According to interviews done PRIMO Communications sh.pk staff, and the fact that we mention longer recognitions with this process and an author of the article has worked directly in these operations. We have built a general picture for the Total Economic Impact (TIE), of this change from on-site data center to Amazon cloud service. The hypothesis put forth by us is that benefits of the shift to cloudcomputing data center will reduce the total operational cost of keeping a data center on-site from the company said. Should mention the fact that many of the benefits of this transition are not easily translated into numerical values and thus we return on investment (ROI, Return On Investment).
Cloudcomputing is the development of parallel computing, distributed computing, grid computing and virtualization technologies which defines the shape of a new era. Cloudcomputing is an emerging model of business computing. It means storing and accessing data over the internet instead of your computer’s hard drive. That means all the data what you are going to access is on air i.e., on internet. In this paper we have enlighten different computing models from which we have finally concluded that CloudComputing is one of its types which is a combination of cluster and grid computing models. Many people have different opinion about the term CloudComputing, many even says that it is a new technology and new establishment on internet, but CloudComputing is available on internet since the day the Internet was evolved. In this paper we have focused on technical aspects of cloudcomputing and have explained it via different computing models. This paper provides a better understanding of the cloudcomputing and also explains the evolution of it by understanding the emergence of internet with benefits.
There are many benefits as mentioned above, even though cloudcomputing has many challenges. While moving from owning site to cloud space, companies must aware about the benefits and challenges of cloudcomputing. While analysing these challenges, security of data is the most tedious work in cloudcomputing. According to a survey carried out by Gartner , more than 70% of Chief Technical Officers believed that the primary reason for not using cloudcomputing services is that of the data security and privacy concerns. Convincing the organizations especially small ones about security concern is a tedious work; they are not ready to throw away their infrastructure and immediate move to cloud. Most of the organizations are closely watching this issue and not ready to shift to cloud space, this is main reason in the lack of maturity
Cloudcomputing offering many benefits some of them are: No up-front investment  , on demand self service  low operating cost, high scalability , easy access, reducing business challenges and reducing maintenance cost . Keeping in view benefits of cloudcomputing we use it for managing requirement change in GSD environment and it is evaluated that framework using cloudcomputing resolving the challenges of RCM mentioned above:
technology enables a vendor’s cloud software to automatically move data from a piece of hardware that goes bad or is pulled offline to a section of the system or hardware that is functioning or operational. Therefore, the client gets seam- less access to the data. Separate backup systems, with cloud disaster recov- ery strategies, provide another layer of dependability and reliability. Finally, cloudcomputing also promotes a green alternative to paper-intensive office functions. It is because it needs less computing hardware on premise, and all computing-related tasks take place remotely with minimal computing hard- ware requirement with the help of technological innovations such as virtual- ization and multitenancy. Another viewpoint on the green aspect is that cloudcomputing can reduce the environmental impact of building, shipping, hous- ing, and ultimately destroying (or recycling) computer equipment as no one is going to own many such systems in their premises and managing the offices with fewer computers that consume less energy comparatively. A consolidated set of points briefing the benefits of cloudcomputing can be as follows: 1. Achieve economies of scale: We can increase the volume output or pro-
The cloudcomputing can be defined as a collection of concepts, technologies, methodologies that enable to dynamically provision hardware and software resources as a services over internet on pay per use model with a objectives of achieving high resource utilization in a scalable cost effective manner .The cloud deployment models are defined in the basis of the location ownership access and management of cloud services. The Iaas ,Paas ,Saas as the Major services delivered by the cloud. This paper outlines about the storage which is another major service offered by cloud and is known as storage as service. The cloudcomputing provides rich benefits to the cloud clients such as costless services, elasticity of resources, easy access through internet, etc.Storage as a service is a model in which a large company rents space in their storage infrastructure to a small company or individual Keyword- cloudcomputing; platform as a service; software as a service; infrastructure as a service, Representational State Transfer.
a key motive that things must be more and more streamlined such that convenience level of human beings increases. Cloudcomputing also comes with the same motive with more elastic features in comparison to the traditional way of working using cluster and grid computing, among others. Cloudcomputing has proved to be the most productive innovation by information and communication technology. In this paper various application areas are reviewed for areas where cloudcomputing is being used to the full extent, and depending upon the type, some other areas to implement cloudcomputing are explored. Cloud- based systems provide more benefits in terms of reliability, effectiveness, fault tolerance, scalability, and cost, among others. Certain challenges are explored for areas of further improvement.
