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Mapping Frictions Inhibiting Bicycle Commuting

Mapping Frictions Inhibiting Bicycle Commuting

Received: 16 July 2018; Accepted: 27 September 2018; Published: 3 October 2018 Abstract: Urban cycling is a sustainable transport mode that many cities are promoting. However, few cities are taking advantage of geospatial technologies to represent and analyse cycling mobility based on the behavioural patterns and difficulties faced by cyclists. This study analyses a geospatial dataset crowdsourced by urban cyclists using an experimental, mobile geo-game. Fifty-seven participants recorded bicycle trips during one week periods in three cities. By aggregating them, we extracted not only the cyclists’ preferred streets but also the frictions faced during cycling. We successfully identified 284 places potentially having frictions: 71 in Münster, Germany; 70 in Castelló, Spain; and 143 in Valletta, Malta. At such places, participants recorded bicycle segments at lower speeds indicating a deviation from an ideal cycling scenario. We describe the potential frictions inhibiting bicycle commuting with regard to the distance to bicycle paths, surrounding infrastructure, and location in the urban area.
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Integration of Bicycle Commuting to Public Transit in New York City

Integration of Bicycle Commuting to Public Transit in New York City

However, in the adjusted model, many variables turn out to be insignificant, including bike rack and subway station. Comparing to the negative correlation with Citi Bike usage shown in the former model, the insignificant result of bike rack seems to make more sense. Unlike ordinary cyclists, Citi Bike users do not have rigid demand towards bike racks since the network of Citi Bike stations is providing sufficient convenience for users to pick up and drop off bikes. Subway station access is assumed to have significant influence on Citi Bike usage because the flexibility of Citi Bike trips makes it a possible alternative transit tool in many areas with poor access to subway service. However, the average number of subway stations in quarter-mile buffer of each bike station does not show a statistically significant impact on Citi Bike usage. Nevertheless, the assumption that Citi Bike plays the role of alternative transit tool could not be denied. Many workers might prefer to use Citi Bike as a last-mile transportation solution from train stations or subway station to work, as opposed to taking a Citi Bike trip when beginning a commuting trip to a transit station. As a result, subway station turns out to be insignificant in the multivariate correlation test on Citi Bike trips counted at start stations. That is also the reason why separate models are estimated regarding origin bike trips and destination bike trips, as bicycle commuting behaviors could probably be determined by different factors in these two circumstances.
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Municipal investment in off-road trails and changes in bicycle commuting in Minneapolis, Minnesota over 10 years: a longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study

Municipal investment in off-road trails and changes in bicycle commuting in Minneapolis, Minnesota over 10 years: a longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study

Development of municipal cycling infrastructure has coincided with increased commuting rates. According to the Alliance for Bicycling & Walking 2016 Benchmark- ing Report, 36 states published goals to increase bicyc- ling, up from 22 states in 2010, and 15 states established annual spending targets for bicycling and walking initia- tives, up from 6 states in 2010 [8]. Similarly, 47 of the 50 most populous cities (up from 32 in 2010) have goals to increase bicycling activity [8]. These efforts seem to be working, as average miles of bicycle facilities per square mile in the 50 most populous cities doubled between 2007 and 2016 [8]. Identification of infrastructure invest- ments that encouraged commuters to bicycle would bet- ter guide municipalities in their allocation of resources. While evidence exists for infrastructure effects nation- ally, many current studies are cross-sectional [9, 10]. Scarce longitudinal research has been published on this topic and has produced mixed results, potentially due to a limited time frame or differences in type of bicycle in- frastructure investigated [11–17]. Furthermore, under- standing infrastructure’s role requires consideration of not only proximity to new infrastructure but also poten- tial commute patterns and accessibility to employment centers. This can be accomplished by investigating the proportion of work-related trips that might traverse the new infrastructure for some portion of the commuting route. Ultimately, off-road paved trails may be particu- larly conducive for encouraging bicycle commuting if they link residential areas with commercial and employ- ment centers. In addition, off-road paved trails may en- courage non-utility cycling by providing pleasant and safe cycling environments valued by leisure-cyclists [18].
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Cycling in the Crescent City: An exploration of the spatial variation in bicycle commuting in New Orleans

Cycling in the Crescent City: An exploration of the spatial variation in bicycle commuting in New Orleans

