biochar Research

Top PDF biochar Research:

Representativeness of European biochar research: part I – field experiments

Representativeness of European biochar research: part I – field experiments

of field trials are required to investigate the likely conse- quences of biochar application to soil on these services. One such ecosystem service provided by soil that biochar has been shown to interact with, is the climate change mitigation potential of soils. Biochar can interact with this service most obviously by increasing the amount of C stored in soils, thereby potentially ameliorating atmo- spheric concentrations of CO 2 . Further to this, biochar has been shown to interact with the three most impor- tant GHGs in a variety of ways (Cayuela et  al. 2014; Sagrilo et al. 2015; Jeffery et al. 2016), as well as to po- tentially (positively or negatively) prime SOM turnover. With just under 30 field trials aiming to investigate the interactions between soil application of biochar and GHG fluxes from soils, and about 24 studies investigat- ing interactions between biochar and SOM, it appears that these thematic areas are quite well represented. The least represented group in terms of field experiments is “Contamination and Remediation”. This is likely a con- sequence of the remediation potential of biochar being one of the later recognised potential benefits of biochar. Owing to the wide range of soil contaminants in contami- nated sites across Europe, this group is likely to be under- representing the real world situation. With <10 field sites, and each of those potentially investigating the interactions with the same types of contaminant, it appears likely that there are numerous contaminated sites within Europe that are not currently represented by field trials from this the- matic group. However, further information is required on the contaminants currently under investigation to be able to better estimate how representative the current field sites are, and to identify which common soil contaminants are currently under-represented by biochar research in Europe. Our findings corroborate Zhang et  al. (2016), who re- ported that of European field experiments with biochar, the majority are dealing with crop and plant production, followed by GHG mitigation and pollutant remediation. They did not distinguish the topics further, as we did (soil physical properties, SOM and soil biodiversity). The same prioritizing was reported throughout the world and it was considerably more pronounced in South America and Africa (Zhang et al. 2016), probably because of the more pressing issues of food security in these regions than in Europe.
Show more

14 Read more

Representativeness of European biochar research: part II – pot and laboratory studies

Representativeness of European biochar research: part II – pot and laboratory studies

research in Europe, there are some limitations in this ap- proach. Due to the overwhelming response from Spain, this has potentially skewed the representativeness of this survey. Whilst this has to be acknowledged, one ben- efit is that this survey has revealed that the responses from Spain are associated with research related to eco- toxicology. This can provide opportunities for collabora- tion amongst EU COST Actions Members. Whilst this manuscript was targeting to showcase representative- ness of biochar research in the EU associated with pots and laboratory scale studies, in reality this was not fully achieved due to lack of response to the online survey. The lack of response is something that we can only pos- tulate as being a combination of, data not being ready for further analysis, unwillingness to participate or survey may seems too onerous despite that the explanation that the expectation is not for the respondent to fill every box but as many as possible and where relevant. It was also challenging to convince colleagues to submit data, which have not been published before and to show that further publishing of original data is still possible after using for the online survey.
Show more

10 Read more

The way forward in biochar research: targeting trade-offs between the potential wins.

The way forward in biochar research: targeting trade-offs between the potential wins.

Biochar application to soil is currently widely advocated for a variety of reasons related to sustainability. Typi- cally, soil amelioration with biochar is presented as a multiple-‘win’ strategy, although it is also associated with potential risks such as environmental contamination. The most often claimed benefits of biochar (i.e. the ‘wins’) include (i) carbon sequestration; (ii) soil fertility enhancement; (iii) biofuel/bioenergy production; (iv) pollutant immobilization; and (v) waste disposal. However, the vast majority of studies ignore possible trade-offs between them. For example, there is an obvious trade-off between maximizing biofuel production and maximizing bio- char production. Also, relatively little attention has been paid to mechanisms, as opposed to systems impacts, behind observed biochar effects, often leaving open the question as to whether they reflect truly unique proper- ties of biochar as opposed to being simply the short-term consequences of a fertilization or liming effect. Here, we provide an outline for the future of soil biochar research. We first identify possible trade-offs between the potential benefits. Second, to be able to better understand and quantify these trade-offs, we propose guidelines for robust experimental design and selection of appropriate controls that allow both mechanistic and systems assessment of biochar effects and trade-offs between the wins. Third, we offer a conceptual framework to guide future experiments and suggest guidelines for the standardized reporting of biochar experiments to allow effec- tive between-site comparisons to quantify trade-offs. Such a mechanistic and systems framework is required to allow effective comparisons between experiments, across scales and locations, to guide policy and recommenda- tions concerning biochar application to soil.
Show more