The goal of this paper is to propose an efficient model using cloudcomputing to improve e-commerce services outcomes. This paper is carried out as follows. The second section defines basic concepts, recent trends and challenges of e- commerce and cloudcomputing and the benefits of hybridizing them. The third section explains the proposed model of Hybrid cloudcomputing for e-commerce services. The fourth section introduces the implementation of a website for e-commerce services and using business intelligence (BI). The last section concludes the paper.
customers while maintaining the same level of quality and services [10, 11]. Both features intend to improve the agility, collaboration, rapid adaptation to the demand triggered fluctuations utilization of resources and availability of services without spatio-temporal restrictions in the cost-effective manner . Due to ability of the cloudcomputing systems to provide with wide range of services ranging from computationally intensive services to the light-weight applications, they have assumed tremendous attraction for the different levels of business operations depending on IT resources [4, 12]. The adoption of cloudcomputing enables the organizations to reduce the upfront IT investment for purchasing IT infrastructures, software development and licensing various applications. Besides, governments showed an expression of interest in adopting the cloudcomputing applications in order for reducing the operational costs of the public projects, and enhancing the reachability, availability, and capabilities of their services delivered to the public domain [13, 14]. Although there is the plethora of benefits of the services and applications delivered to the customers through the cloudcomputing model, but there are significant issues and challenges in the way of successful adoption; and the most important one is the security issue which is reported to hamper the adoption of cloudcomputing in different organizations [5, 14]. As the cloudcomputing model is still in its infancy, due to which it involves uncertainty at different levels such as applications, data storage, data access points, network, hosting. The Service level agreements (SLA) does not include specific guarantees about the security and privacy of the customer’s data hosted on the servers of the cloud providers [15, 16]. The data from the multiple tenants exist on the same server without solid security controls over the data from each individual user. In addition, the instance of hosting valuable data from the customers on the publicly accessible servers enhances the probabilities of attack from malicious agents .
Education and learning continue to be expanded a step-by-step, and each section of education has improved gradually. The popularity of education using the web and the development of the immaculate online learning condition has turned out to be one of the hot concentrates on exploring remote education. Cloudcomputing is rapidly developing, having nearly any discipline application. By offering benefits to education, it is very important to enhance the quality of education in order to fulfil the essential performance, such as offering negligible effort, flexibility, diversity, cooperation and convenience. The cloud services and programs enable clients to store and get to their nearby info on the remote server farm by utilizing their PCs or smart phones by means of the web. Cloud-based E-learning is the technique to cut down expenses and intricacy of data dealing with, which controlled by third party services. Conventional E-Learning strategies joined with cloudcomputing advancement to offer huge favourable circumstances to the academic users but it compromises in security perspectives. This study explains advantages of E-learning in education and describes different types of attacks in service delivery models of E-Learning proposed by different researchers.
Enterprises that move their IT to the cloud are likely to encounter challenges such as security, interoperability, and limits on their ability to tailor their ERP to their business processes. The cloud can be a revolutionary technology, especially for small start-ups, but the benefi ts wane for larger enterprises with more complex IT needs [ 10 ]. The cloud model can be truly disruptive if it can reduce the IT opera- tional expenses of enterprises. Traditional utility services provide the same resource to all consumers. Perhaps the biggest difference between the cloudcomputing ser- vice and the traditional utility service models lies in the degree to which the cloud services are uniquely and dynamically confi gured for the needs of each application and class of users [ 12 ]. Cloudcomputing services are built from a common set of building blocks, equivalent to electricity provider turbines, transformers, and distri- bution cables. Cloudcomputing does, however, differ from traditional utilities in several critical respects. Cloud providers compete aggressively with differentiated service offerings, service levels, and technologies. Because traditional ERP is installed on your servers and you actually own the software, you can do with it as you please. You may decide to customize it, integrate it to other software, etc. Although any ERP software will allow you to confi gure and set up the software the way you would like, “Software as a Service” or “SaaS” is generally less fl exible than the traditional ERP in that you can’t completely customize or rewrite the soft- ware. Conversely, since SaaS can’t be customized, it reduces some of the technical diffi culties associated with changing the software. Cloud services can be com- pletely customized to the needs of the largest commercial users. Consequently, we have often referred to cloudcomputing as an “enhanced utility” [ 12 ]. Table 9.2 [ 5 ] shows the E-skills study for information and communications technology (ICT) practitioners conducted by the Danish Technology Institute [ 5 ] that describes the
Some may characterize movement to the cloud as ascending but still a far way off. Vendors and others portray that an organization is behind the times if it is not fully embracing the cloud. That being said, and given that most enormous companies don’t like to change something that functions (e.g., many around the world are still interacting with mainframes), it’s difﬁcult to see companies looking to instantly rip out something that is currently part of their IT structure. This indicates that business and IT will be providing several on-premises and off-premises IT choices with the off-premises-based IT choices incrementally and gradually improving in ﬂexibility, capabilities, and functionality. But no matter what this pattern of clouds and hybridization represents within IT, organizations right now are suffering from a signiﬁcant task of managing and complying with security concerns. To cope with increasing demand and still protect the company’s data, IT must have end-to-end knowledge and administration over clients, plans, servers, and devices. This will allow IT to ensure that the business is properly secured while still being nimble enough to easily provide solutions to changing business conditions. Typically, this involved getting and obtaining on-premises devices, servers, and plans. Now the same type of security capabilities must be utilized for IT technologies that are outside the trusted environment and are not directly managed by the IT department.
