When an ion is added to a solvent, it attracts certain solvent molecules towards itself by wrenching the molecules from bulk of the solvent due to the force of electrostriction. Because of this, the available solvent molecule for the next incoming ion get decreased, this process is called as compression. Every solvent has a limit for the compression called the limiting compressibility value. The compressibility of a solvent is higher than that of a solution and it decrease with increase in concentration of the solution. With increase in ionic solute concentration, their electrostrictive forces cause the water structure to break and the solute surrounded water molecule are more compactly packed. This hydration effect in turn, results in reducing the compressibility with increasing ionic solute concentrations.
Functionalized tetrahydropyrans constitute key structural motifs of a large number of biologically active natural products. Amino tetrahydropyrans are important structural motifs of a wide range of natural products such as ambruticins, oligomers of glucoamino acids, sialic acid and desyherbaine. These compounds are also used in photographic films 22 and host-guest chemistry. 23 Examples of the Sakurai-Prins-Ritter (three reactions)
The production of fine and speciality chemicals from biofeedstocks is considered to be part of biorefining, see Figure 1-1 and the chapter on biofeedstocks (Section 2.2. Biofeedstocks). Biorefinery is a relatively new concept, in contrast to traditional petrochemical refining that has been developed over many decades. The principle difference between a biorefinery and a refinery is the chemical composition of the raw materials. Fossil feedstocks are a mixture of hydrocarbons with a lack of functional groups and are easily separated by distillation, after which the larger molecules undergo catalytic cracking to convert them into smaller compounds that are then used in the production of fuels and chemicals. Biofeedstocks are complex mixtures of highly functionalised compounds, typically with high oxygen content. Hence, biorefinery processes are more complex in comparison to the standard refinery industry. To make those processes efficient requires a combination of biological and chemical processes.
laxative effect [26, 36], playing the most important role in stimulating the intestine and leading to diarrhea . Combined anthraquinone is metabolized into free metabolise in intestinal canal to exerting laxative effect . Sennoside A, the strongest purgative composi- tion, is rarely absorbed in the intestine, most of them reached the colon, metabolized into rhein anthrone and rhein in the intestine . After giving chloram- phenicol, the active of Escherichia coli restrained, the purging effect of sennoside A and C weaken, anthrone in the colon is also greatly reduced . When the free anthraquinone derivatives were injected to the colon of rat, the re-absorption of water and electrolyte would be inhibited, resulted in diarrhea . Most of free anth- raquinones are absorbed before arriving colon. There- fore, combined anthraquinones play drastic effect by means of metabolizing into free anthraquinones. It is thought that anthraquinones can stimulate the nerve plexus within the mucosa and intestinal smooth mus- cles, promoting peristalsis . The rhubarb extractives and the anthraquinone derivatives can antagonize the adrenaline effectively, which can inhibit the contraction of the smooth muscle in vitro system of isolated intes- tine . It also regulates the colon cholinergic neuron of constipating rats . Besides, Rhubarb effectively down-regulates the expression of AQ4P in rat’s proxi- mal colon, and rhein/emodin can suppress the AQ4P expression of LoVo cells in vitro . Sennoside A may decrease AQP3 expression in the colon to inhibit water transport from the luminal to the vascular side, leading to laxation . The mechanism of its purgative activity is summarized as Fig. 5 [3, 9, 38, 44, 45].
Cloning and sequence analysis of PCR products The 16S rRNA amplified fragments were purified using the QIA quick gel extraction kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) from the agarose gel and sequenced using automated DNA sequencer (Model 3100, Applied Bio systems, USA). The sequences were analyzed using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) software (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ blast) against the 16S ribosomal RNA sequence database and submitted in GenBank.
A set of 39 molecules having affinity towards POP were used for 3D QSAR study. Fine grained conformational sampling and scoring techniques were utilized to identify common pharmacophore required for critical binding with the receptor. During the conformational sampling each hypothesis is accompanied by a set of aligned conformations. This reflects the relative orientation of molecules likely bind to the receptor. Later known activity data was combined with the aligned conformations of the hypothesis to generate a 3D QSAR model, governed by molecular structure and activity. Pharmacophore models were derived using 29 molecules training set and 10 molecules test set of PP and PY analogues of POP (Table 1). AAHHR features (Figure 1) were selected for creating sites and further used in model generation. This five featured hypothesis subjected to stringent scoring function.
