Benefits of Mobile Phone Use While Driving?

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Cellular Phone Use While Driving: Risks and Benefits

Cellular Phone Use While Driving: Risks and Benefits

The purpose of this report is to elucidate what is known about the risks and benefits of using a cellular phone while driving, including a discussion of public policy issues relevant to whether use of a cellular phone while driving should be restricted or prohibited. We conclude that it is currently difficult for policymakers to reach an informed conclusion for three primary reasons. First, the risks of using a cellular phone while driving, though real, are not large enough to be detected in overall crash/fatality statistics but are potentially large enough to be a legitimate concern of motorists and policymakers. Second, the benefits of using a cellular phone while driving have been the subject of much less study and attention than the risks. This report begins to address this imbalance in the literature with data from several focus groups with cellular phone users. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of saving lives through restricting cellular phone use does not appear to be very attractive compared to other traffic safety measures. We argue that a targeted and intensive program of scientific inquiry and policy discussion would promote the development of wise regulatory policy in this field.
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Mobile phone use while driving: Underestimation of a global threat

Mobile phone use while driving: Underestimation of a global threat

non-fatal crash involving mobile phone use. In addition, there is also an argument for timely analysis of data once mobile phones have been retrieved. Most RTC forms are completed at the scene of the crash. The time lag between completion of the crash report and analysis of the phone to establish evidence might increase the odds of under-reporting. Consequently, police officers and road traffic investigators should be adequately trained on how to carry out timely analysis of mobile phones. This view is supported by Hosman and Connis (2015) who indicated that investigation officers should be adequately trained on how to use available technological options such as analysis of iPhone’s CurrentPowerlog.powerlog and Android’s buffer logs to identify evidence for mobile phone use. Another technological option that can assist with gathering evidence of mobile phone involvement in RTCs is the installation of in-vehicle cameras. This approach serves a number of purposes: providing useful information to determine the risk factor(s) responsible for a crash; assisting with prosecutions by providing evidence of driver actions at the time of an RTC; and also deterring drivers from engaging in any risky behaviour while driving. However, this technique relies heavily on a driver’s acceptance and willingness to purchase the device.
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Psychosocial Factors Influencing Mobile Phone Use While Driving

Psychosocial Factors Influencing Mobile Phone Use While Driving

8 DISCUSSION – STUDY TWO Study 2 was a quantitative study examining the attitudinal, normative, control, and risk factors predicting mobile phone use amongst Queensland drivers. The study used a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework to examine the influence of these attitudinal, normative and control factors in addition to the effect of age, driving purpose, driving conditions, and motivational factors on mobile phone use while driving. Additionally, analyses investigated whether predictors differed according to type of mobile phone use when driving (i.e., calling vs. text messaging). Analyses (reported in Appendix D) were conducted excluding those drivers who reported using a hands-free unit all the time. The overall pattern of results remained the same. Interestingly, there was no increase in the perceived risk of apprehension for those drivers for whom this was a realistic risk. Group comparisons were conducted to explore the beliefs of drivers with strong and weak intentions to use a mobile phone while driving. Specifically, these analyses examined whether drivers with strong and weak intentions to use a mobile phone while driving differed on their behavioural, normative, and control beliefs, according to the type of mobile phone handset used, driver age, and driving purpose. Finally, in an exploratory manner, the relationship between addictive tendencies toward mobile phone use and mobile phone use while driving was examined. A broad cross-section of participants took part in the study. Participants ranged in age from 17 to 76 years with more males than females completing the survey. The majority of participants held open driver’s licences with the average amount of driving per week ranging from one to 90 hours per week. There were approximately equal numbers of drivers who drove for mostly personal and mostly business purposes, with full-time, part-time, self-employed, and unemployed participants included in the sample.
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Stress State of Driver: Mobile Phone Use While Driving

Stress State of Driver: Mobile Phone Use While Driving

Abstract The use of mobile phone is increasing during driving in China. Due to the mobile phone use while driving, traffic accidents in emergency increase. This study concerns how commonly mobile phone is used and what stress state and behavior drivers have when driving. The stress state is defined and physiological traits of driver stress are gathered by Polygraph. The indoor experiment was made in the driving simulator system, with the heart rate and respiratory rate as physiological indicators. The reliability of indicators was studied. The simulator system loaded designed dangerous scenes before the experiment and participants were divided into two groups, i.e. mobile phone use group and no mobile phone use group. All the participants reported that they were worse drivers and had wrong maneuvers in the stress state. When using mobile phone in driving, they usually did not pay attention to surrounding conditions and c perceive emergency. The results showed that the heart rate and respiratory rate sharply increased when the dangerous traffic accident happened. The heart rate and respiratory rate are higher than no-mobile phone use group. The use of mobile phone while driving increased the stress state of driver and then the precautionary measures were discussed.
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An investigation of mobile phone use while driving: An application of the theory of planned behavior