13 Read more

Potential value of biochar as a soil amendment: A review

Potential value of biochar as a soil amendment: A review

This article reviews a range of beneficial impacts of biochar on soil physico-chemical properties and crop yield. Advances in biochar research appeal for identification of beneficial effect of biochar using as a soil amendment before any large-scale field application is recommended. Thus, the purpose of this review are to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of biochar using as a soil amendment. Biochar, a product of biomass pyrolysis, and is usually characterized as rich in recalcitrant C, with a large surface area, and diverse functional groups, although these features largely depend on the feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process that transforms biomass into biochar, bio-oil, and syngas. The use of biochar as a soil amendment has received growing attention due to its ability to enhance crop productivity and improve physico- chemical properties of soil. Compared to other soil amendments, the high surface area and porosity of biochar enable it to adsorb or retain nutrients, contaminants and water and also provide a habitat for beneficial micro-organisms. Generally, the ash fraction of biochar consisted of nutrients including N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, and Zn which are required for plant growth. Although biochar has the potential value to use as a soil amendment but still need efficient road-map for biochar production, classification, and its effect in different soil-environment and cost–benefit analysis, must be developed before implementation of field-scale application.
Show more

9 Read more

Biochar boosts tropical but not temperate crop yields

Biochar boosts tropical but not temperate crop yields

Future research should investigate the generality of these claims. If proven to be true for temperate soils, these bene fi ts may justify the application of biochar when weighted against potential yield penalties. However, in light of this comprehensive analysis, the widespread hype of biochar use for crop yield effects must be questioned. Others have suggested that the global biochar research community needs to match biochars to soils and socio-economic conditions and have come up with ‘tailored treatments [10, 31, 32]. Our results indicate that, even for a basic and well- known agronomic factor such as liming, this matching has thus far mostly not happened, particularly in the temperate zone. We expect that our results will contribute to a compatibility system of the properties between biochars and soils to maximise its potential to enhance multiple ecosystem services and minimise trade-offs [5]. It is also crucial to identify the socio- economic conditions and options for biochar incen- tive mechanisms for climate change mitigation, particularly in instances where yield gains are likely to be minimal at best. Biochar is not always a win-win-win technology [7, 33, 34].
Show more

7 Read more

Biochar as Soil’s Best Friend – A Review

Biochar as Soil’s Best Friend – A Review

Biochar is not a new concept as its origin and history had been developed for centuries. It was started with the discovery of dark colored Terra preta soils, containing high concentrations of charcoal and organic matter throughout the Amazon Basin in Brazil about 2500 years ago. Terra preta (Figure 1) is well known for its high fertility soil amidst the highly weathered and acidic oxisols in the region, used to support Amazonians agriculture needs and yet covers nearly 10% of the Amazon Basin (Mann, 2005). It was reported that continuous cultivation had been practiced in Terra preta soil without fertilisation for over 40 years (Petersen et al., 2001). With more agriculture activities are made possible by Terra preta, studies on biochar application has been extensively approached since 1950s. It is an ancient practice of converting agricultural waste into soil enhancer that can hold carbon, boost food security and increase soil biodiversity. Alarming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also lead to biochar research because it can positively reduce the effects of global warming as reported by Fowles (2007), Lehmann (2007) and Lehmann et al. (2006). Production of Biochar
Show more

