Bills of Quantities (BQ)

Top PDF Bills of Quantities (BQ):

Bills of quantities : are they still useful and relevant today?

Bills of quantities : are they still useful and relevant today?

ABSTRACT: Historically, the formal form of Bills of Quantities was introduced in the United Kingdom after the Industrial Revolution in the 19 th Century. They were mainly used by master tradesmen for paying their workmen and claiming payments from building owners by submitting it as partisan Final Account. BQ are widely used in most of the Commonwealth countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Kenya, the Middle Eastern countries etc. particularly in the traditional procurement system. BQ are mainly used for cost estimating and more importantly, as part of tender document for use in soliciting competitive tenders from contractors. They are also compiled together with contract form to form a contract document. However, as construction industry evolved and changed technologically, economically, legally and procedurally, so is the use of s in construction projects. It has been the subject of scrutiny and criticisms by the construction community. It was highlighted that the use of BQ in the UK construction industry is declining and it is possible that they will vanish from the industry in the near future. In 1991 the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors revealed that between 1984 and 1989 the usage of s in building works in the UK declined in value to almost 10%. Several reasons were given for such a situation. These include the lack of use by the project teams, its limited use after the tendering process and the increased use of more “advanced” non-traditional procurement system by the industry. That was the situation and prediction made twenty years ago. The question now “What is the situation in our construction industry today? Are BQ still relevant today, especially when more and more projects are contracted out using the non-traditional procurement systems? Are they still useful to the clients, architects, engineers and contractors throughout the construction process? This paper looks at the issue of BQ, their weakness and potential in the construction industry
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Framework development of bills of quantities accuracy in construction organisation

Framework development of bills of quantities accuracy in construction organisation

The BQ is useful in providing the contractors, clients and consultants with the necessary information that will enable them to manage the project more effectively (Rosli et al., 2006). It was well recognised in the process o f tendering and is expandable to be used in a variety o f other purposes. The uses o f the BQ can be summed up from the perspectives o f contractors, clients and consultants (Rosli. et al., 2006). In this regard, substantial interest is vested to the contractors as they are considered as the main user o f the BQ (Davis, et al., 2009; Morledge and Kings, 2006). Rosli. et al. (2008) states that BQ is important to the contracting organisation as it assists them in budgeting, establishing materials/labour requirement, claims as well as procuring sub-contractors in various trades requirement. Overall, the BQ creates a platform for the fairest bidding to take place and allow the contractors to perform an estimate on the same basis (Rosli. et al., 2006, 2008).
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Impacts of Significant Risk Factors on Forecasted Construction Cash Flows of Building Projects

Impacts of Significant Risk Factors on Forecasted Construction Cash Flows of Building Projects

on forecasted construction cash flows (FCCFs) which exceed the contingency sum provided during execution of construction projects. These variations may be caused by risk factors inherent in construction projects. This research is therefore aimed to analyze the impacts of significant risk factors in causing the variations on FCCFs of building projects in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. These impacts were analyzed in terms of relative contributions/importance of risk factors in causing variations on FCCFs of building projects. The study was conducted through documentary reviews which covered various contract documents from 40 completed building projects in Dar es Salaam (from 2009 to 2014). Also, interviews with project members and informal self-auditing to contract documents were done during documentary reviews in order to get additional information which were not directly found in contract documents. The data were mainly analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 and Microsoft Excel. The study found that significant risk factor with highest overall NRI (0.249) in causing variations (impacts) on overall FCCFs of building projects is unclarity of clients’ requirements, and the second highest overall NRI (0.187) is errors in project documents (Bills of Quantities). It is therefore recommended that established relative contributions /importance of significant risk factors in causing variations (impacts) on FCCFs of building projects should be used as ones of input parameters in modelling the variations on FCCFs. Also, risk avoidance measures are recommended to be used for controlling the risk factors with highest overall NRI in causing impacts on FCCFs in building projects such as unclarity of clients’ requirements, and errors in project documents (Bills of Quantities).
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Towards the establishment of a relevant national tender price index for the South African building industry

Towards the establishment of a relevant national tender price index for the South African building industry

