 × 1200 pixel Dell 24 inch monitor. The graphs were displayed in a full screen mode. Participants sat on an office chair in any fashion they found comfortable.
DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.76005 77 Open Journal of Social Sciences number of participants, especially women, gained confidence to participate more actively in community meetings. Such outcome was considered quite remarkable in a society where women are normally absent at community meetings. Explor- ing GT training efficacy on professional practice , Kelly and Howie  reported that psychiatrists recognized the potential application of GT knowledge and skills to their psychiatric nursing practice. Organizing a Gestalt group interven- tion for anxious parents whose children were studying in primary schools, Leung and Khor  found that the clinical approach helped parents to reduce anxiety levels, avoid inner experiences over time, and enhance mindfulness with a slight increase in self-kindness. Focusing on a specific psychological dimen- sion, Saadati and Lashani  observed the effectiveness of GT on the improve- ment of self-efficacy in divorced women that participated in experimental groups. A research paper by Arip et al.  reported the overall content validity of the group guidance module in student self-development , based on Gestalt theory and its basic principles (such as holistic approach, person experience, individual responsibility, the here and now method). Applying GT group treatment in prison with a sample of offenders with psychopathology symptoms , Doric  found no changes in offenders’ behaviors and lives, although they observed less improvement in depressive groups compared to those suffering of mania, who obtained specific benefits from their active involvement in sessions and from the possibility to resolve basic conflicts in their lives through the analysis of unfi- nished gestalts.
Thus, the reflections on clinical reasoning in Gestalt Therapy on this text are in conformity with a proposal to think about listening and facilitation of experience (Mesquita, 2011). Thereby, we made an academic literature search from the perspectives that clinical procedures have been elaborated by professionals in the traditional way (private), expanded clinic, ecological etc. to identify and analyze such styles. For this purpose, we consoli- dated a survey of scientific papers published between 2005 and 2015, in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) site.
The question of the relation between the concepts used in vi- sion science, say, and our ordinary concepts of seeing is one, if not the conceptual issue we need to deal with now (an issue which, in its current form, simply did not exist at the time Wittgenstein was writing). It might be that Wittgenstein would have been per- suaded by claims to the effect that the way psychologists use these concepts introduces a new concept of vision (the so-called ‘two- concept’ claim). But it is equally plausible that he would not have. In particular, with respect to the specific problems we are consid- ering, an alternative view is that he would have examined these developments in psychology and judged them on their specific mer- its, in order to see whether the new framework (a) helps to dis- solve what he took to be confusions in the way Kohler approached gestalt phenomena, and (b) helps with the particular question of what do with organizational properties of experience. There is nothing in Wittgenstein, as I read him, that encourages ascribing to him an a priori rejection of such an approach, and from now on I
contemporary visual, material and print cultures, with particular reference to ephemeral printing. To account for all the historical, textual and graphic properties of the posters, the thesis develops and applies a novel, multilayered system of analysis, drawing on communication theory, social semiotic principles and Gestalt principles of composition. The posters afforded emigration promoters a visual medium for distributing audience- appropriate messages through typographic strategies. They provided promoters with the facility for fast and inexpensive messaging that was otherwise unavailable in nineteenth century communication. The thesis concludes that posters were a significant part of an early, coherent and systematic advertising campaign which utilised processes and
iii. L’absence chez les Berlinois d’une problématique des transformations apportées à l’organisation perceptive et cognitive par une homologation catégorielle des percepts. La catégorisation fait de la dynamique de l’organisation perceptive bien autre chose qu’une simple unitarisation ou segmentation du champ : elle introduit la dimension de l’identité à travers les variations ou fluctuations de la présentation (un chien, quel qu’il soit, est et reste un chien à travers la multiplicité des apparitions de chiens, il a toujours en lui toute la « chienneté » qui caractérise son appartenance catégorielle, et fait de lui la cible d’une visée qui reste identique). A. Gurwitsch, notamment, le soulignait, en cherchant à concilier les théories de la Gestalt avec la théorie husserlienne du noème perceptif. C’est là disait-il que réside le sens fondamental de la perception. C’est là aussi que se joue la possibilité d’identifier deux unités prises chacune dans un champ différent, c'est-à-dire de poser a = b, et ce faisant, d’accomplir une des transitions élémentaires nécessaires au raisonnement. Cette critique, qui s’adresse essentiellement à la composante Berlinoise du mouvement gestaltiste, est certainement d’une grande importance d’un point de vue contemporain, davantage centré sur la catégorisation des formes et le raisonnement. Il est vrai que les différentes écoles gestaltistes divergent sur cette question cruciale : ainsi l’école austro-italienne dont Kanizsa est l’un des derniers grands représentants, distingue nettement entre « voir » et « penser », entre processus primaires, réalisant des dynamiques de formes, et processus secondaires, de nature possiblement calculatoire. Par contraste, l’école de l’Aktualgenese, dont nous reparlerons plus loin, tient le cap d’intégrer, non seulement la catégorisation, mais encore la fonction symbolique, à un dispositif gestaltiste convenablement étendu. Nous n’entrerons pas ici plus avant dans ce débat ; toutefois, en vue d’un véritable travail critique sur cette question (qui n’est finalement qu’une variante des distinctions traditionnelles entre sensible et intelligible, entre sensation et idéation, entre forme et concept ou eidos, et ultimement entre forme et sens), nous pensons qu’il faudrait garder en mémoire les points suivants : (a) la conscience de
During the analysis of the data obtained from the “Gestalt Group Program Evaluation Form” by content analysis method, the data were coded, categorized and themes were created. The data obtained from the participants in writing was first subjected to coding process, then divided into categories and themes were reached from the categories. Gestalt therapy approach theory was used in the determination of categories and themes. Since the group program was developed within the scope of the research that is based on the gestalt therapy approach, coding has been performed based on the concepts of “awareness”, “contact”, “contact styles”, “boundary” and “here and now”.