An investigation of mobile phone use while driving: An application of the theory of planned behavior

Previous studies had not explored mobile phone use while driving in Western Australia in recent years, especially the possible impact of accessing social media while driving, and social and legal consequences that may have been experienced. The present study investigated the use of mobile phones while driving to make/receive calls, create/send text messages and access/create social media using an online survey that was made available to students at Edith Cowan University in Western Australia. The present study gained a sample of 559 respondents, 193 of whom were aged in the key demographic between 17 and 25 years. Components of the TPB relating to each mobile phone use behaviour were investigated (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention), as well as social (crashes resulting from mobile phone use while driving) and legal (cautions or infringements issued due to mobile phone use while driving) consequences. Results revealed that mobile phone use while driving was found to be highly prevalent whilst driving, as 76.17% of younger respondents have used their mobile phone while driving. This high prevalence in the sample exists despite the younger respondents demonstrating negative attitudes, non-
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Safety Risk of Mobile Phone Use while Driving in Sample of Taxi Drivers

Safety Risk of Mobile Phone Use while Driving in Sample of Taxi Drivers

The current study suggested that phoning while driving has an effect on traffic safety. More than half of the taxi drivers who used a mobile phone while driving reported that they had experienced dangerous situations while phoning and driving. Lamble et al. (2002) and Pöysti et al. (2005) found similar results that about 50% of the private drivers in their sample had experienced dangerous situations because of mo- bile phone use [3, 44]. In a previous study only 6% of the truck drivers reported to have caused danger- ous situations because of mobile phone use; however, 66% of the sample reported experiencing dangerous situations because of other road users’ mobile phone use [21]. The time period people use the phone each day significantly affects the traffic safety. A taxi driver who spent longer periods on the phone while driving would therefore be at greater risk of being involved in a dangerous situation than someone who phones while driving for much shorter periods. Safety (not involved in dangerous situations while driving) is decreased by 4.8 percent if taxi drivers use more mobile phone in a day. This self-reported finding is supported by some studies which found there was a significant correlation between frequencies of mobile phone use or the daily mobile phone use time and the risk of being involved in a crash [3, 40]. In the current study the taxi drivers reported that they had experienced more dangerous situations while using hand-held phones than using hands-free ones. Use of phones in hands-held mode while driving decreases safety situations by 58.5 per- cent. It can be realized as an evidence for the result that talking over a hand-held phone is strongly related to dangerous situations in traffic. As the self-reported finding of this study, common sense suggests that hands-free phones are safer than hand-held phones while driving, but hands-free phone would not provide any safety advantage over the hand-held phone [6, 11, 22, 31, 35].
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Preventing mobile phone use while driving: Appreciating the equivocal nature of identity, safety and legality in an uncertain world

Preventing mobile phone use while driving: Appreciating the equivocal nature of identity, safety and legality in an uncertain world

Thus, despite the negative attitudes regarding mobile phone use while driving described above, the action remains attractive in numerous ways. In addition to this, information provided through ‘expert’ sources is not necessarily simple to understand (Beck, 1992; 29). For example, the law allows hands-free mobile phone use to remain legal despite the cognitive distraction that it entails, making it more difficult to acknowledge where risk lies in relation to the behaviour. As mobile phone and vehicular technologies develop further, the potential for risk associated with their combined usage increases, although an understanding of the risk itself becomes less clear (Giddens, 2002: 26). Within the roads environment particularly, risk has the potential to change considerably over the course of a journey; for example, at every turn taken, on every different road, when passing any road user, when accelerating, and even when braking. However, risk is a possibility that often fails to be realised – in this way, it is uncertain and unpredictable. As risk remains difficult to identify but the tangible benefits continue to exist, or even increase, mobile phone use while driving likely further increases in attraction and desirability.
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Averting mobile phone use while driving and technique to locate the mobile phone used vehicle

Averting mobile phone use while driving and technique to locate the mobile phone used vehicle