There is currently only one published tender price index available in South Africa for use by built-environment practitioners. The purpose of this article is to report on an investigation into the nature of a more recent tender price index. A literature study was conducted to examine the theory of indices in order to establish which type of index as well as which formula would be appropriate for use in South Africa. Thereafter, the priced bills of quantities of a selected number of projects were analysed in order to identify representative indicator items as well as the weighting thereof for an index. Thirty-two indicator items were identified that could be used for calculating an index. In addition, sourced priced bills of quantities for a number of projects over a six-and-a-half year period were analysed to calculate average rates for the 32 selected indicator items. These rates, together with the established weightings of items, were used to calculate an index.
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The contributions of construction material waste to project cost overruns in Abuja, Nigeria

The contributions of construction material waste to project cost overruns in Abuja, Nigeria

Material wastage on construction sites can contribute to cost overruns. Research to provide evidence of the extent of material wastages’ contribution to cost overruns on construction sites is based mostly on surveys. Thus, the actual contribution is not yet ascertained. The purpose of this article is to report the results of an objectively investigated study on the contributions of material waste to project-cost overrun. The methodological approach adopted for the study is the quantitative technique that is rooted in the positivist paradigm. The investigation included ongoing building construction projects within Abuja, Nigeria, from which a sample of 31 public and private projects was purposefully selected (project value of ₦1.6 billion Naira and above). The data for this research were sourced from the field investigation (measurement of the volume of material waste) and data from the archival records (drawings, bills of quantities, project-progress reports, and specifications) on material waste and cost overruns. The collected data were analysed using the Pearson moment correlation and the descriptive method. The research results revealed a statistically significant relationship between material waste and cost overrun. This implies that any increase in the volume of material waste would lead to a corresponding increase in the amount of cost overrun. The results showed that the significant percentage contribution of material waste to project-cost overrun ranges from 1.96% to 8.01%, with an average contribution of 4.0% to project-cost overruns. It is recommended that construction professionals be well informed of the consequences of material waste contributions to project-cost overrun at an early stage, in order to enable the professionals to evaluate the extent to which these consequences could be minimised. Keywords: Cost overrun, construction waste, con- struc tion industry, material waste, Nigeria
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Impacts of Significant Risk Factors on Forecasted Construction Cash Flows of Building Projects

Impacts of Significant Risk Factors on Forecasted Construction Cash Flows of Building Projects

It is a fact that higher variations on FCCFs to significant work parts in building projects such as substructure and frames are contributed by errors in project documents (Bills of Quantities) because there is accumulation of errors in substructure and frames elements due to many items which are found in these work activities. Work items such as concrete, steel reinforcements and formwork in those work activities are normally expensive and have large quantities. Basically, the projected construction cash flows depend much on project documents such as Bills of Quantities in projection or forecasting the construction cash flows. This implies that if there are big errors in project documents, FCCFs in substructure and frame works are also going to experience high variations between actual and planned construction cash flows.
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Personalized Bills as Commemorations: A Problem for House Rules?

Personalized Bills as Commemorations: A Problem for House Rules?

A more concrete example of the problematic nature of drafting personalized commemorations into bills is the 109th Congress’s passing of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 24 —which occurred when clause 5 of the House Rule was in place. This personalized law, named after the son of America’s Most Wanted host John Walsh, established dates for reports due to Congress, 25 appropriated funds for

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Asymptotic decay estimate of solutions to the generalized damped Bq equation

Asymptotic decay estimate of solutions to the generalized damped Bq equation

was derived by Boussinesq [] in  to describe shallow water waves, where u(x, t) is an elevation of the free surface of fluid and the constant coefficients α and β depend on the depth of fluid and the characteristic speed of long waves. It is interesting to note that this equation governs nonlinear string oscillations as well. For (.) and the generalized Bq equation, there are lots of important results (see [–]).