As Phytophthora. cactorum is the main responsible of apple orchards decline in Turkey, ten active ingredients/active organisms were evaluate for ability to control P. cactorum with an in pot- bioassay in screen-house using Red Chief variety grafted onto MM106 rootstock transplanted in natural soil artificially infected with P. cactorum. An untreated control (C1) and a not inoculate control (C0) were inserted in this study as reference of the effectiveness on treatments. Treatments were applied to plants with 3 replicates of 6 plant each. At the end of the growing season the following parameters were measured: - trunk diameter (0 cm above the graft union), - tree height (measured up to soil level), - branch lengths (>10 cm), - branch numbers (branch number > 10 cm/tree ), - disease severity, - dry root weight (gr of tissues dried at 70 0C degrees for 4 days).
circulation system, but quickly decompose and release drug molecules inside the tumour where pH values typically drop below 5.5. Disulfide bonds are also very attractive because they can be cleaved by glutathione. the intracellular level of glutathione is much higher than its extracellular level, therefore, the disulfide linker is relatively stable while in blood circulation and becomes unstable and releases the drug molecules once it is internalized by cells. 16
This paper illustrates the steps of eco-conception in the de- sign of processes for generating functional products, such as PA and AA. The starting material was first enriched in OA by plant breeding and varietal selection. This material was then hydrolyzed and subjected to a green catalytic process for the production of two molecules of interest. Hydrogen peroxide was the oxidant chosen for this process, because it is eﬀective, nontoxic, widely available and cheaper than other conventional oxidants. A peroxo-tungsten complex formed in situ was able to transfer oxygen from the aqueous phase to the lipophilic phase. The formation of an oil/water emulsion (stabilized by the fatty acids) then increased the area of contact between the two phases. This process presents only one step (after the hy- drolysis of oil) and includes an e ﬃ cient post-reaction treat- ment for catalyst recycling. It has also been successfully used for the oxidative cleavage of unsaturated compounds (linoleic acid) and other fatty acid derivatives (ethyl oleate, ricinoleic acid, epoxide derived from OA and α-hydroxy compounds).
randomly, the dye eventually diffuses across the membrane until the concentration of dye—the ratio of dye to water—on each side is the same. At this point, the number of dye molecules moving in one direction is equal to the number moving in the other direction, and the system is said to be in equilibrium, or balance.
The GC MS pattern of Ajaswagandhadi lehyam shows some very important biomolecules with medicinal activities like 16-Hexadecanoyl hydrazide, Myristic acid vinyl ester, 1, 4-Dioxin, 2,3-dihydro-5,6-dimethyl, Benzoic acid, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, (3-Ethoxy-4, 5-dihydro- isoxazol-5-ylmethyl)- amine, Sucrose, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone, Tetradecanoic acid, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Dodecanoic acid, trans-13-Octadecanoic acid etc. Further work is warranted to prove the medicinal efficacy of Ajaswagandhadi lehyam to know find whether any synergistic effect exists among these major biomolecules along with other smaller fractions that are present in the GC MS profile.
The objective of this study to determine the bioactive and pharmaceutical components of the Chloroform extract of a poly herbal formulation Nalla Marunthu. The phytoconstituents of Chloroform extract of a poly herbal formulation of Nalla marunthu were analysed by GC-MS. Our results indicate that the presence of 48 phyto constituents of a poly herbal formulation of Nalla marunthu. Medicinal plants have been exhaustively studied for their potential value as a source of drugs. Obviously natural products will continue to be extremely important as sources of medicinal agents.
