Engine trails were conducted at different loads and different compression ratio. At these conditions the exhaust emissions were measured. The result is as tabulated below. In the present work, four major emissions are considered viz. CO, CO2, HC and NO. Study shows a minor decrement in emissions of CO and HC for lower loads. At higher loads emissions of HC are almost similar to that of diesel. B20 blend shows better results for emissions of CO and HC. Emissions of nitrogen oxides are increases with increase in blend ratio. This may be due to improved automation of biodieselblends and higher temperatures.
Vegetable oils have almost the same heat values as that of diesel fuel. Power output and fuel consumption of the engine are also very close when compared with that of pure diesel. Vegetable oils can directly be used in diesel engines, as they have calorific value very close to diesel fuel but high viscosity and low volatility of vegetable oil makes difficulty in atomizing the fuel. Viscosity can be reduced by preheating the oil, blending it with diesel or transesterified to use in the diesel engine . Reducing vegetable oil viscosity improves in engine performance and emission characteristics for the biodiesel fuelled engine compared to diesel. Improvement in thermal efficiency, reduction in brake specific fuel consumption and a considerable reduction in smoke opacity were observed for the engine . With several works on the consumption of biodiesel and its blends in diesel engines it is evident that single biodiesel offer acceptable engine performance and emissions for diesel engine operation. Very few works have been conducted with the combination of diesel and two different biodiesels blend as a fuel. Various researchers focused on single biodiesel like soybean oil, rapeseed oil, pongamia pinnata oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, mahua oil, jatropha oil, rice bran oil etc., and its blends with diesel [8-12].
Products of the reaction include not onlybiodiesel, but also by products, soap, glycerine, excess alcohol, and trace amounts of water. All of these by products must be removed, though the order of removal is process- dependent. The density of glycerine is greater than that of biodiesel, and this property difference is exploited to separate the bulk of the glycerine by product. Residual methanol is typically removed through distillation and reused, though it can be washed out (with water) as a waste. Soaps can be removed or converted into acids. Any residual water must be removed from the fuel.
Abstract: Future lack of petroleum resources, price hike and environmental concerns have led to search for more environment friendly and renewable fuels. As an alternative fuel, biodiesel is considered as the most suitable alternative due to its environment friendly aspect and similar operation properties as diesel. In this study, Palm, Jatropha and Calophyllum biodieselblends has been used to evaluate performance of a compression ignition engine operated at idling condition. Three idling modes were selected in which operating condition of engine were: a) 1000RPM 10% Load, b) 1200RPM 12% Load and c) 1500RPM and 15% Load. At high idling conditions biodiesel-dieselblends emit less HC and CO, but high amount of NO X compared to diesel fuel. At high idling
main pollutants from Diesel engines . Therefore scientists put their effort to find the alternative fuel which reduce the emission and slightly varies the thermal efficiency. Going through the various parameters and criteria, Biodiesel and its diesel blend have one of the best alternatives for the diesel [1, 5]. Biodiesel is mainly produced through transesterification process. In this process triglyceridies reacts with alcohol in the presence of catalysts to produce fatty acids alkyl esters . Biodiesel reduce the PM, CO and HC but it increases the NO x emission. Any addition of water in biodiesel-dieselblends also reduces the
AVL Fire ESED utilizes mathematical models to accurately simulate the fuel spray, evaporation, combustion and emissions of the diesel engine. All the models are combined together to calculate the output data of the engine. The combustion model was chosen to be the ECFM-3Z as this model is especially generated for diesel combustion process. The Wave Child Break-up model was selected for the spray dispersion model. This model increases computational time however significantly increases accuracy. Two different types of evaporation models depending on the fuel type used. A Dukowicz and Multi-component models where selected for pure diesel and biodiesel-dieselblends respectively. For the calculation of the emissions, an Extended Zeldovich model was used for NO X and Lund Flamelet
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or animal fat- based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters. Biodiesel can be used alone, or blended with petrodiesel in any proportions. Biodieselblends can also be used as heating oil. Soya biodiesel is an alternativefuel produced from soybean oil. Soya biodiesel can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. Soya biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the soybean oil. The process gives two products: methyl esters (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (used to make soap). Soya methyl esters, the predominant type of biodiesel fuel, have higher NOx emissions, poorer cold flow, and shorter shelf life when compared to petroleum diesel. These shortcomings are partly due to the fatty acid profile of the soybean oil feedstock itself. The fatty acid profile and the alcohol moieties determine the characteristics of the fuel such as cetane number, cold flow, oxidative stability, lubricity, and viscosity (11). This article examines the effects on fuel properties such as Cetane Number, NOx emissions, and CO &HC emissions.
The variation of commulative heat release rate with crank angle is shown in fig.12. The neat mango seed biodiesel values are similar to diesel. The two main phases of the combustion process, premixed and di ﬀ usion, are clearly seen in the rate of heat release curve. If all heat losses (due to heat transfer from the gases to the cylinder walls, dissociation, incomplete combustion, gas leakage) are added to the apparent heat release characteristics, the fuel burn characteristics are obtained.