7 Read more

Biochar, compost and biochar-compost: effects on crop performance, soil quality and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical agricultural soils

Biochar, compost and biochar-compost: effects on crop performance, soil quality and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical agricultural soils

and Rondon, 2006; Major et al. 2010) and reduce greenhouse gas emissions through C sequestration (Ippolito et al. 2012; Van Zwieten et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2012a). Biochar helps improve agricultural productivity by reducing soil acidity, and enhancing CEC and fertilizer use efficiency (Chan and Xu, 2009; Lehmann et al., 2003; Steiner et al., 2008), water retention capacity (Downie, 2011), plant available water content (Tammeorg et al., 2014), and creating a habitat for beneficial soil microorganisms (Thies and Rillig, 2009). Biochar can be used to rejuvenate depleted soils, making more agricultural land available and increasing crop yields so that the need for expansion of agricultural land area is decreased (Barrow, 2012; Blackwell et al., 2009). Biochar has significantly improved the efficiency of N fertilizers and increased plant growth and yield (Lehmann et al., 2003; Steiner et al., 2008). The long-term benefits of biochar for nutrient availability include a greater stabilization of SOM, slower nutrient release from added organic matter, and better retention of cations due to a greater CEC (Lehmann et al., 2003; Steiner et al., 2008). The resultant change in soil nutrient status may affect both plant growth and productivity. Responses to biochar application will depend on the type and rate of biochar applied, as well as soil physicochemical characteristics. Some recent studies have indicated that the simultaneous application of biochar with compost could lead to enhanced soil fertility, improved plant growth and C sequestration potential (Fischer and Glaser, 2012; Schulz and Glaser, 2012). Liu et al. (2012) showed that the combined application of compost and biochar had a synergistic positive effect on SOM content, nutrient contents, and water holding capacity of soil under field conditions. Overall, information on the combined effects of biochar and compost on soil fertility and crop performance in tropical soils is not adequate. Different ways of producing and applying compost and biochar are hypothesized to differ in their effects on soil bio-physical and chemical properties, plant growth, and yield. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of compost and biochar applied to an infertile tropical soil, on: 1) growth and nutrient uptake of maize; 2) soil water content and chemical characteristics; and 3) nutrient retention and leaching.
Show more

255 Read more

The Effect of Different Rates of Biochar and Biochar in Combination with N Fertilizer on the Parameters of Soil Organic Matter and Soil Structure

The Effect of Different Rates of Biochar and Biochar in Combination with N Fertilizer on the Parameters of Soil Organic Matter and Soil Structure

Biochar is a solid, C-rich product [Fisher and Glaser 2012] that arises during the thermal decomposition of different organic material in conditions with low or no oxygen. The properties of biochar mainly depend on the type of mate- rial used for its production and on the temperature of pyrolysis [Ahamd et al. 2014, Zlielinska et al. 2015]. Firstly, the biochar produced from manure usually has smaller surface area, than biochar pro- duced from wood. Secondly, the higher tempera- ture increases the content of carbon in biochar while the content of oxygen and hydrogen de- creases. Biochar has the potential to enhance the chemical, physical and biological properties of soil [Hussian et al. 2016]. The addition of biochar can increase cation exchange capacity (CEC) and pH. Biochar can absorb nutrients but also heavy metals due to its high porosity and the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups [Glaser et al. 2002, Joseph 2009]. In addition, biochar can in- crease soil porosity, reduced soil bulk density and improve soil retention capacity [Abel et al. 2013, Omondi et al. 2016]. The increase of soil aggre- gate stability and the content of macro-aggregates
Show more

