A prominent question that concerns all bilingualeducation teachers and administrators is: How can we make sure students keep up with the content learning while developing the proficiency in a second language? This is the challenge that comes with all types of bilingualeducation programs, with no exception at this school. When half of the program is taught in a foreign language—Chinese in this case and students learn all content areas (Math, Science, and Social Studies) in Chinese, it is foreseeable that some students may struggle in learning the content knowledge in Chinese. As Ms. Wan commented, “Though I’m a native Chinese speaker, teaching Chinese and grade-level content in Chinese are two different things. I always have to rack my brains to come up with various ways to make my teaching comprehensible, in addition to the everyday classroom communications.”
McQuillan and Tse (1996) collected editorials and letters to the editor from a selection of eight “major national newspapers and magazines” (p. 8) which they felt were nationally representative of US public opinion. Though all eight of the original newspapers and magazines were considered for inclusion in the present study, only five out of eight had published articles on bilingualeducation during the period of 2006-2016. These five newspapers and magazines used by McQuillan and Tse (1996) were included: New York Times, Washington Post, LA Times, Time, U.S. News, and Dallas News was added to enhance geographical inclusivity which also assisted in the recognition of state administration of education and cultural diversity. Each individual letter is seen as one ‘article’.
Abstract. The current stage of human society development is characterised by such processes as economic and political globalisation, which indicates the significant changes in the historical and social scale of the socio-political structure of some states, technological progress and rapid development as the means of communication. Responding to the challenges of current period, the vocational education system should create conditions for the interconnected development of the cognitive and foreign language fields of future specialists. The similar technologies were named CLIL - Content and Language Integrated Learning and EMI - English as Medium for Instruction. However, in national information sources, theoretical and methodological aspects of bilingualeducation have not yet been adequately covered. Mastering foreign-language communicative competence becomes one of the necessary conditions for the successful career of the graduate student. This fact is recognised both by the academic community and by the students themselves. The new educational paradigm, which is currently asserted in education, reflects the modern view on the interrelationship of education and culture, in which education acts as a universal mechanism for the development of the specialist personality, free from thinking and action stereotypes, capable of intercultural communication and professional interaction in a foreign environment.
Despite strong empirical support, a reasonable rationale, and mildly positive public opinion, bilingualeducation was dismantled in three states. There is little evidence that xenophobic attitudes were to blame. Rather, the voting public was ignorant of the nature and effectiveness of bilingualeducation, and the profession made no organized effort to inform the public about bilingualeducation or to respond to attacks during the campaigns. This has resulted in more negative views of bilingualeducation. The cure is better communication with the public, more focused research efforts, and continued improvement of existing programs.
Futhermore, the bilingual teacher education perspective developed and discussed by LACE researchers acknowledges that all participants are active in the construction of their professional development both by talking about teaching and learning practices and by engaging in activities that are present in bilingual school contexts (Liberali, 2013). In this sense, researchers and practitioners together are involved in the evaluation and reorganization of pedagogical actions through discussion, analysis and review of the social and historical forces that permeate their actions, establishing relationships between what they do and what the theories about bilingualeducation have proposed. This reflection involves understanding the needs and interests of bilingual schools, bilingual educators, families and students, the results of the research conducted in the area of bilingualeducation around the world, and the demands of the superdiversity which is materialized in the Brazilian realities.
In early 1967, Senator Ralph Yarborough of Texas and six others co-sponsored Senate Bill 428, a bill that eventually became the BilingualEducation Act of 1968. More than 100 witnesses testified in favor of Senate Bill 428 during the Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee’s Special Subcommittee on BilingualEducation Hearings, and several major arguments in support of bilingual schooling for Spanish–speaking students were advanced (Sanchez, 1940, Valenzuela, 1989). Four arguments follow: (1) to prevent the scholastic retardation which resulted from providing English-only instruction to children dysfunctional in English language skills (though they arrived at school with at least an array of conversational abilities in Spanish), (2) to stem the psychological oppression experienced by Spanish-speaking students in all-English classrooms, (3) to prevent the loss of Spanish-speaking students’ potential; bilingual development, and (4) to promote effective home-school collaboration (Sanchez, 1940, Valenzuela, 1989).
