Bile Pigments

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Indicators of exchange of bile pigments under the action of ecopathogenic factors on the organism and correction with liposomes

Indicators of exchange of bile pigments under the action of ecopathogenic factors on the organism and correction with liposomes

High levels of anthropogenic impact on the en - vironment requires a detailed study of the features of the influence of heavy metals and ionizing radia - tion on living organisms, and provides for the de - velopment and use of effective means of protecting the body from its negative influence. The purpose of the work was to study the characteristics of the exchange of bile pigments of rats under the action of eсopathogenic factors (ionizing radiation and cad - mium) on the organism and the corrective properties of liposomes on the basis of milk phospholipids.

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BILE PIGMENTS OF JAUNDICE

BILE PIGMENTS OF JAUNDICE

perimentally produced extrahepatic biliary obstruction; 5 serum pigments in animals with hepatocellular necrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and by ethionine; 6 serum pigments in 147[r]

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Absorption of Bile Pigments by the Gall Bladder

Absorption of Bile Pigments by the Gall Bladder

Over a wide range of concentrations, unconjugated bilirubin- 14 C was well absorbed, whereas transfer of conjugated bilirubin proceeded slowly. Mesobilirubinogen- 3 H was absorbed poorly from whole bile, but was absorbed as rapidly as unconjugated bilirubin from a solution of pure conjugated bile salt.

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Intestinal Absorption of Bile Pigments  III  The Enterohepatic Circulation of Urobilinogen in the Rat

Intestinal Absorption of Bile Pigments III The Enterohepatic Circulation of Urobilinogen in the Rat

After intraduodenal administration, total biliary excretion equaled 57 to 65 % of the dose, but when the chromogen was injected into the terminal ileum, the magnitude of absorption and r[r]

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INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF BILE PIGMENTS  I  THE ENTEROHEPATIC CIRCULATION OF BILIRUBIN IN THE RAT

INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF BILE PIGMENTS I THE ENTEROHEPATIC CIRCULATION OF BILIRUBIN IN THE RAT

Because of incomplete recovery of the infused conjugated pigment, however, the present findings are equally compatible with rapid absorption of an unconjugated bilirubin fraction that ma[r]

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Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

Among blood check up transfusion required, we do have the detection of B and C hepatits. For those patients having antibodies against antigens of hepatitis, sample of urine has been required. Whenever the result seems to be positive, we will be searching bile pigments not in the blood but in the urine of either those antigens having B hepatitis or those having C hepatitis.

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Physiological Role of Humic Acid and  Nicotinamide on Improving Plant Growth, Yield, and Mineral Nutrient of Wheat (Triticum durum) Grown under Newly  Reclaimed Sandy Soil

Physiological Role of Humic Acid and Nicotinamide on Improving Plant Growth, Yield, and Mineral Nutrient of Wheat (Triticum durum) Grown under Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soil

Regarding to photosynthetic pigments of wheat plant grown in newly reclaimed sandy soil is represented in (Figure 1) Data show that HA applications caused significant increases in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carote- noids and total pigments of the two used cultivars (Beni Sweif-1 and Beni Sweif-3) as compared with the cor- responding control treated with the recommended dose of fertilizer application in both cultivars. These results are in agreement with [31] using HAs, from a soil when various foliar applications were performed. Humic substances have positive effects on plant physiology. [32] found that a foliar application with 20 ppm humic acid was effec- tive on increasing of chlorophyll content. [31] also indicate that HA probably caused an increase in the synthesis of the chlorophyll and/or delayed chlorophyll degradation in the two different types of leaves, primary and lateral shoot leaves.
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HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF characterisation of early 20th century lake and organic pigments from Lefranc archives

HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF characterisation of early 20th century lake and organic pigments from Lefranc archives