Gestalt psychology principle that a strong "gestalt” has a greater tendency to closure and stability than a weak one. That is, a perceptual configuration varies in the quality of it's clarity and cohesiveness. This idea became incorporated into his principle of organismic self-regulation. Organismic self-regulation refers to the assumption that the individual is continuously striving to attain an equilibrium. The equilibrium is disturbed by the arousal of needs and regained through their elimination or gratification (Peris, 1947). The concept of organismic self-regulation was specifically adapted from Gestalt psychology's "Law of Praegnanz" which states that individuals maintain "the goal-directed tendency to restore cognitive equilibrium after a disequilibrium has occurred in the perceptual field" (Smith, 1976, p. 26). For Peris, "cognitive" is broadened to "experiential;” rather than referring only to the perceptual field, he assumes that the disequilibrium is one of whole or organismic functioning.
Hanging column and axis translation technique were used together to measure and control matric suction to the specimen. Therefore, low suction (0 to 7.5 kPa) with high accuracy (±0.01 kPa) was applied by hanging column and high suction (7.5 to 100 kPa) was applied by pressure plate system. For combining the two systems, a pressure board was manufactured, which supply air pressure and water to bottom and top of the sample as well as measure air and water pressure during the test.
In a gestalt approach of social network use by parents we considered the gestalt concept of contact boundary in the analysis of the parents’ performance and interaction in the social networks. According to Polster & Polster (2001), the contact is more than the sum of all the other functions that comes with it, it is how one sees and hears certain individual or thing. Contact is a meeting, an exchange that exists in the interaction with both animate and inanimate objects, memories and images. To be in contact means that the individual will remain unchanged, be- cause it does not require an effort for changes, it just happens during the interaction, because change is the in- evitable product of contact.
Abstract: An adaptive spatial clustering (ASC) algorithm is proposed in this present study, which employs sweep-circle techniques and a dynamic threshold setting based on the Gestalt theory to detect spatial clusters. The proposed algorithm can automatically discover clusters in one pass, rather than through the modification of the initial model (for example, a minimal spanning tree, Delaunay triangulation or Voronoi diagram). It can quickly identify arbitrarily-shaped clusters while adapting efficiently to non-homogeneous density characteristics of spatial data, without the need of prior knowledge or parameters. The proposed algorithm is also ideal for use in data streaming technology with dynamic characteristics flowing in the form of spatial clustering in large data sets.
With regard to the fact that an athlete is the best expert on himself/herself and knows the most suitable way of development in his/her sport, it is supposed that he/she can move towards his/her potential when he/ she becomes involved in the exploration of patterns through which he/she actively creates his/her function- ing in training and competitions. In terms of the ﬁ eld theory, participation in sport is an inseparable part of the organismic/environmental ﬁ eld with a direct contact at the contact border. This is closely connected with the paradoxical theory of change. Even though Fred- eric Perls did not explicitly delineate this theory, he is considered to be its author since it underlies most of his work and the Gestalt techniques he developed. It was Beisser (1970, 77) who wrote the most referenced article about this phenomenon, named it the paradoxical theory of change and deﬁ ned “that change occurs when one be- comes what he is, not when he tries to become what he is not“, which also means that “change can occur when the patient abandons, at least for the moment, what he would like to become and attempts to be what he is”. Put simply, no one else can directly change the person passively. Help is attainable only through contact with the present situation. It is only possible to ﬁ nd a way towards the intended change when the person is aware of the present position and settings and then he/she is able to move further.
According to Congress  the key in professional help is authenticity – being present, open, and sincere with the client. Yontef  also emphasizes the need to be as authentic as possible “here and now” so that the “I-You” contact become possible. Often, such a relationship is sufficient to become healing, allowing for a change to happen. The “I-You” contact in Gestalt therapy theory is emphasized as essential in the relationship between a helping professional and a client. Using the Gestalt The “I-You” dialogue can substantially improve the quality and efficiency of social worker’s work. When working with different client groups (e.g. risk families, addicts, homosexual clients, etc.), the “I-You” dialogue encourages social workers not to be based, do not take prior assumptions in dealing with clients. Authenticity, sincerity, respect and humanity – are listed by the theory of social work as indispensable features of aid relationships.