The CDI exam is an ideal way to measure whether students perform relatively worse because of their bilingualeducation as it specifically measures the “indispensable skills and competencies” that a child at age 12 (age at which they take the exam) must have (Comunidad de Madrid 2010). It consists of three different exams: Spanish Language, Mathematics and, since 2011, General Knowledge (Science). It is important to note that in the bilingual schools the first two subjects (Spanish and Mathematics) must be taught in Spanish, while the General Knowledge subject must be taught in English. The three tests that are part of the CDI exam are, however, in Spanish, as every public school in Madrid (not only the bilingual schools) has to take the CDI exam. I compare CDI test scores for students in bilingual public schools with CDI test scores for students in non- bilingual public schools. The first issue of concern when trying to analyse the impact of the programme on school attainment is the fact that schools have to apply for the programme, instead of being placed in the programme randomly. Therefore these schools are not a representative sample of the population but a selected sub-sample. However, due to the fact that I have data on CDI test scores for 6 years, I circumvent this issue by performing a difference in difference analysis. This will compare a bilingual school’s test scores minus its scores when it was not bilingual (“treated” schools) and the non-bilingual schools’ test scores (“non-treated” schools) in that same year minus their previous test scores for pre-treatment years.
Record the number of staff in full-time equivalents (FTE's) who are appropriately credentialed for their respective area (bilingual, ESL instruction) in the current school year. Teachers holding temporary certificates, or who applied to the State Education Department for a temporary certificate in bilingualeducation or ESL, should be included.
One of the cornerstones of the European Community is the mutual respect for the different languages and cultures of those that make it up. This will only happen when all the languages of the Community are treated in the same manner. If the provision of language programmes and especially of programmes of bilingualeducation is confined to one or two major languages, only those languages will be respected. The case of a speaker of a minority language who receives bilingualeducation in a major language is very different to that of a speaker of a majority language who is given the opportunity to learn a minority language. If bilingualeducation is to mean simply the further promotion of a number of linguae francae, we should seriously reconsider whether it is of real value. There is a need for a well thought out policy in relation to language provision in general.
English Learners are a concern in the U.S. because, as their numbers grow, their academic performance (as measured by standardized reading, writing, and math tests) and their school engagement variables continue to lag behind those of native English speakers. In the years since the 2001 reauthorization of the federal Elementary and Secondary Educa- tion Act (ESEA), known by its popular name No Child Left Behind, we have entered a new era of assessment and accountability. All students, regardless of their English proficiency, are required to take standardized tests, and their performance affects their schools’ Annual Yearly Progress (AYP). As a result, the underperformance of English Learners has become the responsibility of all teachers and school administrators, not just the staff in charge of bring- ing English Learners to par with their native speaking counterparts. In a way, this increased visibility of English Learners’ performance as an indicator of school success is welcome news. However, in the face of standardization, instructional flexibility has suffered. Some argue that the passage of NCLB alone had the net effect of ending bilingualeducation as it had existed, for example, in New York City (Menken, 2008). Embedded in the new standards appears to be an assumption that the acquisition of English as a second language could be accelerated if only teachers and students were to try a little harder. This expectation is unrealistic. Educating children with limited English proficiency takes time. While conversa- tional English—the kind that students use with their peers—can be acquired with one or two years of exposure, reaching grade-appropriate academic language usually requires five or more years of academic learning in English (Cummins, 2001). As will be seen later, the rate of acquisition appears to be impervious to whether children are in Structured English Immersion or Transitional BilingualEducation programs.
English literacy and numeracy were the primary indicators of success (Disbray & Devlin, 2017). Not only did this move clearly demonstrate a language-as-problem orientation towards indigenous languages, but it also opened the programs up to criticism from proponents of English-only education, as it allowed them to ignore the holistic success of vernacular language instruction. When the Liberal Party came into office in 1996, under the leadership of John Howard, funding for Aboriginal programs was cut and the general focus on reconciliation was set aside (Devlin, 2017b). The education of L1 speakers of indigenous languages was further affected in 1998 when the Commonwealth Government implemented a new policy which “subsumed ESL funding under the literacy umbrella” (Devlin, 2017b) despite recommendations from the report they commissioned a year earlier which emphasised the importance of English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Second Dialect (ESD) support for linguistic minority speakers (Lo Bianco & Freebody, 2001). Additionally, the Country Liberal Party Government in the NT attempted to abolish bilingualeducation in favour of English-only programs, much to the objection of many communities, linguists, and education professionals (Simpson et al., 2009). The conflict between government and local stakeholders resulted in a major government-commissioned review of bilingual programs, known as the Collins Report (Collins, 1999). This report re-branded bilingualeducation as “two-way learning” and recommended that the NT Department of Education support this style of teaching “in schools where the local community wants such a program” (p. 12, rec. 98) and that they issue “a formal policy document…affirming the value of Indigenous language and culture” (p. 12, rec. 100). The report also addressed the issue of teacher training, which had long been identified as a major factor in the success of bilingual programs, emphasising the importance of cross-cultural training for non-indigenous teachers (rec. 63), increased
partially implement Proposition 227. The percentage enrolled in bilingualeducation declined by almost 20 percentage points in the first year of 227 and continues to decline by a few points each year. This is only slightly less than the average decline of 24 points in the largest districts. Secondly, the percentage tested increased by about 20 percentage points. In other words, students who would not have been tested before Proposition 227 were now being tested. Thus, even if nothing had changed, we would expect achievement to go down. But in fact, something did change--bilingualeducation enrollment was substantially reduced in San Jose. If San Jose had an achievement gain as a result of this or some other program change, it is quite likely that it would be completely obscured in the aggregate data reported in the Wall Street Journal article by the increase in the percentage of English Learners tested. Indeed, this is true for the state as a whole and for most school districts.