) or electrospray-Quadrupole-Time of Flight tandem mass spectrometry detector (ESI-Q-ToF) were chosen given their considerable capacity to identify such complex and widespread organic materials. Although the inorganic components of the pigments were not taken into account in this survey, the specific molecular profiles provided invaluable information on the extraction procedures or synthetic strategy followed by the different producers, at dif- ferent times. For instance, the use of Kopp’s purpurin and garancine was highlighted, and synthetic by-products were identified. The results provided evidence that the addition of synthetic organic pigments to paint mixtures started from 1910 onwards, but they also suggest that in the formulation of high quality (surfin) colorants, natural products were still preferred. Moreover, in one of the samples the use of murexide as the colouring material was confirmed. This paper presents the first systematic and comprehensive survey on organic lakes and pigments belonging to an histori- cal archive, by both HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF. Specific by-products of synthetic production of pigments, which can act as specific molecular markers for dating or locating a work of art, were also identified for the first time. Keywords: Organic pigments, Lakes, Colorants, Synthetic, Historical industrial pigments, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-Q-ToF, Alizarin synthesis
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The Molecular Genetics and Evolution of Red and Green Color Vision in Vertebrates

The Molecular Genetics and Evolution of Red and Green Color Vision in Vertebrates

the two human pigments is estimated to be ⵑ30 MY ago (Yokoyama and Yokoyama 1989). Thus, the diver- by the amino acid differences at site 180. These results gences of the LWS and MWS pigments seem to be rela- clearly show that the inference of the ancestral pigments tively recent events in vertebrate evolution. These obser- depends not only on the phylogenetic relationship of vations are consistent with our suggestion that the extant pigments but also on the types of pigments used vertebrate ancestor had the LWS pigment rather than for constructing the phylogenetic tree. As noted earlier, the MWS pigment.
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Theoretical and Experimental Foundations for the Manufacturing of Mechanical Insulation Foams

Theoretical and Experimental Foundations for the Manufacturing of Mechanical Insulation Foams

- polymer binders, water, inorganic dust, mechanical foam stabilisers, pigments, other additives, - polymer binders, water, organic dust, mechanical.. foam stabilisers, pigments, other a[r]

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Redshifted and near infrared active analog pigments based upon archaerhodopsin 3

Redshifted and near infrared active analog pigments based upon archaerhodopsin 3

Archaerhodopsin-3 (AR3) is a member of the microbial rho- dopsin family of hepta-helical transmembrane proteins, con- taining a covalently bound molecule of all-trans retinal as a chromophore. It displays an absorbance band in the visible region of the solar spectrum (kmax 556 nm) and functions as a light-driven proton pump in the archaeon Halorubrum sodomense. AR3 and its mutants are widely used in neuro- science as optogenetic neural silencers and in particular as fluorescent indicators of transmembrane potential. In this study, we investigated the effect of analogs of the native ligand all-trans retinal A1 on the spectral properties and pro- ton-pumping activity of AR3 and its single mutant AR3 (F229S). While, surprisingly, the 3-methoxyretinal A2 analog did not redshift the absorbance maximum of AR3, the ana- logs retinal A2 and 3-methylamino-16-nor-1,2,3,4-didehydror- etinal (MMAR) did generate active redshifted AR3 pigments. The MMAR analog pigments could even be activated by near-infrared light. Furthermore, the MMAR pigments showed strongly enhanced fluorescence with an emission band in the near-infrared peaking around 815 nm. We antic- ipate that the AR3 pigments generated in this study have widespread potential for near-infrared exploitation as fl uores- cent voltage-gated sensors in optogenetics and artificial leafs and as proton pumps in bioenergy-based applications.
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Hydrolysis of carotenoid esters from Tagetes erecta by the action of lipases from Yarrowia lipolytica