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Land Exchanges and Public Lands Bills in Utah

Land Exchanges and Public Lands Bills in Utah

Economic benefits are also substantial. County lands bills aim to open up some public land for development, with the intent to spur economic activity. Exchanges and lands bills allow SITLA to trade its trust lands out of areas where making revenue is difficult and into more lucrative, develop- able, and often mineral-rich portions of the state. Money earned from trust lands is then distributed to its beneficiaries, most significantly the Common School Fund, which directly funds Utah’s public schools (SITLA, “Who gets the money?,” 2009, para. 3). In addition to the direct and indirect economic benefits of development, investment in education is necessary if future economic gains are to be made. The education advocacy group, Prosperity 2020, estimates approximately “two-thirds of all jobs in Utah will require postsecondary training beyond high school by 2018” (Prosperity 2020, 2012, para. 6). While developed land certainly produces economic benefits, so does land that is set aside for conservation due to its recreational opportu- nities and potential to draw tourists. In 2011 alone, just fewer than 5 million visitors came to national monuments and national recreation areas within Utah while another 6.3 million visited national parks within the state, according to the Utah Office of Tourism (2011). According to the Outdoor Industry Foundation, “active outdoor recreation” in Utah “contributes $5.8 billion dollars annually to Utah’s economy,” supporting “65,000 jobs across Utah” (Outdoor Industry Foundation, 2006, p. 5). While neither exchanges nor lands bills directly produce these visitation nor recreation results, they can rearrange land ownership so as to stimulate the positive economic effects which come with conservation while providing for extractive devel- opment elsewhere. These methods, through consolidation of lands with similar characteristics, have great potential to produce profitable “win/win” economic scenarios where both developed and conserved lands could generate enormous revenue and create jobs.
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Does Branch Network Size Influence Positively the Management Performance of Japanese Regional Banks?

Does Branch Network Size Influence Positively the Management Performance of Japanese Regional Banks?

This paper investigates whether branch network expansions by Japanese regional banks influence their management performances positively at a time when management environments surrounding regional financial institutions have become increasingly severe due to the population decreases and shrinkage of regional economies. Specifically, the effects of numbers of regional bank branches on their credit businesses and profits are empirically examined. The results indicated that regional banks with more branches can increase their loans and bills discounted as well as their small and mid-sized enterprises (SME) loans and bills discounted. Thus, establishing more branches is effective in increasing the total sum of loans and bills discounted by each bank because regional banks with many branches can make contact with more customers. On the other hand, return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) of regional banks with more branches were found to be lower. Therefore, regarding the cost performance of regional banks, establishing too many branches and maintaining branch networks that are too large can have negative effects on regional banks.
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Vetting bills in the Scottish Parliament for legislative competence

Vetting bills in the Scottish Parliament for legislative competence

Within the Office of the Advocate General (OAG), legal advisers (themselves drawn from SGLD) will address both policy and legal issues that arise as a result of devolution. On the policy side, advisers engage with UK Government officials both to ensure that its own legislation is compliant with Scots law (what one official referred to as “putting a kilt” on UK legislation), as well as to ensure that UK Government departments understand how devolved legislation might impact upon UK policies. This latter process involves informing the relevant departments about Scottish Parliament Bills, highlighting any possible concerns, liaising between Government departments and the Attorney General’s office, and making such recommendations as are necessary to the Advocate General. The Advocate General’s legal advisers also focus specifically on the legal dimensions of devolved legislation: advising the Advocate General with regard to their section 33 power. Here, issues might arise either as a result of disagreement between the UK and Scottish Governments about the competence of a particular Bill or because the limits to competence constrain the Scottish Government from pursuing policies to which the UK Government has no objection (in particular where there is synergy between the policy interests of both parties). In the former case we were told that the possibility of a reference might encourage changes to the Bill that would bring it within competence. In the latter case more friendly approaches can be used, in the sense of trying to enable rather than to constrain legislative actions. The devolution settlement is an inherently fluid one in that it does not prescribe such firm boundaries as to require formal amendments to the political settlement as a whole every time legislation or the authorization for new powers is thought not strictly to be within competence. Thus section 104 of the Scotland Act 1998 allows for consequential modifications to be made to reserved law in order to accommodate Scottish legislation, section 30 allows for adjustment of the scope of devolved competence by means of an Order-in-Council, whilst the Scottish Parliament might lend its legislative consent to UK legislation in devolved areas in order to avoid the risk of legal challenge in politically contentious areas. 54
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Cost and profit efficiency of banks in Haiti: do domestic banks perform better than foreign banks?