The different properties of diesel fuel and Mango seed biodiesel are determined and shown in table.3.2. After transesterification process the fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, calorific value, density, flash and fire point get improved in case of biodiesel. The calorific value of mango seed biodiesel is lower than that of diesel because of oxygen content. The flash and fire point temperature of biodiesel is higher than the pure diesel fuel this is beneficial by safety considerations which can be stored and transported without any risk.
1 I NTRODUCTION The world is presently confronted with twin crisis of fuel depletion and environment degradation. Indiscrimination extraction and lavish consumption of fossil fuels  have led to reduction in underground-based carbon resources. The search for alternative fuels, which promise a harmonious correlation with sustainable development, energy conservation, efficiency an environmental preservation  has become highly pronounced in present context. Even though new technologies have come up which have made solar, wind or tidal energy sources are easily usable but still they are not so popular due to problems and integration with the existing technology and processes. Gasoline and diesel driven automobiles are main reason for global warming. Various bio fuel energy resources are explored include biomass, biogas, primary alcohol, vegetable oils as blends with diesel, bio- diesel etc. Vegetable oils are good alternatives to fossil fuels for use in diesel engines. They are renewable in nature ad may generate opportunities for rural employment when employed on large scale. Since vegetable properties are similar to diesel, they can be used to run compressed ignition engines with little or no modifications. These alternatives resources are environment friendly but they need to be evaluated case to case basis for their advantages, disadvantages, properties, specific applications. Some of these fuels can be used directly while others are needed to be formulated to bring the relevant properties closer to conventional fuels. Due to recent widespread use of fuels in various sectors, this study concentrates on accessing the viability of using alternative fuels in the existing internal combustion engines without any modifications. An acceptable alternative fuel for engine has to fulfill the environment and energy security needs without sacrificing operating performance. Vegetable oils can be successfully used in CI engines without engine modifications and fuel modifications. Technologies must be developed for the use of vegetable oils as an alternative fuel. Vegetable oil cannot be used directly in its raw form in engine. So blends are made with diesel called bio-diesel. System design approach has taken care to see that these modified fuels can be utilized in the existing diesel engine without substantial
The Blends are 15%, 20% and 25% of neem oil are used. Smoke test and viscosity experiment are made for all these bio diesel combinations and performance test was carried out. Because the results are observed and compare all of the graphs and discovered that the break thermal and mechanical effective for B20 is ready 30.29% and 92.34% that are larger B20 has bigger effective combo and grate cooling influence, when in comparison with different mixtures. Smoke test proved that the B20 blend has the mine to the pure diesel which has 30.2%. The increasing industrialization and motorization of the arena has led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products. Accordingly, it is vital to seem for replacement fuels, which may also be comprised of substances available within the nation. In this paper, biodiesel performance checking out is completed in C.I. Engine. Biodiesel has been ready from NEEM oil via mechanical stirring process and evaluation additionally has been made with diesel. The performances of this biodiesels had been confirmed by means of the efficiency parameters like torque, brake vigour, brake thermal effective and brake designated fuel consumption, brake specific power consumption, exhaust gas temperature, air gas ratio and emission characteristics like smoke opacity.
Presence of sulfur in fuel has hazardous effect on engine performance and environment. During combustion when sulfur reacts with water vapor to produce sulfuric acid and other corrosive compounds which deteriorate the longevity of valve guides and cylinder liners leading to premature engine failure. Moreover these corrosive compounds get mixed with atmospheric air cause acid rain which pollutes vast areas of arable land. ASTM D5453 and ASTM D2622 standards are used to determine sulfur contents as parts per million. Virtually GTL has zero sulfur but maximum 0.005 ppm has been observed in real scenarios which can decrease the emission of PM. On the contrary 0.0034 ppm for ULSD and maximum 11ppm sulfur has been found for ordinary diesel [7, 10, 107].
S. Savariraj, T. Ganapathy and C. G. Saravanan presented the results of investigation of performance and emissions characteristics of diesel engine using Mahua biodiesel and found that, the blends of varying proportions of Mahua biodiesel and diesel were prepared, analyzed compared with the performance of diesel fuel, and studied using a single cylinder diesel engine. The tests showed decrease in the brake thermal efficiencies of the engine as the amount of Mahua biodiesel in the blend increased. The maximum percentage of reduction in BTE (14.3%) was observed for B- 100 at full load. The exhaust gas temperature with the blends decreased as the proportion of Mahua increases in the blend. The smoke, Co, and No emissions of the engine were increased with the blends at all loads. However, Hc emissions of Mahua biodiesels were less than that of diesel.