The idea that the shape of the physical environment is a significant driver of utilitarian cycling is reinforced by observations from two city neighborhoods, Bywater and Navarre. Bywater is a neighborhood with one of the highest rates of bicycle commuting in the city, and is defined by a mix of commercial and residential uses, some dedicated bicycle facilities and scant off-street parking. Even though cyclists are allowed on all city streets, dedicated infrastructure may signal to potential riders that areas equipped with bikeways are ones where cycling is accepted, safe and even encouraged. As compared with Bywater residents, Navarre residents own more cars, have an easier time storing their vehicles thanks to copious off-street parking, and tend to need to travel farther to reach every day needs thanks to the relative homogeneity of land uses in their almost exclusively residential neighborhood. They also live at a nexus of high-speed automobile infrastructure, with 1-10 and I-610 forming the borders along two sides of the neighborhood. Given relatively high levels of access to automobiles, ease of driving (and parking), and highly-segregated land use patterns, many Navarre residents find that the incentives to drive instead of opting for alternative means are strong. A smaller proportion of Navarre residents opts to bicycle to work.
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Objective correlates and determinants of bicycle commuting propensity in an urban environment

Objective correlates and determinants of bicycle commuting propensity in an urban environment

population. While our study population was reflective of the general city demographic (see Appendix Figs. C and D), some small differences existed in that our study population slightly over-represented the first and second quartile of neighbourhood socioeconomic index, under 40 year olds, and women. We did not collect participant occupation type and therefore could not know if greenness at the work/study address is the determinant of effect, or a confounder of occupation characteristics, on bicycle commuting propensity. Additionally, the estimation of commute route did not allow for adjustment of our models with (known) commute distance, only that calculated within a GIS environment. Furthermore, our analyses did not directly address the issue of perceptions as a determinant in travel decisions, which is considered important and may differ from objective measures (Dill and Voros, 2007, Hoehner et al., 2005 and McGinn et al., 2007) – future studies may attempt to consider both to determine which is more important for policy measures. Also, future studies should ask for occupation type to determine if the occupation description is
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Mapping Frictions Preventing from Bicycle Commuting

Mapping Frictions Preventing from Bicycle Commuting

Abstract: Urban cycling is a sustainable transport mode that cities currently try to expand. However, cities still do not take advantage of geospatial technologies to understand cycling mobility based on the behavioural patterns and difficulties faced by cyclists. This study analyses a geospatial dataset crowdsourced by urban cyclists using an experimental geo-game. About 20 participants per city recorded bicycle trips during one week and, by aggregating them, we found not only the cyclists’ preferred streets but also the frictions faced during cycling. We successfully identified 284 places potentially having frictions: 71 in Münster, Germany; 70 in Castelló, Spain; and 143 in Valletta, Malta. At such places, there were a representative number of trip sections with speed lower than 5 km/h compared to the sections with cycling speed. We described the potential frictions preventing from bicycle commuting based on the distance to bicycle paths, surrounding infrastructure, and location in the urban area.
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-commuting maps and invariant approximations

-commuting maps and invariant approximations

Theorem 2.7. Let M be a subset of a p-normed space X, and I and T : X → X mappings such that u ∈ F(T) ∩ F(I) for some u ∈ X and T(∂M ∩ M ) ⊂ M. Suppose that D is closed q-starshaped with q ∈ F(I), I is affine, cl(T(D)) is compact, I(D) = D, and the pair { T, I } is C q -commuting and continuous on D and, for all x ∈ D ∪ { u } , satisfies the following in-

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Commuting in Great Britain in the 1990s

Commuting in Great Britain in the 1990s

The results in Table 7 also indicate that workers at larger establishments commute further. The effect is large – a differential of 17% among men and 28% for women, comparing establishments with 500 or more employees to those with under 25 employees. Studies of the employer-size wage differential may therefore wish to control for a compensating wage differential associated with the journey to work. Those who have changed job within the last year experience longer commutes, whilst part-time employment is associated with a shorter commuting time. Estimating a single equation across both male and female sectors, with a dummy variable for gender, reveals a small gender differential at the margin of significance with a differential estimated at 0.026 log points, with a standard error of 0.012. Finally, although we are able to provide evidence of a number of characteristics that are significantly related to commuting times, it is clear that there is a large amount of unexplained variation present.
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The Relationship between Separated Bicycle Lanes and Bicycle Crashes In Denver, Colorado.