9 Read more

Biochar to improve soil fertility. A review

Biochar to improve soil fertility. A review

2005 ). Dissimilarly, biochar could not independently sorb the added P. Biochar affected P availability by interaction with other organic and inorganic components in the soil, including organic matter or other base cations in the soil (Xu et al. 2014 ). Though there were little field trials focused on the study of biochar as slow-release fertilizer, many laboratory studies inves- tigated the nutrients availability with biochar application. A clear- er understanding of not only sorption but also desorption is in- dispensable because they are the processes that along with nutri- ents mineralization, controlling soil solution nutrients concentra- tion, enhancing nutrients bioavailability. The influencing factors, which affect nutrients desorption, such as soil types, feedstocks, pyrolysis conditions, and biochar application rates, are needed to be considered. In the black soil, the average percentage of desorbed P were 36, 37, 39, and 41 % for the 0, 1, 5, and 10 % biochar application rates, respectively (Xu et al. 2014 ). Moreover, differences of P desorption were presented among black soil (24.6 mg kg −1 ), brown soil (82.5 mg kg −1 ), and fluvo-aquic soil (27.7 mg kg −1 ) when the biochar application rates and P loading were 10 % and 240 mg L −1 (Xu et al.
Show more

19 Read more

Prospects for Biochar in a Bio-Waste Cascade

Prospects for Biochar in a Bio-Waste Cascade

5.3 Legal Framework When considering the fate of bio-waste, mainly three EU Directives influence the quantities and qualities available for further uses, such as the production of compost or biochar. By regulating the disposal of inert, hazardous and non-hazardous waste, the Landfill Directive [1999/31/EC] aims at preventing and reducing the negative effects of landfilled waste on the environment in the short as well as in the long-term perspective. For this purpose, several procedural and technical measures improving waste management are declared mandatory. Above all, to limit leachate and methane emissions, each member state is compelled to develop a national strategy for the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills by enhancing separate collection, recycling, composting, biogas production and material/energy recovery. To achieve measurable progress, each country shall gradually reduce the amount of biodegradable municipal waste going to landfills by 25 % in 2006, by 50 % in 2009, and by 65 % in 2016, compared to the total amount of biodegradable municipal waste produced in 1995. However, an exception was made for member states that landfilled over 80 % of their municipal waste in 1995, namely the UK, Greece and the 10 member states joining the EU in 2004, as well as Bulgaria and Romania joining the EU in 2007. These countries have to reach the respective target values within a 4 year extension, respectively in 2010, 2013 and 2020.
Show more

136 Read more

Switchgrass Biochar Effects Two Aridisols

Switchgrass Biochar Effects Two Aridisols

Organic C content in the Declo and Warden soils is presented in Fig. 2B. Increases in total soil C content were entirely attributable to the increase in organic C content supplied with biochar application because inorganic soil C content was not aff ected by biochar application (not shown). Th e organic C increase was expected because the 250 and 500°C switchgrass biochars contained 55 and 84% total C, respectively (Table 1). Increasing the organic C content of these Aridisols, which initially contained ~0.5% organic C, is important for soil pedological processes such as soil structure development that improve tilth as well as for increasing soil water storage. Novak et al. (2011) monitored changes in soil water content after adding 2% (by weight) 250 or 500°C switchgrass biochar to the Declo and Warden soils. Th e authors observed an increase in moisture content by 3 to 7% relative to control soils. Based on evapotranspiration rates of Aberdeen, Idaho and Prosser, Washington, this could lead to an additional 0.4 to 2.5 d of available water for crop growth. Others have also reported increases in soil water retention with the use of biochar (e.g., Glaser et al., 2002; Chan et al., 2007).
Show more