The path to policy implementation, which has become a crucial driver in the attempt to improve the quality of education, generates a lot of challenges across the world (Rosi & Rosli, 2014; Spillane, Reiser & Reimer, 2002), and the UAE is no exception (O’Sullivan, 2015). Quite understandably, laying the foundation for dramatic quality improvement in the education reform is considerably vital; however, some policies that emerge in the reform require a wide-ranging discussion to make their content comprehensible. Although ADEC strives to develop education, educational policies in the UAE, similarly to any other worldwide educational environment, are inevitably subject to global influences (Robichau & Lynn 2009). O’Sullivan (2015) stated that the problem of the educational policies followed in the UAE is that they are not home-grown or reflective of the country's needs. She elaborated that although the supervising body of education in the emirate of Abu Dhabi has attempted to increase the quality of education for four decades, the education system seems to have been unsuccessful. To help achieve the objectives of ADEC's vision, numerous policies concerning bilingualeducation system have been created. Yet, those policies have not been indigenous and therefore it is expected that the inborn policies in the UAE may lead to gaps between the policy and implementation.
This study seeks to identify the obstacles and opportunities involved in setting up a bilingualeducation system and to identify the challenges and benefits associated with the daily experience of maintaining a bilingualeducation model. This study discusses the benefits of developing a bilingualeducation program and what these programs can offer regarding concerns related to the lives of minority people in Turkey. Explanatory sequential mixed method was used for this study. The first phase of this study was a survey that measured the perspectives of educators regarding potential bilingualeducation curricula in Turkey. The second phase comprised a qualitative data collection process to expand on the findings of quantitative results. For quantitative data collection, 140 participants responded the survey instrument. Participants included 96 males and 44 females. For qualitative data collection, eight participants were interviewed. Both quantitative and qualitative data reflected the benefits of a bilingualeducation program. First, minority students who are taught by means of a bilingualeducation program can protect their linguistic knowledge, cultural heritage, ethnic, and religious identity. Second, they can increase their understanding of linguistic and cultural diversity. Third, school attendance at the primary school level could be increased. Fourth, a bilingual program could contribute to the reduction of inequalities. Keywords: bilingualeducation, Turkey, culture, linguistics
I think it is very important to pay attention to the voices of these Colombian academics, who are warning against an exclusive concern with one language of power and prestige, however important it may be on the international stage. A multicultural and plurilingual nation needs a language policy which takes into account not only exolingual, but also endolingual concerns. In other words, we need to look both outwards towards a globalised world, as well as inwards to focus on local complexities. The question we can ask is, thus, how far bilingualeducation programmes for majority language speakers in Colombia today are actively helping towards the creation of a more understanding, a more tolerant society and not only providing a way to better jobs and a higher standard of living for their graduates?