Cost and profit efficiency of banks in Haiti: do domestic banks perform better than foreign banks?

The results of my paper reveal that domestic banks are more profit efficient than foreign banks, whereas foreign banks are more cost efficient than domes- tic banks. This paper is the first one that studies cost and profit efficiencies of banks in Haiti. It shows also that, although treasury bills constitute an alternative source of profit for banks in developing countries such as Haiti, a growth of interest rate on treasury bills increases profit efficiency in current period whereas it decreases profit efficiency one period after the growth of the interest rate. To conduct this study, I use the stochastic frontier analysis approach to estimate a Fourier-flexible form of the cost and profit frontier functions. The results of the estimations are robust to explain inefficiency effects. Actually, most of the translog and Fourier parameters, not shown in the paper, are significant. In addition, the one-sided generalized likelihood ratio test indicates that there are inefficiency effects in the estimations.
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A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

A recent study of radon in homes in Iran was published by Hadad et al. (2007) focussed on four northern cities (Lahi- jan, Arbadil, Sar-Ein and Namin, see Fig. 1). The average radon concentrations in these cities were (in order) 163, 240, 160 and 144 Bq/m 3 . These were in a region close to an area known for its high background radiation levels (Ram- sar, with its associated hot water springs and 226 Ra/ 222 Rn content, Fig. 1; Samavat, 2002). The mean radon concentra- tion in this study for Hamadan was 108 Bq/m 3 : the highest concentration of 364 Bq/m 3 being observed in a ground floor bedroom with a simple mud floor, and the lowest observed in a ground floor bedroom which had a floor covered with a better engineered clay material. Earth floors may crack eas- ily (through drying out or shrinking and swelling if they con- tain bentonite) and allow radon gas to permeate through the ground to the floor level inside of such homes. Seasonal vari- ation showed that during the winter period due to the closure of entrance doors and windows, radon gas accumulated in the more restricted spaces and led to increased radon levels.
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Reducing Energy Bills With The Application Of Sms Controlled System

Reducing Energy Bills With The Application Of Sms Controlled System

there are several communication links that can be used, such as infrared, Bluetooth, etc. This paper proposes a method of reducing the energy bills in a home using an SMS remote controlled system. Short Message service is a GSM technology. This is an open, digital cellular technology for transmitting mobile voice and data services. It supports 9600 Kbps band rate for voice calls and data transfers [5]. Almost every individual today owns a mobile phone, this saves money, and time enabling users to curtail their energy usage by controlling the ON and OFF periods of their home appliances from anywhere in the world provided GSM network exists. The SMS controller system consists of a mobile phone which is interfaced to an Atmel AT89C52 microcontroller. This mobile phone plus the microcontroller serves as the SMS controller system, which is connected to the necessary appliances using a ULN2003 relay driver. The final system provides a reliable, highly flexible and very efficient way to remotely control home appliances so as to notably reduce energy bills. The energy situation in developing countries has also been investigated, so that the need for a system that focuses on reduction in energy consumption more than energy generation, will be greater appreciated.
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Class of Electromagnetic BI-Quadratic (Bq) Media

Class of Electromagnetic BI-Quadratic (Bq) Media

A = ξ | µ − 1 | (ξ + ζ) | µ − 1 − | µ − 1 , (51) B = ξ | µ − 1 | − ξ | µ − 1 | (ξ + ζ ) | µ − 1 | ζ + | µ − 1 | ζ, (52) C = µ − 1 | (ξ + ζ ) | µ − 1 , (53) D = µ − 1 | − µ − 1 | (ξ + ζ ) | µ − 1 | ζ. (54) When substituted in (45)–(48), BQ medium conditions are obtained for the medium dyadics , ξ, ζ, µ. This is quite an involved task and the details are shown in Appendix A. As a result, it is shown that, as pointed out above, there is a double redundancy in the conditions (45)–(48). Actually, two of the dyadic conditions are sufficient to define a BQ medium, provided the dyadic µ − 1 | has an inverse which is assumed in the sequel. The conditions can be reduced to the form (A23) and (A24), rewritten here for convenience as
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Impact of environmental radiation on the health and reproductive status of fish from Chernobyl