Hydrolysis of carotenoid esters from Tagetes erecta by the action of lipases from Yarrowia lipolytica

the aid of lipases from different microorganisms, but few studies have used marigold oleoresin (Zorn et al. 2003). After pretreatments with bile salts and protease from Streptomyces griseus, mature human milk was treated with lipases from Candida rugosa in order to hydrolyze retinyl esters to obtain free β-carotene and retinol from milk; however, this method still required further chemi- cal hydrolysis (Liu et  al. 1998). Hydrolysis of esters of astaxanthin was achieved using the non-specific choles- terol esterase which has been demonstrated to hydro- lyze vitamins (Howles and Hui 2001; Jacobs et al. 1982). Carboxyl ester lipase (cholesterol esterase) achieved high activity for papaya and loquat extracts but low activ- ity in incubations with paprika and marigold oleoresins. A porcine pancreatic lipase and a lipase from Candida rugosa was also tested and showed some activity on xan- thophyll extracts (Breithaupt et  al. 2002). Alkali labile carotenoids were hydrolyzed with a pig liver esterase converting astaxanthin dipalmitate to the monopalmi- tate and free astaxanthin (Aakermann et al. 1996). Asta- xanthin, from Haematococcus pluvialis algal cell extracts, was effectively hydrolyzed by 5 fungal lipases in Tween 80-emulsified systems; under optimal conditions of pH, temperature, reaction time, and lipase dosage, free asta- xanthin recoveries of 63.2% were achieved (Zhao et  al. 2011). A process for enzymatic hydrolysis of carotenoid esters and other esters with aims of human and animal consumption has been presented as a patent; this pro- cess consists in the following: (1) incubate the esters with ester- cleaving lipases, and (2) appropriately isolate the resulting free forms (Flachmann et  al. 2005). Yar- rowia lipolytica is a yeast that has the potential industrial application of producing α-ketonic, acetic, citric, isocit- ric, pyruvic, and succinic acid; furthermore, it produces extracellular enzymes such as proteases and lipases
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Caffeine Modulates Biliary Secretions in Indigenous Nigerian Dogs

Caffeine Modulates Biliary Secretions in Indigenous Nigerian Dogs

Bile salts are formed within hepatocytes and secreted as sodium and potassium salts of bile acids (Steve and Roger, 2006). In this study, potassium concentration was significantly lowered in the caffeine treated animals (4.81 ± 0.21mmol/L). Although the value is within the normal range of 3.80 - 5.60 mmol/L (Duncan and Prasse, 2011), bile-acid- independent bile secretion involves secretion of water and electrolytes by the hepatocytes and the ductal epithelial cells, where sodium is transported actively into the bile canaliculi with passive movement of chloride ion and water (Pocock and Richards, 2006).
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Cholestasis induced by sodium taurolithocholate in isolated hamster liver

Cholestasis induced by sodium taurolithocholate in isolated hamster liver

Individual bile acids were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Of the injected taurolithocholate, 40-50% was recovered in bile as lithocholic acid, 30% was converted to chenodeoxycholic acid, and only traces of lithocholic acid were detected in the perfusate after 4 hr. Cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids comprised 75-89%, and lithocholic acid comprised 11-25% of bile acids in bile after taurolithocholate injection; only traces of […]

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Pigments of higher fungi – a review

Pigments of higher fungi – a review

droazulen-1-ol (69, R=H) or to their stearates, 69, R = CO[CH 2 ] 16 CH 3 . Recently, three other red azulene pigments have been isolated from the fruiting bodies of L. deliciosus being 7-acetyl-4- methylazulene-1-carbaldehyde, 7-(1,2-dihydroxy- 1-methylethyl)-4-methylazulene-1-carbaldehyde and 7-acetyl-4-methylazulene-1-carboxylic acid (Xang et al. 2006; Zhou & Liu 2010). The red pigment 1,3,5,7(11),9-pentaenyl-14-guaianal (70) was found in L. sanguifluus (Paulet) Fr., the li- pophilic pigment 1-hydroxymethyl-4-methyl- 7-(1-methylethenyl)azulene stearate; 68, R = CH 2 OCO[CH 2 ] 16 CH 3 , is responsible for the bril- liant blue colour of the Indigo Milk Cap L. indigo (Schwein.) Fr. (native to America and Asia and also reported from southern France) (Harmon et al. 1980; Ayer & Browne 1981; Koul et al. 1985; De Rosa & De Stefano 1987).
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Impaired negative feedback suppression 
of bile acid synthesis in mice lacking βKlotho