The Relationship between Separated Bicycle Lanes and Bicycle Crashes In Denver, Colorado.

This paper evaluated the impact of separated bicycle facilities on bicycle crashes by a Poisson Rate Regression analysis method, incorporating crash data with current bicycle facilities in the city of Denver, CO. The results largely confirmed the significant effects of separated bicycle lanes on a bicycle crash. The findings in this study were statistically significant, and all consequences affirmed the hypothesis of the thesis: separated bicycle facilities are more dangerous than the shared roads. The results of this study deduce that there are more bicycle injuries in the separated bike lanes than in shared roads. Of the various types of separated bicycle lanes, the cycle track was most likely to have bicycle crashes that occur on them. This indication provides evidence for urban and traffic planners as to whether a separate bicycle lane is the safer alternative to ride a bicycle in and if, on the other hand, it poses a real risk.
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Bicycle mobility in Rio de Janeiro : Bicycle storage facilities to improve bicycle mobility in Jardim América & Vigário Geral

Bicycle mobility in Rio de Janeiro : Bicycle storage facilities to improve bicycle mobility in Jardim América & Vigário Geral

The first zone that will be investigated further is Praça Jardim (figure 3). There is a lot of mobility seven days a week. The promising thing about this square is that the crowd is diverse. People from the surrounding area come to buy their groceries, see a soccer game or go the church. Children from all Jardim América go to school and people from all Jardim América and Vigário Geral go to the new health centre. Something that underlines the importance of this square for the neighbourhood is the number of kombis and busses that pass it. A list of these busses and a map of their routes is given in Annex C. People from within the neighbourhood now using the bus, could switch to the bicycle. Some more detailed information about the square is pointed out below. The health centre of Jardim América has opened in September 2006. In the time we were there not all services were operating yet. The health centre wants to pay attention to the vital problems first by offering basic services before offering the complete program. A list of services that are offered already and a specification on the 3273 visitors that were assisted in October 2006 is given in Annex D. According to Solange Signaini, a social assistant who works here, these 3273 visitors can be equally divided over the days the health centre was open this month. Thus the number of visitors for one day is about 149. The health centre is open from Monday till Friday from 7 am till 5 pm.
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Commuting In Ireland: An Analysis of Inter County Commuting Flows  ESRI WP144(?)  April 2002

Commuting In Ireland: An Analysis of Inter County Commuting Flows ESRI WP144(?) April 2002

As expected the coefficient for distance is negative, while those for the mass variables are positive. Thus, commuting flows decrease with increasing distance but increase with an increasing number of workers. As expected the coefficient for the origin destination is smaller than that for the destination population. For the OLS and LAD estimators the dummy variables for the destination counties Dublin and Galway are statistically significant and positive indicating that these counties attract larger numbers than other counties. In part of this may be explained by the nature of the data which records place of work at the place of the headquarter, this size of the coefficients suggests that there are other factors at work. In the case of Cork the results indicate that there are either fewer commuters travelling to Cork than might be expected or that there is no difference between Cork and the rest of the country. This might be explained by the size of Cork where most commuting is within the county, however the inclusion of the physical size of the destination county in the estimation does not change this result (these results are not reported here). A similar result is found for Limerick. Interestingly, for the Poisson model the coefficient for the Dublin dummy is negative but not significant while the sign and significance levels of the other coefficients is not affected by the use of the Poisson technique. Finally, flows between contiguous counties are higher than those for counties that do not share a common border.
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On Cyclicity and Regularity of Commuting Matrices

On Cyclicity and Regularity of Commuting Matrices

Sequences of commuting matrices play an important role in linear algebra (e.g. [9]) as well as its applications to numerical analysis (cf. [1, 19, 18]), algebra (cf. [5]), algebraic geometry (cf. [3, 12, 13]) and approximation theory (cf. [4, 14, 16]). The study of the irreducibil- ity of the variety of commuting couples and triples of matrices was initiated by Motzkin and Taussky [11] and continued in [6], [7] and [8], among others. In this article we will extend some well-known properties of matrices to sequences of commuting matrices and examine their relations to each other.
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Bicycle mobility in Rio de Janeiro : Bicycle storage facilities to improve bicycle mobility in Jardim América & Vigário Geral