The explosion of mobile phone growth has been significant over the past couple of decades but it has been clear that impact on this form of mobile communication having on driving. In today’s world, number of accidents is due to distracted driving especially on usage of mobile phone while driving which has been determined as the major cause of automobile accidents. With the aim of preventing road accidents occurrence due to mobile phone usage while driving, we propose a highly efficient automatic electronic system for early detection of incoming or outgoing call, an antenna located on the top of driver seat used for detecting when the driver uses mobile phone and a low range mobile jammer is used with its range covers only driver seat which prevent drivers from receiving base stations signals. The activation of jammer unit will take approx. 20-30 sec. In order to avoid user from talking on cell phone during these timeframe, ATMAL AT89C52 microcontroller along with ND R433 transmitter is used to transmit the vehicle number plate information to the receiver RXD1 which is placed on the signal post. The obtain data will be displayed on LCD so that traffic police can take legislative action against the driver.
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Use of Mobile Phone While Driving in Saudi Arabia

Use of Mobile Phone While Driving in Saudi Arabia

longitudinal study showed sustained better driving behavior and more attention as a result [11]. Raising public awareness and promoting health education in communities about the possible risks of mobile phone use while driving is of paramount importance in order to prevent such adverse events of using mobile phones while driving. To the best of our knowledge, there is a few Saudi studies that have measured the actual cell phone use while driving and evaluated attitude and behavior toward mobile phone while driving. Furthermore, assessing whether the use of new alternative technologies related to call phone use while driving will reduce the risk of road traffic accidents has been identified as a major research gap in the literature. In order to address this gap, the primary objective of this study was to valuate attitude and behavior toward mobile phone while driving and measuring the prevalence of actual cell phone use while driving. Other objectives of the study were to find any relationship between mobile use while driving and car accidents; to explore general knowledge of and attitudes toward traffic regulations related to cell phone usage while driving and to assess whether the use of new alternative technologies related to call phone use while driving will reduce the risk of road traffic accidents.
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Investigation of the Use of Mobile Phones While Driving

Investigation of the Use of Mobile Phones While Driving

In analysis of the various attempts at legislation in the U.S., several issues become apparent. The justification for the legislation comes mainly from the opinion of the legislator proposing the legislation, although in several cases the New England Journal of Medicine article (Redelmeier, 1997) is cited. There is no nationally- accredited document to prove the connection between mobile phone use and traffic accidents. Second, many of the bills focus on the restriction of hand-held mobile phones suggesting that hands-free phones are considered safer, although it may be that prohibiting hand-held phones is just a first step. Third, the fact that no bill has been close to becoming law suggests that there may be a lack of public and political support for such legislation, or that a strong mobile phone industry lobby is preventing the progress of legislation. The similarity of this issue and the seatbelt legislation of the mid-1980s, as suggested by Assemblyman Ortiz, is an interesting point. Is it just a matter of time before the support for legislation grows to the level required for implementation?
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Portable system for monitoring and controlling driver behavior and the use of a mobile phone while driving

Portable system for monitoring and controlling driver behavior and the use of a mobile phone while driving

Various technologies and smartphone applications have been developed in recent years in order to limit the frequent use of mobile phones during driving. One of these is Google Glass, but it is still not safe to use [ 14 ]. In this same vein, a three-axis accelerometer of an Android-based smartphone was built up with multiple sensors to improve a driver’s awareness to maximize safety [ 15 ]. A hardware device that can detect mobile phone use while driving and later block mobile communications could be a very fruitful option for monitoring and controlling road accidents. For example, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology could be used to record the data and send the vehicle’s plate number to a control center when the driver uses the mobile phone and a radio frequency (RF) blocker can be used to block the mobile phone. However, the regulatory commission of some countries does not allow an RF blocker or jammer to be implemented in the car. The use of smartphone accelerometer sensors is another important technique to monitor vehicle status that involves the application of a principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm with time, frequency as well as power spectral density features of the sensor data to predict the vehicle status. This mobile sensor proved beneficial in identifying driving behavior using mobile phone applications [ 16 ]. However, this requires a high-performance computational capability in the smartphone application, or the application must be implemented in the cloud. The low-speed following mode (LSM) uses millimeter wave radar to identify the speeding up, deceleration, and stopping of the front car to appraise the distance from the front car; in the interim, the driver likewise controls the brake and the fuel systems to keep up the vehicle distance within the safety range. When the front car encounters a strange condition, the system produces an alert sound to warn the driver [ 17 ]. However, this assistive technology is implemented
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Using Mobile Phone while Driving: A Simulator Study of a Dualtask Condition