8 Read more

Physical Disintegration of Biochar: An Overlooked Process

Physical Disintegration of Biochar: An Overlooked Process

Despite being dislodged from the original biochar particle, these biochar pieces are chemically equivalent to the original biochar as con fi rmed by SEM − EDS data (Table 1). In other words, these fragments do not show signs of oxidative or other chemical weathering, just physical comminution. In the evaporated portion of the water extraction, we observed <20 μ m and nanoscale particles of BC that were not removed by fi ltration (Figure 3). The presence of nanoscale particles has been previously demonstrated for pyrolyzed BC materials 40 and could alter the mobility of sorbed organic compounds on these fragments. 41 The presence of this DBC is important, because the typical DOC analysis via persulfate UV might not adequately detect these fragments of DBC without more intense chemical oxidation conditions 42 (Table S2 of the Supporting Information). This lack of quanti fi cation might further account for the “ black carbon paradox ” and con fi rms the suggestion by Ja ff e et al. 17 To put this rapid mass loss in perspective, a recent study observed <5% of the carbon in biochar was mineralized over a 8.5 year laboratory incubation. 5 Others have observed that once biochar is exposed to soils, soil particles can fi ll exposed cavities and fi ssures 16 (Figure S4 of the Supporting Information). These sealing processes could be accelerated by exothermic water sorption onto BC surfaces 19 and accelerate desiccation drying. It is conceivable that the physical accumulation of colloidal, dissolved, and particulate material, including soluble inorganic salts and/or alumino- silicates, would rapidly in fi ll fractures and pores 43 (Figure S4 of the Supporting Information). This in fi lling could potentially stabilize the BC particle from further physical degradation, analogous to the soil mineral protection of native soil organic material. 44 Soil particle stabilization of biochar does require further scrutiny but could be an essential mechanism for extending biochar ’ s longevity, particularly in clay-rich soils.
Show more

7 Read more

Life cycle cost and economic assessment of biochar-based bioenergy production and biochar land application in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

Life cycle cost and economic assessment of biochar-based bioenergy production and biochar land application in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

Background: Replacement of fossil fuel based energy with biochar-based bioenergy production can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions while mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change and global warming. However, the production of biochar-based bioenergy depends on a sustainable supply of biomass. Although, Northwestern Ontario has a rich and sustainable supply of woody biomass, a comprehensive life cycle cost and economic assessment of biochar-based bioenergy production technology has not been done so far in the region. Methods: In this paper, we conducted a thorough life cycle cost assessment (LCCA) of biochar-based bioenergy production and its land application under four different scenarios: 1) biochar production with low feedstock availability; 2) biochar production with high feedstock availability; 3) biochar production with low feedstock availability and its land application; and 4) biochar production with high feedstock availability and its land application- using SimaPro®, EIOLCA® software and spreadsheet modeling. Based on the LCCA results, we further conducted an economic assessment for the break-even and viability of this technology over the project period.
Show more

10 Read more

Germination Tests for Assessing Biochar Quality

Germination Tests for Assessing Biochar Quality

TECHNICAL REPORTS Defi nition, analysis, and certifi cation of biochar quality are crucial to the agronomic acceptance of biochar. While most biochars have a positive impact on plant growth, some may have adverse eff ects due to the presence of phytotoxic compounds. Conversely, some biochars may have the ability to adsorb and neutralize natural phytotoxic compounds found in soil. We evaluated the eff ects of biochars on seedling growth and absorption of allelochemicals present in corn (Zea mays L.) residues. Corn seeds were germinated in aqueous extracts of six biochars produced from varied feedstocks, thermochemical processes, and temperatures. Percent germination and shoot and radicle lengths were evaluated at the end of the germination period. Extracts from the six biochars had no eff ect on percent germination; however, extracts from three biochars produced at high conversion temperatures signifi cantly inhibited shoot growth by an average of 16% relative to deionized (DI) water. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in the aqueous extracts are believed to be at least partly responsible for the reduction in seedling growth. Repeated leaching of biochars before extract preparation eliminated the negative eff ects on seedling growth. Biochars diff er signifi cantly in their capacity to adsorb allelochemicals present in corn residues. Germination of corn seeds in extracts of corn residue showed 94% suppression of radicle growth compared to those exposed to DI water; however, incubation of corn residue extracts with leached biochar for 24 h before initiating the germination test increased radicle length 6 to 12 times compared to the corn residue extract treatments. Germination tests appear to be a reliable procedure to diff erentiate between eff ects of diff erent types of biochar on corn seedling growth.
Show more

11 Read more

Can Biochar Couple with Algae to Deal with Desertification?