Since the 1 9 50 ' s, Bernstein (19 7 1 ) and his col leagues have suggest ed a relationship between the social structure of two broad social groups found in Western societies, the l ower working class and the midd l e cl ass , and language use. He maintains that inclusive social rel ationships found mainl y in the l ower working cl ass, give rise to a restricted l anguage code, which is l exical l y and syntactical l y simple and p redictabl e, semantical l y impl icit , context-bound and egocentric in the Piagetian sense. Language is used to define rol e rel ationships and to express consensus whil st personal qual ifications are gov erned by non-verbal means, such as tone, vo lume and physical set. Exclu sive social rel ationships, found chiefl y in the middle cl ass, give rise to an el aborated code which is l exical l y complex and semantical l y explici t, context free and sociocentric. Personal qual ification is used to express individuality. Berrist c in (1 9 71 ) suggested that these different speech fo rms create fo r their speakers ' different orders of rel evance and rel ation ' which affect perception, cognition and the categorisation o f experience . He described education as the process o f intro ducing a chil d to the universal istic meanings of publ ic forms o f thought. As schoo l s are institutions run largel y according to middle cl ass norms and staffed by middle cl ass personne l , a middl e cl ass chil d is more l ikel y to fee l at home there than a working cl ass child who may experience discontinuity between home and school . 'This w ork has impl ications for bilingualeducation, as a chil d partici p at ing in a bilingual programme coul d experience similar discontinuity to that mentioned by Bernstein if his dial ect were different from the
2012). The Standard requires schools to provide at least 50% of contact time in English in the first three years of bilingual HAVO and VWO (general and pre-university streams), and 30% in VMBO (pre-vocational stream). The Standard also incorporates further criteria relating to language proficiency, academic results, curriculum content, school organisation and key teacher competences, the latter being described in an appendix to the Standard entitled ‘The competency profile for tto teachers’. The two main ‘pillars’ of bilingualeducation as enacted through the current Standard are CLIL pedagogy, and supporting development of European & International Orientation (EIO). Adherence to the Standard is assessed through an initial audit by a panel of experts, followed by periodical accreditation visits to ensure that standards are maintained (de Graaff & van Wilgenburg, 2015).
This empirical research tries to shed more light on the effectiveness of bilingualeducation in the Netherlands. It will give insight into the vocabulary, ease of speaking, and general level of English of students from both the monolingual and bilingual programs. Teachers of English as a foreign language usually teach by using a spoken form of English. They use one the two major ‘standardized’ English reference accents in order to make the learning process possible. These two major accents are Received Pronunciation (RP) and/or General American (GA). This research aims to find out whether the students from the bilingual program have an RP or GA accent, and compares this accent to the accent found among ‘regular’ monolingual students. Furthermore, it investigates how native speakers of English perceive the different accents. This research has been done by asking students of both monolingual and bilingualeducation programs to describe the same picture given to them. This gave insights into accent, vocabulary, and the level/general ease the students have with English. These descriptions of the picture were then assessed by native speakers of English, who shared their opinions on the different accents in order to come to a common judgment.
Tibetans. She is a well-known Han-Chinese and Tibetan writer, poet, essayist, and activist. Her own blog ‘Invisible Tibet’ (Kan bu jian de Xizang 看不见的西藏) is an influential blog that exhibits a critical view towards the Chinese authorities. She has been placed under house arrest by the Chinese officials for the second time in 2013 and her websites have been closed down, but she succeeds to write on Tibetan matters from inside China. She is therefore a controversial figure in contemporary China. In 2010, she wrote a blog about the future of Tibetan bilingualeducation, and referenced the Inner Mongolian bilingualeducation case that was merged with the Han school. According to Woeser, Inner Mongolian schools will disappear as a consequence of mixing them with Han schools (Woeser, 2010). This paper will analyse her blogs about her experience at Chengdu high schools as a Han and Tibetan student. In this blog she mentions aspects that deal with bilingualeducation for Tibetan students in Chengdu, for example the deterioration of her Tibetan language ability, culture shock, and segregation of Tibetan students from Han-Chinese students.
As mentioned above, researchers in education and linguistics examine the e¤ect of education language policy on academic achievement of students. In economics, there exist a small number of empirical works examining e¤ects on educational and labor market outcomes. Angrist, Chin and Goody (2008) analyze the e¤ect of the policy change in Puerto Rico in 1949, in which Spanish replaced English as the medium of instruction in secondary education, on English skills, and …nd that the policy change did not lower English skills of the a¤ected students. Laitin, Ramachandran and Walter (2016) examine the e¤ect of an experimental local language schooling program on academic performance of students in Cameroon, and …nd that e¤ects are sizeable in the short run but fade quickly after students revert to English-medium education. As for labor market outcomes, Angrist and Lavy (1999) …nd that replacing French with Arabic as the medium of instruction in post-primary education greatly lowered returns to schooling in Morocco. Cappellari and Di Paolo (2015) analyze the e¤ects of the 1983 bilingualeducation reform in the Catalonia region of Spain, which introduced Catalan alongside Spanish as mediums of instruction, and …nd positive wage returns to the bilingualeducation but no e¤ects on employment, hours of work, and occupation. 9