Cloudcomputing provides five type of service model[5 ,6 ] ;The first service model is software as a service (SaaS) which enabling the organization to use the software online without needing to install it physically in the organization machines [7:11] ,This ability helps the organizations to reduce the cost of hiring software ,in addition to these the ability of improving the property of sharing knowledge ,maintenance ,support ,security and backup .The second service model is called platform as a service(PaaS) which enables the organization to run and test their work online without needing to install the platform or environment in the organization [11:13] , The third model is called infrastructure as the service(IaaS) which enable the organization to use the available resource as storage space or networking resources on line .the fourth service model is identity as a service (IDaaS) identity as a service offer management of user digital data and also helps in the process of authentication .The last model is a network as a service (NaaS) which helps the clients to access secured and protected network easily and on demand[11,12,13].
Apart from the vendor-specific migration methodologies and guidelines, there are also proposals independent from a specific cloud provider. Reddy and Kumar proposed a methodology for data migration that consists of the following phases: design, extraction, cleansing, import, and verification. Moreover, they categorized data migration into storage migration, database migration, application migration, business process migration, and digital data retention (Reddy and Kumar, 2011). In our proposal, we focus on the storage and database migration as we address the database layer. Morris specifies four golden rules of data migration with the conclusion that the IT staff does not often know about the semantics of the data to be migrated, which causes a lot of overhead effort (Morris, 2012). With our proposal of a step-by-step methodology, we provide detailed guidance and recom- mendations on both data migration and required application refactoring to minimize this overhead. Tran et al. adapted the function point method to estimate the costs of cloud migration projects and classified the applications potentially migrated to the cloud (Tran et al., 2011). As our assumption is that the decision to migrate to the cloud has already been taken, we do not con- sider aspects such as costs. We abstract from the classification of applications to define the cloud data migration scenarios and reuse distinctions, such as complete or partial migration to refine a chosen migration scenario.
Several different surveys on cloudcomputing in the logistics sector have been conducted in the past few months and published as studies. One of them was an online survey conducted by the software provider INFORM GmbH which showed that 68.3 % of the surveyed companies are ready right now to use cloudcomputing for logistics tasks — only 12.7 % have actually done it. The reasons for this are a lack of familiarity with the topic (29.5 %) and the security concerns mentioned by almost half of the surveyed companies. The possibility of having to rely on an external service provider was a barrier to using cloud technology for 13 % of the surveyed companies. The lack of industry-speci ﬁ c solutions was an obstacle for another 5 %. There seems to be a wide range of reasons. Flexible access (38 %), reduction in operating costs (25 %), faster implementation times for business processes (18 %), platform independence (12 %), and access to IT resources that would not be possible without cloudcomputing (7 %) were identi ﬁ ed as the ben- e ﬁ ts. According to the respondents, cloudcomputing solutions can be used for the communication between vendors and customers, controlling suppliers, and man- aging supply chain events. 25
It is foreseen that cloudcomputing could become a disruptive technology for mobile multimedia applications and services . In order to meet mul- timedia’s QoS requirements in cloudcomputing for multimedia services over the Internet and mobile wireless networks, Zhu et al.  proposed a multimedia cloudcomputing framework that leverages cloudcomputing to provide multimedia applications and services over the Internet. The prin- cipal conceptual architecture is shown in Figure 1.5. Zhu et al. addressed multimedia cloudcomputing from multimedia-aware cloud (media cloud) and cloud-aware multimedia (cloud media) perspectives. The media cloud (Figure 1.5a) focuses on how a cloud can perform distributed multimedia processing and storage and QoS provisioning for multimedia services. In a media cloud, the storage, CPU, and GPU are presented at the edge (i.e., MEC) to provide distributed parallel processing and QoS adaptation for various types of devices. The MEC stores, processes, and transmits media data at the edge, thus achieving a shorter delay. In this way, the media cloud, composed of MECs, can be managed in a centralized or peer-to-peer (P2P) manner. The cloud media (Figure 1.5b) focuses on how multimedia ser- vices and applications, such as storage and sharing, authoring and mashup, adaptation and delivery, and rendering and retrieval, can optimally utilize cloudcomputing resources to achieve better quality of experience (QoE). As depicted in Figure 1.5b, the media cloud provides raw resources, such as hard disk, CPU, and GPU, rented by the media service providers (MSPs) to serve users. MSPs use media cloud resources to develop their multime- dia applications and services, for example, storage, editing, streaming, and delivery.
