In this research paper, a novel binary counter based approximate multiplier was proposed and simulated in Tanner Tools with 180nm technology. The proposed multiplier architecture is 22% more energy efficient when compared to the previously proposed architecture. This is mainly because of the use of 6:3 binary counter that is used in place of mere full adders for partial product accumulation. Since no Exclusive OR Structures and multiplexers are there on the critical path, this binary counter achieves better speed with reduced latency and power consumption. This approximate multiplier besides being energy efficient, is also error tolerant as it has an average computational error of just 1% which in turn make this architecture ready for real time signal and image processing applications.
In this paper, we have presented hardware implementations of Warbler in CMOS 65nm and CMOS 130nm ASICs. We proposed an architecture that takes advantage of standard registers without chip- enable signals. In addition, we investigated two methods for designing the FSM: binary counter-based and LFSR counter-based. We used three different compilation techniques to optimize our designs. We can achieve the areas of 498 GEs and 534 GEs after the place and route phase in CMOS 65nm and CMOS 130nm respectively. The corresponding maximum frequencies are 1430 MHz and 250 MHz respectively, for CMOS 65nm and CMOS 130nm. The power consumption of Warbler is very small at 100 KHz: only 1.239 µW and 0.296 µW respectively, for CMOS 65nm and CMOS 130nm. From the ASIC results, we have determined that the LFSR counter-based design is better than the binary counter- based design in terms of smaller area and lower total power consumption. In addition, the sequential logic ratios for all our designs are larger than 65% for both CMOS 65nm and CMOS 130nm. Our analysis has verified that the areas of NLFSRs and combinational logic are dependent upon the type of registers and the adopted technologies. The area of the WG-5 transformation table depends upon the selected decimation value, giving us some suggestions for future ciphers and pseudorandom number generator designs using WG-5 transformations. When compared with other lightweight primitives, the area of our Warbler implementation is smaller than the estimated areas of LAMED, Melia-Segui et al.’s PRNG, and J3Gen, and also smaller than the areas of AKARI1B, Grain, Trivium, S IMON , S PECK , PHOTON- 80/20/16, and SPONGENT-88. In conclusion, Warbler can fit into passive RFID systems.
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The MOD number of a Johnson counter is twice the number of flip-flops. In the example above, three flip-flops were used to create the MOD-6 Johnson counter. So for a given MOD number, a Johnson counter requires only half the number of flip-flops needed for a ring counter. However, a Johnson counter requires decoding gates whereas a ring counter doesn't. As with the binary counter, one logic gate (AND gate) is required to decode each state, but with the Johnson counter, each gate requires only two inputs, regardless of the number of flip-flops in the counter. Note that we are comparing with the binary counter using the speed up technique discussed above. The reason for this is that for each state, two of the N flip-flops used will be in a unique combination of states. In the example above, the combination Q2 = Q1 = 0 occurs only once in the counting sequence, at the count of 0. The state 010 does not occur. Thus, an AND gate with inputs (not Q2) and (not Q2) can be used to decode for this state. The same characteristic is shared by all the other states in the sequence.
Abstract—in this paper one new binary counter is proposed which is very fast when compared to other usual parallel counters. First, we are designing binary counter using solely full adders and after with new symmetric stacking method. We are evaluating these two techniques and displaying how the symmetric stacking method is decreasing the x-or gate delays in the essential route of the binary counter. This kind of our proposed counter is very useful in the existing counter based totally Wallace tree multiplier design. With this new symmetry stacking counter we are lowering delay and increasing the performance of multipliers in VLSI circuits. we are designing and simulating our proposed quick binary counter using Xilinx ISE layout suite 14.5. Keywords- binary counter, full adder, symmetry stacking, 6:3 architecture, wallace tree multiplier, Xilinx 14.5
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3) Ring Counter - In the 2nd architecture (BZFAD) we use ring counter of wider width just because of the reason that if we use any other binary counter then number of transition will increase and dynamic power increases so due to this we use chain of d flip flop which act as a ring counter as all of the flops having common clock and this can be further reduce by applying clock gating circuit to the input and check the input or the if the output is one then only enable the clock circuit so this further can reduce the switching activity or power consumption and the output store in the latch but if we apply this clock gating circuit to all the flip flop then area will increase and this will become another concerning factor so that why we are using for ingle flip flop .So on the basis of that this work one can conclude the low power ring counter have their own advantage in achieving low switching activity and power.