ely, these synthetic insecticides target a nervous system common to human and other animals, and can be toxic to fish and the environment. Furthermore, many of them persist for long periods and cause residual problems in food, , bio-concentrate in the tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates and, eventually move up the trophic level thereby capable of causing toxicity related problems at each trophic level (Coats, 1994). Some synthetic pesticides have also been suspected to be carcinogenic and toxic to mammals even at low doses. Environmental pollution, pest resurgence, pest resistance to pesticides, lethal target organisms in the agro-ecosystem and direct toxicity to users have all been attendant consequences
The synthesis of bio-derived UPEs is already well documented in the literature. Monomers/oligomers based on itaconic acid (IA) are frequently utilised due to the exo-double bond functionality of this io-derived di-acid [9–13]. Because of its conjugation with the adjacent carbonyl, the vinyl group acts as a Michael acceptor and allows for post-polymerisation functionalisation and hence property tuning of the itaconate polyesters [7,14–17]. A wide variety of compounds have been incorporated into the oligomers alongside the itaconate moiety such as; alcohols (e.g., 1,4-butanediol , ethylene glycol , trimethylolpropane , sorbitol , isosorbide  or isoamyl alcohol ); epoxides  (e.g., propylene oxide, glycidyl ether, styrene oxide or epichlorohydrin ); and other di-acids (e.g., succinic [9,18,21], maleic [1,16] or fumaric ); and this helps introduce extra functionality. Another method of functionalization is via a cross-linking agent and again a wide variety have been used, from straightforward dimethyl itaconate (DMI)  to highly functionalised N-alkylated dinitrones . The methodology for the synthesis and subsequent cross-linking of the oligomers is relatively consistent throughout the literature; condensation reactions followed by radical polymerisation; with the exception of occasional use of enzyme catalysis [23,24] or acyclic diene metathesis . The number-average molecular weight (M N ) of the oligomers used in the polymer formation is again, relatively consistent
Due to some of the problems associated with using scaffolds synthesised from a single phase biomaterial (poor mechanical properties and biocompatibility of natural and synthetic polymers respectively, and poor degradability of bio ceramics), a number of researchers have developed composite scaffolds comprising two or more phases to combine the advantageous properties of each phase. When the Combinations of (1) synthetic– synthetic, (2) synthetic –natural and (3) natural–natural polymers combination then it have Ability to tailor mechanical, degradation and biological properties. But Compromise between ‘best’qualities of individual polymers with overall scaffold properties 6 . Properties, advantages and disadvantages of Composites are described in Table 4.
The benzoxepine ring system occurs in number of biologically active natural products isolated mainly from plant sources. Some of the examples which contain benzoxepine moiety are radulanin A, heliannuol D, pterulone, eranthin and ptaeroxylin .
We exhibit the properties, successful and problems of different models in the above investigation [100-126], which but leaves behind many questions that are worth to study continuously. Actually, the above results were obtained analytically, based on many hypotheses, in which the protein molecules, which were used by the researchers, was regarded as a periodically and uniformly in inite-long chains composed of amino acid residues with same weight. Obviously, these features of the proteins are not completely conformable with the biological protein molecules in the living systems. As it is known, the biological proteins are an inite –long structure, which are composed of several hundreds or thousands amino acid residues with different molecular weights between 75 m p (glycine) and 204 m p (tryptophan), which correspond to variations in mass between 0.67 M M 1.80 M , where M =114mp is the average mass of an amino acid residue and m p is the proton mass. And the biological proteins adhere often a lot of side groups. Clearly, these structures affect necessarily the dynamic features of protein molecules. This means that there are a structure nonuniformity and disorder in biological-protein molecules, which result necessarily in the luctuations of the spring constant, the dipole-dipole interaction, the exciton-phonon coupling constant and the diagonal disorder in dynamic equations in protein molecules mentioned above. Thus, the states of the solutions obtained from the theoretical models will be changed under in luence of these structure disorders in the biological protein molecules. Otherwise, in the above investigation all physical parameters of the protein molecules were represented by their average values, and some approximation methods, such as long- wavelength approximation, continuum approximation, or long-time approximation, were also used in concrete calculations, which cannot be evidently used in the biological proteins. Careri et al. [137-142], demonstrated that even relatively small amounts of disorder in an amorphous ilm of acetanilide (ACN), a protein-like crystal, is enough to destroy the spectral signature of a “solution”. Therefore, we have the reasons to doubt the real existence of the solutions and the correctness of the above theory of bio-energy transport i n protein molecules.
The primary goal of this project is to understand the interactions among lignin, cellulose, and proteins and the effect of surface activemolecules on these interactions. First, a complex system was chosen to investigate the effect of complex systems on biomass conversion by taking advantage of their ability to penetrate lignocellulosic biomass and assist in the transport of active chemicals during pretreatment. Different conditions were tested on hardwood biomass. Then, a more fundamental approach was utilized to investigate the interactions on model surfaces with surface activemolecules and proteins. For this, model lignin and nanocellulose thin films were developed. QCM and SPR were chosen to monitor these biomolecular interactions in order to elucidate non-productive interactions and reducing them with the aim of surfactants. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were derived from QCM analysis for adsorption and hydrolysis. Finally, the colloidal behavior of lignin was studied since its extent of application is greatly influenced by its colloidal properties. Overall, this project is contributing with comprehensive knowledge to develop an efficient biorefinery industry.