Can Biochar Couple with Algae to Deal with Desertification?

In addition to microorganisms and BSCs, another component that may play an important role in soil erosion or desertification control is biochar. Biochar has mainly been applied as a soil amendment. The focus of the past studies has mostly been limited to the agronomicstatus of the amended soils such as the cation exchange capaci- ty, pH, nutrient contents, vegetative growth, as well as the carbon sequestration potential of the amended soils. Positive effects of biochar on soil nutrient status and C sequestration, microbial community or soil biota, and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation have been reported [9]-[12]. However, there is little published information about effects of biochar on microorganism growth under extremely poor soil conditions, such as in deserts. If some microalgae can be successfully induced by biochar addition in deserts, it may help form BSCs as an effec- tive way to control desertification in theory. Clearly, there is a knowledge-gap as to whether biochar can im- prove physiochemical properties of soils and enhance BSC formation in deserts or desert-like environments. Thus, the objective of this study was to explore the effect of biochar addition to sand on algae growth and sand fixation in the form of BSC.
Show more

6 Read more

The effect of composted biochar on compost properties and mineralisation

The effect of composted biochar on compost properties and mineralisation

A key step for the successful analysis of NIR spectra is preprocessing. Preprocessing can be defined as the mathematical manipulation of NIR spectral data to enhance and/or remove spectral features prior to the development of a calibration model (Shetty and Gislum 2010). Spectral data from all biochar mixtures was separately subjected to pre-processing methods, including Standard Normal Variate (SNV), Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC), first and second derivative spectra, constant offset elimination, and Min-Max normalization. The spectral pre- processing method which provided the lowest root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) was selected and used for developing the PLS calibration model (Shetty et al. 2010, Alamprese et al. 2016; Magwaza et al. 2016). Outliers were identified and removed from the calibration ranges with the use of a residual variance exercise (Magwaza et al. 2016). Hereafter cross-validation (Westad et al. 2007) was used as a spectroscopic technique to provide a more accurate estimate of model performance for new samples (Wight et al 2015; Shetty and Gislum 2010). The leave- one-out cross validation is a simple method which excludes one sample from the calibration range and uses it to measure and rate the models performance. PLS regression is a multivariate regression method used to correlate spectroscopic data (X-variables) with chemical or physical data (y-variables). The model is based on PLSR components of which the decomposition of X during regression is guided by the variation in y, at which point the co-variation between X and y is maximized (Shetty and Gislum 2010). The PLS regression results are evaluated and described by values such as; RMSEC, root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), regression coefficient for predicted versus actual biochar content (R 2 ), and the residual predictive deviation
Show more

111 Read more

Biochar as a growing media additive and peat substitute

Biochar as a growing media additive and peat substitute

Biochar produced from nutrient-poor feedstock such as wood has a low nutrient content (Gaskin et al., 2008) and an exceptional structural stability (Tian et al., 2012) and is extremely recalcitrant against microbial decay (Kuzyakov et al., 2009). Therefore wood biochar produced at elevated temperature is unlikely to induce N immobilization, is free from seeds and pathogens and would not provide signifi- cant amounts of nutrients. Dumroese et al. (2011) enhanced hydraulic conductivity and improved water availability by adding 25 % pelletized biochar to peat. Biochar was also suc- cessfully used to replace perlite in growing media (Northup, 2013). However biochar has mainly been researched as a soil improver in relatively low concentrations. Little information is available on its performance as an additive or even sub- stitute for peat. Therefore this trial aimed to test biochar as growing media, and we hypothesized that biochar performs as well as other growing media with similar physical charac- teristics.
Show more