ABSTRACT: In this paper, an efficient low-power structure called bypass zero, feeding directly to An Efficient Low Power Multiplier based on shift-and-add multipliers is proposed. This architecture derives for lowers the switching activity of conventional multipliers. The modifications made to the multiplier which multiplies by include the removal of the shifting of the register and direct feeding to the adder, It bypasses the adder whenever possible, by using The ring counter instead of a binary counter and removal of the partial product shift. In this architecture we make use of a low-power ring counter proposed. The Simulation results for 32-bit radix-2 multipliers show that the Very an Efficient Low architecture and lowers the total switching activity up to 76% and power consumption up to 30% than to the conventional architecture. The proposed Architecture of multiplier can be used for low-power applications and where the speed is not a primary design parameter
Generation of defects could be appropriate if and only if the submitted argument is interpreted in the right sense. Therefore, we have utilized the Indian logic based mechanism of argument representation  to have a correct interpretation of the argument elements. To analyse the input argument properly, the elements of arguments should have a correct mapping in the knowledgebase. In addition, the methodology with which the items of the knowledgebase are represented should also be convincing so that, there is no mis-map of world knowledge into the knowledge base. Quick as well as complete knowledge representation formalisms are required which play a good role in finding the defects of the submitted arguments. Indian philosophical method of knowledge representation [10, 40] comes to rescue at this juncture. It is a complete as well as descriptive kind of classification recommended from Nyaya Sastra, the famous Indian Philosophy. In this paper, we have utilized the classification recommendations [1, 10] of Nyaya sastra, and interpret the elements of arguments into specially enhanced knowledge representation formalisms called Nyaya logics. The overall idea is to address the mechanism of argumentation by finding flaws or defects in the arguments and thereby generate a suitable counter-argument .
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Reputational risk also goes both ways. While government-backed counter messages need to serve government policy, informal actors have unknown motivations, and may even be actively hostile to wider CVE policy agendas. In some cases, content may not be produced for explicitly political ends, but instead it may emerge from a range or mixture of motivations, including commercial gain and entertainment. Father Daughter Ad, produced by long running US comedy institution Saturday Night Live, is arguably an example of counter messaging content produced for commercial ends. 80 In other cases those creating counter messaging content may be
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QPSK modulation is based on Phase modulated. Namely, for each symbol, different phase data is sent to channel. Each symbol consists of two bits. These bits are modulated in I channel and Q channel. For I channel carrier signal is used sinus, for Q channel carrier signal is used cosines. For QPSK modulation, there are four cases. These cases are 00, 01, 10 and 11. For each case, QPSK signal is created using signal of different phase. These phases are 45°, 135°, 225° and 315°. Hence, in contrast to binary modulation techniques such as BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying), BFSK (Binary Frequency Shift Keying), BASK (Binary Amplitude Shift Keying), QPSK modulation technique is a fast modulation technique.
The I-V curve characteristics and calculated efficiency of solar cells which were fabricated by these counter electrodes are shown in Fig. 5 and table 1. It is seen that the solar cells with MWCNT- CE had more conversion efficiency than other cells. Other studies postulated that efficiency of MWCNT electrodes immerges from its metallic nature  or their extraordinary high electrical conductivity  or large surface area of electrodes .If all of these finding are true, efficiency of cells which was fabricated by MWCNT-CE must better than others but results shows opposite results, then may be combination of platinum and MWCNT generate new structure and improve efficiency of cells. This structure is seen in case of the cells with Pt-MWCNT-CE. As seen from Fig. 3, the Pt film is not compact and the large pore is present on it. Therefore, during the CNT spraying, the particle of CNT can be deposited on the surface of Pt and also into the porous space and thus the surface area of the Pt is increased. Moreover, Pt itself acts as a light reflector at the same time and thus can remarkably improve the light absorption by the semiconductor surface . These dual facts may be the main reason for the increased efficiency of the solar cell when the Pt-loaded MWCNT film is used as a counter electrode. These findings are similar to B. Ahmmad et al.  and Jing-Zhi Chen et al.  results. They investigated effect of SWCNT counter electrodes on efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells and showed that DSSCs were made of Pt alone and SWNT alone films had similar efficiency but the best efficiency was obtained for the Pt-loaded SWNT-film counter electrodes.