The next layer within ITaaS is Platform as a Service, or PaaS. At the PaaS level, what the service providers offer is packaged IT capability, or some logical resources, such as databases, ﬁle systems, and application operating environment. Currently, actual cases in the industry include Rational Developer Cloud of IBM, Azure of Microsoft and AppEngine of Google. At this level, two core technolo- gies are involved. The ﬁrst is software development, testing and running based on cloud. PaaS service is software developer-oriented. It used to be a huge difﬁculty for developers to write programs via network in a distributed computing environ- ment, and now due to the improvement of network bandwidth, two technologies can solve this problem: the ﬁrst is online development tools. Developers can directly complete remote development and application through browser and remote console (development tools run in the console) technologies without local installation of development tools. Another is integration technology of local development tools and cloudcomputing, which means to deploy the developed application directly into cloudcomputing environment through local development tools. The second core technology is large-scale distributed application operating environment. It refers to scalable application middleware, database and ﬁle system built with a large amount of servers. This application operating environment enables appli- cation to make full use of abundant computing and storage resource in cloudcomputing center to achieve full extension, go beyond the resource limitation of single physical hardware, and meet the access requirements of millions of Internet users.
In other cases, the loss of control of where your virtual IT infrastructure resides could open the way to other problematic situations. More precisely, the geographical location of a datacenter gen- erally determines the regulations that are applied to management of digital information. As a result, according to the specific location of data, some sensitive information can be made accessible to government agencies or even considered outside the law if processed with specific cryptographic techniques. For example, the USA PATRIOT Act 5 provides its government and other agencies with virtually limitless powers to access information, including that belonging to any company that stores information in the U.S. territory. Finally, existing enterprises that have large computing infra- structures or large installed bases of software do not simply want to switch to public clouds, but they use the existing IT resources and optimize their revenue. All these aspects make the use of a public computing infrastructure not always possible. Yet the general idea supported by the cloudcomputing vision can still be attractive. More specifically, having an infrastructure able to deliver IT services on demand can still be a winning solution, even when implemented within the private premises of an institution. This idea led to the diffusion of private clouds, which are similar to pub- lic clouds, but their resource-provisioning model is limited within the boundaries of an organization.
There’s growing sentiment among many cloud experts that ultimately hybrid adoption will be most ad- vantageous for many organizations. Warrilow says “for some time Gartner has advised that hybrid is the most likely scenario for most organiza- tions.” Staten agrees with the notion for two reasons. First, “some appli- cations and data sets simply aren’t a good fit with the cloud,” he says. This might be due to application architec- ture, degree of business risk (real or perceived), and cost, he says. Second, rather than making a cloud-or-no- cloud decision, “it’s more practical and effective to leverage the cloud for what makes the most sense and other deployment options where they make the most sense,” he says. In terms of strategy, Staten recommends regularly analyzing deployment decisions. “As cloud services mature, their applica- bility increases,” he says.
A common option for reducing the operating costs of only sporadically used IT infra- structure, such as in the case of the “warm standby” , is CloudComputing. As defined by NIST , CloudComputing provides the user with a simple, direct access to a pool of configurable, elastic computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications, and other services, with a pay-per-use pricing model). More specifically, this means that resources can be quickly (de-)provisioned by the user with minimal provider interaction and are also billed on the basis of actual consumption. This pric- ing model makes CloudComputing a well-suited platform for hosting a replication site offering high availability at a reasonable price. Such a warm standby system with infrastructure resources (virtual machines, images, etc.) being located and updated in the Cloud is herein referred to as a “Cloud-Standby-System”. The relevance and po- tential of this cloud-based option for hosting replication systems gets even more ob- vious in the light of the current situation in the market. Only fifty percent of small and medium enterprises currently practice BCM with regard to their IT-services while downtime costs sum up to $12,500-23,000 per day for them .