Using Mobile Phone while Driving: A Simulator Study of a Dualtask Condition

Many studies have used questionnaires and interviews as data gathering tools for investigating the reasons underlying driver's decision to use mobile phone while driving. But, these methodologies have their substantial weaknesses. Simulator studies have shown their benefits in indentifying driver's behavior in past decades. Therefore, we used this methodology to study of driver's decision making mechanisms in different scenarios differing in risk. According to our findings, we concluded that answer to mobile phone calls is more related to personality traits like sensation seeking than objective risk of driving environment. As a result, traffic safety campaigns against using mobile phone on roads should be focused on personality trait of drivers.
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Factors affecting drivers willingness to engage with a mobile phone while driving

Factors affecting drivers willingness to engage with a mobile phone while driving

Matthews et al. (2009) suggested that the context strongly affected mobile phone use, from when users interacted with the phone to what they did with it and for how long. This was supported by findings in this study, with the ‘context’ of the environment having an impact, with some environments consistently being reported as having high phone usage and others much lower. Self-reported phone usage whilst driving was generally far lower than in other environments, the interviews suggested that this was a result of drivers being aware of the safety critical nature of the driving task. The attention required by either the driving or phone tasks was a frequently mentioned prohibiting factor to phone use while driving and was also mentioned far more times as a deterrent to phone interaction than laws prohibiting phone use. This suggests that law enforcement may have comparatively small effect on phone usage while driving, supporting Hill (2004) and McCartt et al.’s (2004) findings that phone use legislation had no significant long term effect on hand-held phone usage levels when they were sampled pre-ban and a year subsequent to the legislation being introduced. The factor which was found most likely to encourage or inhibit self-reported phone usage whilst driving was when there was perceived to be a low
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Use of mobile phones while driving effects on road safety

Use of mobile phones while driving effects on road safety

These negative effects on driving performance are caused by physical, visual, auditory and cognitive distraction as a result of mobile phone use. Although the physical distraction could be reduced or even limited by various 'technical' aids like hands-free phones, speed dialling, voice activation, etc., the cognitive distraction remains the main problem involved in concurrent mobile phone use. This is why hands-free mobile phones do not have significant safety advantages over handheld mobile phones. The extent of the negative effects of mobile phone use while driving depends on the complexity of both mobile phone conversations and of the momentary driving situation. The more difficult and complex the conversation, the stronger its effects on driving performance. Similarly, phone use during undemanding driving periods might appear easy but with the increasing complexity and difficulty of the driving situation, the effects of mobile phone conversation become more pronounced.
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USE OF MOBILE PHONES WHILE DRIVING - Effects on Road Safety

USE OF MOBILE PHONES WHILE DRIVING - Effects on Road Safety

Mobile phone use – conversation with a passenger – listening to music Conversations with passengers in the real world are self-paced in contrast to phone conversations. Phone conversations are generally deliberately initiated conversations and, compared with a conversation with a passenger, are more purposeful and goal-directed with a faster exchange of information. Because the passenger is present during the whole journey, a conversation with a passenger can be conducted in a less urgent manner. In the case of a passenger conversation, the passenger is also aware of the driving situation and can sometimes even help draw attention to dangerous situations. In the case of a mobile phone conversation, the other person is generally not even aware that his/her conversation partner is driving, (Dragutinovic & Twisk, 2005). In a study in 2005 it was found that the normal conversations with a passenger were suppressed on the most demanding urban roads, for both driver and passenger. On the other hand, the mobile phone conversation prevented
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Vision-based Detection of Mobile Device Use While Driving

Vision-based Detection of Mobile Device Use While Driving

Driver distraction contributes significantly to serious road crashes. Two studies, one in Toronto, Canada [1] and one in Perth, Australia [2] show that crash risk was about four times greater when drivers are interacting with or using mobile related technologies. Some drivers are either unaware or unconcerned to stop using their mobile phone while driving. In Australia, traffic enforcers have gone undercover to spot mobile phone use by drivers and signalling their colleagues ahead of the road to stop them [3]. Furthermore, helmet cameras [4] and roadside speed cameras are being employed to capture drivers using mobile devices. However, this requires significant amount of preparation and policing hours. Traffic enforcers must manually search through hundreds of hours of video to identify the offenders. The detection process is time-consuming, labour intensive and expensive.
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Should You Be Allowed To Use Your Cellular Phone While Driving?