This type of DPLLs has been developed by the work in and extended in to include a second-order sequential filter with memory. The LL-DPLL is characterized by the binary output of the phase detector that indicates whether the DCO waveform leads or lags the input signal. Due to this quantization it is often named “binary quantized DPLL”. The input sinusoidal signal should be converted to a square wave by a comparator. On the occurrence of a DCO pulse, either “lead” or “lag” terminal of the phase detector will give a pulse depending on the state of the input signal being “high” or “low”, respectively. These pulses are applied to a special type of digital filters known as “sequential filter.” The sequential filter deals with the input “lead” and “lag” pulses statistically; it observes them for a variable duration of time and gives a decision when a reliable limit is reached.
The final 6:3 counter circuit can be constructed as shown in Fig. 4. Using larger CMOS gates, the critical path delay is reduced to seven basic gates. As there are no XOR gates on the critical path, this 6:3 counter outperforms existing designs [17,19].One drawback of this design is an increase in wiring complexity: we see from that the symmetric approach necessitates signals crossing after the first layer of stackers, while traditional counters do not have as many crossing paths.
MDC (Mars Dust Counter) is a light-weight impact ion- ization dust detector, which is developed chiefly by Technische Universität München (Technical University of Munich) and Space Science Department of ESA-ESTEC (European Space Research and Technology Centre of Eu- ropean Space Agency) (Igenbergs et al., 1996a). It is an improved version of HITEN and BREMSAT dust detectors which successfully measured dust particles around the Earth- Moon region and at the low Earth orbit, respectively (Igenbergs et al., 1991a, b). The MDC was designed to
Bigger parallel counters are particularly helpful in the execution of generally utilized flag handling components, for example, multipliers, assembles, and so on. The speed of multipliers is a basic issue in deciding the execution of chip whatever is left of this concise presents the counters in area I. Next the related works and quick double counter utilizing symmetrical stack are considered in Area II. At that point, in Segment III, the proposed is displayed. Segment IV shows an exploratory Outcomes and execution investigation to outline the adequacy of the equipment security approach. At long last, the conclusions are abridged in Segment V. In this paper  segment pressure multiplier to outline a strategy for section limited by the compressor based multipliers. So the principle downside is the higher equipment multifaceted nature. Be that as it may, the Energy Delay Product (EDP) is marginally higher than the lower arranging compressors. Wallace Tree multiplier utilizing fast counter to be intended for the counter approach. This compressor utilizes counter property. With the goal that the yield of com- pressor gives number of 1's at input. So the principle disadvantage for defer overhead .
Binary arithmetic mentions converting and finding errors, but in decimal arithmetic is more demand in real time applications ,.For decimal arithmetic operation decimal adders and multiplier are key components. Parallel decimal multiplication involves three stages: partial product generation (PPG), partial product reduction (PPR), Final addition of two Rows propagates digit addition. The sign-digit encoding,,,, redundant and non-redundant Binary Code Digit encoding pre-owned through digit multiplication.BCD-8421,4221,5211 are used for Partial Product Generation and Partial Product Reduction in non-redundant formats. BCD XS-3 digits ,ODDS are taken in the redundant decimal format to show the better presentation of BCD multiplication,,,. (-3, 12) values are taken by XS-3 code in PPG circuit. In binary PPR tree the ODDS is used in Partial Product Generation method. The multiplicand X and multiplier Y are encode by Binary Coded Decimal number as X (0, 9) and Y (0, 9) in 4-bit binary system. In multiplier Sign Digit-Radix-10 encoding is considered in PPG stage. ,,,,,.In SD-radix-10 encoding the Binary Coded Decimal number is restructured to a set (-5,5) from original set of (0,9).For the generating of multiplicand multiplies in PPG stage then BCD-4211/5211 are generated for the better performance of PPG circuit SD-Radix encodingBCD-4211/5211 recoding are suggested,,. The main drawback by Binary Coded Decimal-4221/5211 codes in a Partial Product Generator is 3X multiples does not achieved in without carry method from redundant radix -10.