Impaired negative feedback suppression of bile acid synthesis in mice lacking βKlotho

FGF-mediated regulation is also a potential candidate for SHP- independent regulation. Lack of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (Fgfr4) elicits enhanced expression of Cyp7a1 in mice (15), and exogenous expression of FGF19, a specific ligand for FGFR4, suppresses Cyp7a1 expression (16). In human hepatocytes, FGF19 is induced by bile acids and suppresses CYP7A1 expres- sion regardless of SHP expression levels (16). In addition, Shp expression levels decreased in constitutively activated human FGFR4-transgenic mice along with the levels of bile acid pools but did not increase in response to elevated bile acid levels in FGFR4-deficient mice (36). These results suggests that FGFR4- mediated repression of Cyp7a1 is likely to be independent of SHP expression levels (36). Interestingly, there are several common phenotypes between βklotho –/– and Fgfr4 –/– mice. To our knowl-
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Transport of bile acids in hepatic and non hepatic tissues

Transport of bile acids in hepatic and non hepatic tissues

Bile acids are amphipathic steroidal compounds derived from the enzymatic catabolism of cholesterol (Fig. 1). They perform essential roles in gastrointestinal physiology (Hofmann, 1994). As the major solute in bile, they are a primary determinant of bile flow and biliary lipid secretion. The catabolism of cholesterol to bile acids is an important route for the elimination of cholesterol from the body, accounting for approximately 50 % of cholesterol eliminated daily. In the intestine, bile acids regulate pancreatic secretions and the release of gastrointestinal peptides (Koop et al., 1996; Riepl et al., 1996) and activate carboxyl ester lipase, which is required for the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins. The detergent properties of bile acids aid in the solubilization of cholesterol in bile and of dietary fats and cholesterol in intestinal fluid, a prerequisite for their intestinal absorption. Bile acids are also implicated in signal transduction pathways that regulate apoptosis, mucin secretion and biliary ductular secretion (Alpini et al., 1997a; Dray-Charier et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1997). The full physiological importance of bile acids may still not be fully appreciated.
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Commercial Applications of Plant Pigments

Commercial Applications of Plant Pigments

Colorful lipid soluble pigments are called carotenoids that are found in fungi, bacteria and algae and are present in fruits, vegetables and fish[2]. More than 600 carotenoids have been identified in different plant species. A typical human diet contains about 40 carotenoids and human blood and tissues have been found to contain around 20 carotenoids. Carotenoids are C-40 based isoprenoids which are tetraterpenes family. On the basis of structural differences, carotenoids are divided into different groups e.g. carotenes, lycopenes, xanthophylls, etc. Red color in fruits and vegetables is due to a carotenoid called lycopene according to a report by European Food Information Council (EUFIC). And yellow orange color in the fruits and vegetables is imparted by α- carotene, β-carotene, xanthophylls (lutein, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin) [3, 4]. Human body and diet contains different kinds of carotenoids like β- carotene,α-carotene, lycopene, lutein and cryptoxanthin [5].
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PLASMA PIGMENTS IN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS

PLASMA PIGMENTS IN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS

mothers who gave histories of having received blood in the past. There were 2:3, 60 and 52 infants, respectively, in the high, medium, and low heme pigment groups. The net henie pigment [r]

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PLASMA PIGMENTS IN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS

PLASMA PIGMENTS IN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS

The severe case occurred in an infant with a slightly lower bilirubin (approximately 6 mg./100 ml.), but he did.. Absorption curves obtained within 1 hour after birth in typical cases of[r]

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