Should You Be Allowed To Use Your Cellular Phone While Driving?

tional efforts to strengthen these laws will affect driving habits. BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS our basic finding is that the economic costs of a ban on cellular phone use in vehicles far outweigh the ben- efits. Therefore, we argue against a ban. The reason is sim- ple—cellular phone use in vehicles provides substantial benefits to users but does not appear to contribute to a large number of serious accidents. Next, we make calcula- tions addressing a more difficult issue—whether particular regulations mandating cellular phone innovations would represent a relatively low-cost way of reducing accidents. As an example, we consider the case of mandating a hands-free device that is similar to a phone headset used in office envi- ronments. While the results are not as clear-cut as a ban, they suggest that such regulation is probably not warranted on benefit-cost grounds. Next, we develop a calculation that shows a break-even incremental cost for the regulation of cellular phones, which could be useful to regulators who are thinking about necessary conditions for intervening in this technologically dynamic market. Finally, we review some important limitations of our benefit-cost analysis and we highlight key insights.
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Should You Be Allowed to Use Your Cellular Phone While Driving?

Should You Be Allowed to Use Your Cellular Phone While Driving?

tional efforts to strengthen these laws will affect driving habits. BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS our basic finding is that the economic costs of a ban on cellular phone use in vehicles far outweigh the ben- efits. Therefore, we argue against a ban. The reason is sim- ple—cellular phone use in vehicles provides substantial benefits to users but does not appear to contribute to a large number of serious accidents. Next, we make calcula- tions addressing a more difficult issue—whether particular regulations mandating cellular phone innovations would represent a relatively low-cost way of reducing accidents. As an example, we consider the case of mandating a hands-free device that is similar to a phone headset used in office envi- ronments. While the results are not as clear-cut as a ban, they suggest that such regulation is probably not warranted on benefit-cost grounds. Next, we develop a calculation that shows a break-even incremental cost for the regulation of cellular phones, which could be useful to regulators who are thinking about necessary conditions for intervening in this technologically dynamic market. Finally, we review some important limitations of our benefit-cost analysis and we highlight key insights.
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Cell Phone Use While Driving in North Carolina: 2002 Update Report

Cell Phone Use While Driving in North Carolina: 2002 Update Report

2 Sundeen, M. Cell Phones and Highway Safety. 2002 Legislative Update. Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures, August 2001. Available on the web at http://www.ncsl.org/programs/esnr/2002statelegupdate.pdf. These numbers, although representing less than one percent of the crashes occurring in the state, nevertheless reflect significant personal and societal losses. Due to difficulties in law enforcement identification of cell-phone related crashes, they also are likely to underestimate the magnitude of the problem. While there are clearly benefits to having cell phones available in personal vehicles, the results of this research reinforce the very real risks associated with using a cell phone while driving. They also suggest that the problem may worsen in the coming years, as cell phones and other wireless technologies continue to proliferate in people’s cars.
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PUBLICATION NO. 2007:35 ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE THE USE OF MOBILE PHONES WHILE DRIVING

PUBLICATION NO. 2007:35 ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE THE USE OF MOBILE PHONES WHILE DRIVING

These compensatory strategies range from not using a phone while driving, to reducing speed, maintaining larger following distances, or altering the relative amount of attention allocated to each task at any given time depending on the demands of each task. Few studies have reported detailed data on the frequency of crashes in which mobile phone use is a contributing factor. However, initial economic cost-benefit analysis suggests that the value of preventing crashes caused by mobile phone use while driving is approximately equal to the value of the calls that would be eliminated by a ban. Where legislation is put in place to ban the use of mobile phones while driving, enforcement needs to be effective, targeted, consistent and continuous. It is clear that enforcement is difficult and work is required in this area to develop effective countermeasures, especially for hands-free phones. It is apparent that new technologies may aid with this important process. There is a also need for high quality crash data which allows for the independent verification of mobile phone use to continuously evaluate their epidemiological impact on crash risk. There are few reliable estimates regarding the proportion of crashes attributable to mobile phone use. Better data would assist road authorities in monitoring the impact of legislation on population behaviour and give a more reliable indication of mobile phone usage rates while driving.
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