Bicycle mobility in Rio de Janeiro : Bicycle storage facilities to improve bicycle mobility in Jardim América & Vigário Geral

As can be seen on the satellite picture this area is surrounded by two mountains. Because of these mountains there almost is no wind which makes it approximately 5 degrees warmer than in Zona Sul, the southern part of Rio. You would except a lower use of bicycles, but the opposite is true. Cycling is very popular here. Naturally more facilities for bicycle parking are available here, guarded and unguarded. We visited a guarded facility that was situated at a central point. In 100 meters there is a shopping mall, a big supermarket, a bank and other shops. The facility was started 20 years ago and is doing good business. Because the facility is placed on a square, there is always space free for an extra bicycle. Some facts:
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Commuting, Migration, and Rural Development

Commuting, Migration, and Rural Development

The study closely follows two separate applications. The first one is Kilkenny (1998) that was used to analyze the implications for rural development of business location decisions and increases in rural population due to “workplace choice” in the “people- follow-job” fashion. Our approach differs from this work in that we introduce urban land rent but we share a common concern for rural development. The other model is a theoretical formulation of links between urban land rent and agglomeration (Krugman and Livas, 1996) where land rent is introduced to simulate intra-urban commuting. However, we use land rent to motivate inter-regional migration and commuting. This study then brings together separate formulations in the NEG literature and links commuting cost, population de- concentration, and rural development.
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Commuting, Wages and Bargaining Power

Commuting, Wages and Bargaining Power

Search theory has long recognized the role of geographical distance and commuting costs. Stigler (1961) argued that price ignorance was in large part due to geographical dispersion. Lucas and Prescott (1974) have a spatial dispersion of labor markets and there is a cost (a period of unem- ployment) of moving between islands are. Diamond (1981, 1982) introduces costs of making draws to get a new offer which is, implicitly or explicitly, a moving cost, i.e., the cost of finding a trading partner. Gaumont, Schindler, and Wright (2006) show that the introduction of commuting costs can resolve the Diamond Paradox, leading to a dispersion of wages. Wasmer and Zenou (2006) show that labor and housing markets interact when distance affects search efficiency. Manning (2003) uses the dependence of separations due to commute distance as evidence of monopsony power of employers, as wages do not fully reflect the cost of commuting. Van Ommeren, Van den Berg, and Gorter (2000) estimate a structural search model with on-the-job mobility and identify the marginal cost of commuting time found to be approximately half of the hourly wage per hour of commute. Van den Berg and Gorter (1997) find that among demographic groups, females with children face a higher disutility of commuting, while being in a region with higher unemployment reduces this disutility parameter. Gautier and Zenou (2008) show that the cost and difficulty of black workers to buy a car leads to an amplification of spatial mismatch, that is, the difficulty of black workers to access jobs located in suburbs.
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Meadows, Grass, Bicycle

Meadows, Grass, Bicycle

My sister and I would hold hands and cross one street to the building where all the kids played during summer, then cross the other street to the school.. On the ground floor of our bu[r]

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Free Energy Bicycle

Free Energy Bicycle

These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling.The bicycle's invention has had an enormous effect on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that eventually played a key role in the development of the automobile were initially invented for use in the bicycle, including ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets, and wheels.

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Steering Control For Bicycle

Steering Control For Bicycle

There are two general categories of research that are related to this project. The first is the research that has been done on the dynamics of the bicycle itself. The second is the study on the control systems especially on a bicycle. Pertinent literature will be discussed herein, roughly in the order above.

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Bicycle Helmet Promotion

Bicycle Helmet Promotion

The ease with which epileptic and dissociative events are confused, coupled with the serious implications of misdiagnosis, demonstrates that physicians must be aware of the various clini[r]

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Commuting idempotents of an H∗ algebra

Commuting idempotents of an H∗ algebra

1. Introduction. In the past, the author used commuting idempotents to characterize continuous functions defined on a certain space [3, 4]. For exam- ple, it was shown in [3] that a certain Banach algebra is isometrically isomorphic to the space C(S) of all continuous complex-valued functions on a totally dis- connected compact space S . In the sequel, we use idempotents to characterize commutative H ∗ -algebras. An interesting consequence of this results (Theo-

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