The classification is a vital part of the Data mining process. It can be accomplished by different algorithms, divided into various groups. Those groups are based on machine learning techniques such as frequency tables, covariance matrices and other analytical statistical approaches. Each of the presented groups has its own advantages and disadvantages and therefore is applicable to a specific situation. The situation is determined by the objects that need to be classified into separate groups, also called object domains. Significant part of the domain cases is represented by two classes. This fact brings forward the need of defining binary classification.
The program first checks the swiped RFID card is valid or not. If the tag is valid program will save the data in the card and keep the note of this event’s occurrence.If the tag is not valid system will notify about the invalidity of the card and also suggest to apply legitimate card. Because of the reason of expense and adaptability of usage, this RFID counter application utilizes an inactive tag and along these lines for each understudy would need to convey their labels near the peruser (around 10 cm distant from peruser). After that, the peruser or reader peruses the card and the system records the understudy's landing time.
Last image: another favorite cartoon of mine out of an anarchist zine. It says something like, “We are not for the overthrowing of the system. We are for organizing and fighting to take back our lives away from the system until it just fades away into oblivion.” Truth is, it said all that in about ten words but I can’t remember it exactly. I’m 64 dammit. Smile and gimme some slack. So, the import of this cartoon’s message for me is that we must recognize the insurgencies here. Hidden? Maybe; but resistance nonetheless. All around us. My bias is always towards the anti-authoritarian because I realize that folks are oppressed, tired and life moves within them to fight back in all kinds of ways. Anti- authoritarian means you honor that and respect its dignity and self-determination. Dig it. Again, the 60s studies give you a hint: Black power, flower power, anti-war, love-ins, poetry and off the grid communes. Get my point? Folks are studying today the growth of community gardens, Social ecology, the return of witch wisdom, and indigenous/holistic health practices-- in New York I know folks who are developing ways for others who may be bipolar to function in healthy ways. Some progressive churches have trained and implemented “Peace teams” not just for Guatemala but for the hoods they live in. What?! And because of the resurgence of police and gang-related killings in Black and Brown communities some folks are thinking about and developing ways to intervene to save their lives. Spike Lee’s problematic movie, Chi-Raq, was an attempt in that vein, and Black Panther a la Wakanda will feed them thinkings in spite of itself. Included in that is the old idea of organizing gun clubs. Women led efforts to fight the high levels of rape has led to a myriad forms of safe spaces, empowerment spaces and mass political mobilizations of anti-heterosexist liberation. Black Lives Matter hopefully aint done yet. What is happening cannot be controlled from any centrally controlled vanguard organization. One, two, three, many counter-cultures as not only a recovery of revolution but also as revolutionary improvisation. Like jazz, taking these phenomena to places no man… (uh-uhn Star Trek), no humanity has ever gone before.
We consider two types of features: CFG pro- duction rules and phrase-level statistics. For the CFG production rules, we use the Charniak parser (Charniak, 2000) trained on Wall Street Journal data to parse each utterance in the transcript and then extract the set of non-lexical productions. The total number of types of productions is large, many of them occurring very infrequently, so we compile a list of the 50 most frequently occurring productions in each of the two groups (agrammatic and controls) and use the combined set as the set of features. The feature values can be binary (does a particular production rule appear in the narrative or not?) or integer (how many times does a rule oc- cur?). The CFG non-terminal symbols follow the Penn Treebank naming conventions.