5 Read more

The biochar effect: plant resistance to biotic stresses

The biochar effect: plant resistance to biotic stresses

Summary. Biochar (charcoal) is the solid co-product of pyrolysis, the thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis also yields gaseous and liquid biofuel products. There is a growing interest worldwide in the pyrolysis platform, for at least four reasons: (i) pyrolysis can be a source of renewable bio- fuels; (ii) many biomass waste materials can be treated by pyrolysis and thus converted into a fuel resource; (iii) long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide which originated in the atmosphere may result from adding biochar to soil, and (iv) biochar soil amendment contributes to improved soil fertility and crop productivity. Currently, however, very little biochar is utilized in agriculture, in part because its agronomic value in terms of crop response and soil health benefits have yet to be quantified, and because the mechanisms by which it improves soil fertility are poorly understood. The positive effects of biochar on crop productivity under conditions of extensive agriculture are frequently attributed to direct effects of biochar-supplied nutrients and to several other indirect effects, including increased water and nutrient retention, improvements in soil pH, increased soil cation exchange capacity, effects on P and S transformations and turnover, neutralization of phytotoxic compounds in the soil, improved soil physical properties, promotion of mycorrhizal fungi, and alteration of soil microbial populations and functions. Yet, the biochar effect is also evident under condi- tions of intensive production where many of these parameters are not limited. Biochar addition to soil alters microbial populations in the rhizosphere, albeit via mechanisms not yet understood, and may cause a shift towards beneficial microorganism populations that promote plant growth and resistance to biotic stresses. In addition to some scant evidence for biochar-induced plant protection against soilborne diseases, the induction of systemic resistance towards several foliar pathogens in three crop systems has been demonstrated. There are indications that biochar induces responses along both systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR) pathways, resulting in a broad spectrum controlling capacity in the canopy. This review examines the effects of biochar soil amendment on the different soil-plant-microbe interactions that may have a role in plant health. Improvement of plant responses to disease can be one of the benefits gained from applying biochar to soil.
Show more

15 Read more

The effect of biochar on the growth of agricultural weed species

The effect of biochar on the growth of agricultural weed species

low-nutrient conditions for more efficient exploitation of the soil. This herringbone-like structure, characterized by a reduction in primary root growth and an increase in lateral root growth, is particularly associated with limited availability of phosphorus (Ingram and Malamy 2010). Nitrogen (N) availability has little effect on primary root growth, but an increase in lateral root growth is seen in N-limited soils (Ingram and Malamy 2010). However, if the entire root system is in N-limited conditions and a portion of the root system is exposed to high levels of N, the roots will proliferate only where there are high levels of N (Hodge 2004). The effect of biochar on soil fertility varies with the feedstock and production temperature but biochar has been shown to increase phosphorus and potassium availability, pH, CEC, and water holding capacity (Lehmann et al. 2003; Jeffery et al. 2011; Novak et al. 2012). The effect of biochar on N-availability is not well understood and evidence has been found suggesting that biochar can increase, decrease, or have no effect on N-availability (Lehmann et al. 2003; Atkinson et al. 2010; DeLuca et al. 2009). Currently, there are only two studies in which the effect of biochar on RSA was examined (Prendergast Miller et al. 2011, 2014). Prendergast-Miller et al. used rhizobox mesocosms to determine the effects of biochar on the root systems of wheat (Triticum aestivum) (2011) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2014) seedlings. Biochar had no significant effects on the total biomass or root architecture of wheat seedlings (Prendergast-Miller et al. 2011). However, the addition of biochar, produced from Miscanthus x giganteus straw, resulted in greater shoot and root biomass but reduced SRL of spring barley seedlings (Prendergast-Miller et al. 2014).
Show more

112 Read more

REMOVAL OF FLUORIDES IN DRINKING WATER USING BIOCHAR

REMOVAL OF FLUORIDES IN DRINKING WATER USING BIOCHAR

We have used pyrolysis to convert the biomass available in the form of agricultural residues to useful products – mainly biochar. The process has been optimized in terms of temperature and time of pyrolysis as also the size of the feed material. The biochar produced has been characterized through techniques like SEM, BET surface area values.

15 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...