Impact of environmental radiation on the health and reproductive status of fish from Chernobyl

4 Bq/kg w.w. respectively and were higher than in perch from Cooling Pond (H) reaching 23 and 3 Bq/kg w.w. in liver (p = 0.001) and muscle (p = 0.01) respectively; and from Yanovsky (H) lake reaching 22 and 3 Bq/kg w.w. in liver (p = 0.002) and muscle (p = 0.02) respectively (Figure S1 A for liver and B for muscle, Table S4). Concentration levels of 241 Am in liver and

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Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon 222 analysis

Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon 222 analysis

Abstract. Due to its high activities in groundwater, the ra- dionuclide 222 Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the com- paratively low activities in the lakes can be measured accu- rately. Here we present a simple method for radon measure- ments in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m −3 , appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The an- alytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established proce- dures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l) water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222 Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m 3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake water interaction.
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The changing perception in the artefacts used in the design practice through BIM adoption

The changing perception in the artefacts used in the design practice through BIM adoption

When CAD (Computer Aided Design) was generally adopted in the early 1990‟s, the hand drawn process was replaced with the CAD drawing but the nature of the artefacts / deliverables and the exchanges of information between disciplines remained fundamentally the same. The deliverables remained 2D representations of 3D forms and Specifications and Bill of Quantities. However, the building industry is under great pressure to provide value for money, sustainable design and construction. This has propelled the adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM). BIM is a foundational tool for a team based lean design approach. It can enable the intelligent interrogation of design; provide a quicker and cheaper design production; better co-ordination of documentation; more effective change control; less repetition of processes; a better quality constructed product; and improved communication both for the architectural practice and across the supply chain.
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DOSE ASSESSMENT IN ANABAS TESTUDINEUS AFFECTED FROM EXPOSURE OF WATERBORNE Th-232

DOSE ASSESSMENT IN ANABAS TESTUDINEUS AFFECTED FROM EXPOSURE OF WATERBORNE Th-232

represent the sample replications. In this study, the initial concentration of 50 Bq/L was sampled until 40 days to determine an equilibrium concentration. Then, fishes were put in the deep freezer for a while in order to kill them. Fishes were wiped with tissue paper to remove water that affects the fresh weight of fishes. Physical parameter of fishes such as weight, length, height and width were measured and the whole body of each fish was blended individually using food blender or processor. Blended fishes were then placed in 350 mL plastic container and distilled water was added in order to be the same with standard geometry prior to radionuclide activity measurement. About 300 g of water media samples were weighed and placed in 350 mL plastic container for counting. These two types of blended whole-body fish and water media samples were counted using gamma spectrometry system for 28800 and 3600 seconds, respectively. The activity concentrations for each type of sample were averaged from the triplicates of the samples. Concentration ratios of Th-232 were then calculated as explain in introduction part and whole-body total dose rates were estimated using ERICA Assessment Tool.
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AN ANALYSIS OF NIGERIA FOOD IMPORTS AND BILLS

AN ANALYSIS OF NIGERIA FOOD IMPORTS AND BILLS

An analysis of Nigeria’s food import structure and bills throws light on the trend in the importation of food in the period that marks about a decade before the current political dispensation to 2010. The broad objective of this study is, therefore, to analyze Nigeria’s imports and bills in 1990-2010. Secondary data were sourced to meet the requirements of this study. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) was visited to collect the data. Complementarily, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) was also contacted. Nigeria imported an average of ₦1.923 trillion worth of commodities per annum (at current prices) in the period. In essence, the nation imported about ₦1.0 billion worth of food per day in the period 1990-2011. This was about USD 9.28 million worth of food per day in the period. The result reveals that although the country had a positive trade balance (on the aggregate) annual food import bill was in multiples of five times of the export.
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