Performance parameters considered in this study such as BTE, BSFC and exhaust gas temperature values of blends against pure diesel are compared at different BMEP values of 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.62 and 4.52 bars respectively. Figures 2(a) and (b) show the variation of BTE with Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) for various biodieselblends with 0.5% and 1% ETN respectively. The increase in BTE with the blends was marginal at low BMEP values while it increases considerably at higher BMEP values, BTE further increases with ETN percentage when compared to pure diesel. However there was negligible improvement Observed in BTE with increase in ETN percentage. 15% to 20% improvement in BTE was observed at maximum BMEP with 0.5% and 1% ETN additive in diesel- biodieselblends respectively against pure diesel. This is due to the fact that the rapid combustion caused by the addition of cetane improver. Figure 3(a) and (b) shows the variation of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) with BMEP for diesel and various blends. It is observed from these figures that the BSFC of the different fuel blends was different since the energy contents of the blends are different further more; the addition of ETN causes the BSFC to vary. BSFC was lower for all the blends with 0.5% and 1% ETN than that of pure diesel. This can be attributed to the improvement in
The use of vegetable oil for energy purposes is not new. It has been used world over as a source of energy for lighting and heating since time immemorial. As early as in 1900, a diesel-cycle engine was demonstrated to run wholly on groundnut oil at the Paris exposition. Even the technology of conversion of vegetable oil into biodiesel is not new and is well established. However the unprecedented rise in fuel prices recently has made it economically attractive. The present availability of vegetable oils in the world is more than enough to meet the edible oil requirements, and surplus quantity available can partially meet requirements of biodiesel production. However, there is a considerable potential to further enhance the oilseeds production in the world to meet the increasing demand for food and biodiesel.
The relationship among fuel properties, such as viscosity, calorific value, specific density, and surface tension are affected by engine performance. Fuel consumption increases with increasing biodiesel oil in blends and results in better combustion when injected into a combustion chamber. The performance of a diesel engine operating on sunflower oil as an alternative diesel fuel was examined for higher fuel consumption and lower torque generation. The low percentage of biodiesel (20% or less) blends provides higher brake power for completed combustion with lower fuel consumption. Engine performance has improved by having higher calorific value and lower viscosity in biodiesel. However, according to the results at maximum fuel delivery rates of the injection pump with standard calibration, this engine produced equivalent power or minor power increases when operating on biodiesel oils and biodiesel oil or a diesel fuel mixture. Masjuki used coconut oil-blended diesel fuel to operate an IDI diesel engine. The brake power output per specific density was observed at speeds between 800 r/min and 3200 r/min for the various combinations of fuel. The coconut oil blends developed power per specific density similar to that of ordinary diesel (OD). Fuel consumption increases with an increasing amount of coconut oil in blended fuels. Overall lubricating oil analysis has shown that the results for 10–30% coconut oil blends are better than those for 40–50% blended fuels and comparable with the results from OD. Thus, the use of coconut oil blend in diesel engines is expected to become a reality in the near future.
Fig. 5 illustrates HC emissions from different biodieselblends. HC emission trend does not follow the CO emission trend for different n-heptane series, although both components are the product of incomplete combustion. In this case, H20 series produce the highest HC while B5 blends have the peak values of HC at all load conditions. At low load operation, B100 blend with H5 generates about 33% less HC in comparison with standard diesel; however, B100 blend with H10 has similar level of HC as the standard diesel and B100 blend with H20 produces about 33% more HC than standard diesel. At medium and high load operations, HC emission for diesel is not significant, which is only about 7% and 4%, respectively, compared to that at low load operation. It is seen that n- heptane plays a detrimental role in HC emissions; the more n- heptane in the blend, the higher HC emission is produced, although the efficiency is a little higher with higher amount of n-heptane (H20 series) than H5 series (Fig. 3). Usually, the higher the efficiency, the lower the HC emission is. Therefore, there is a reason to believe that higher HC emission with H20 series than H5 series is related to the local overleaning of the mixture due to low boiling point of n-heptane. Local overleaning is an important reason for HC emissions, and this is dominating over higher efficiency for higher amount of n-
characteristics when diesel engine run using Pongamiapinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel. The conclusions came were that blends of PPME with diesel up to 40% by volume (B40) yields better Brake Specific Fuel Consumption and improved emission characteristics. Similarly, S. Godiganur et al.  used blends of methyl ester obtained from mahua oil and studied performance and emission characteristics in a cummins 6BTA 5.9 G2- 1, 158 HP rated power, turbocharged, DI, water cooled diesel engine. For this case, authors have observed a significant reduction in CO, HC emissions and fuel consumption with slight increase in NOx emission with increased in blend percentage but in contrast, brake specific energy consumption decreases and thermal efficiency of engine marginal increases at the specific operating condition when working with 20% biodiesel blend. For other authors for example S. Puhan et al.  (mahua oil), XiangmeiMenget al.  (waste cooking oil)andHaiter Lenin A et al.  (mahua oil)have carried out the similar experiments but with bio diesel obtained from diversified feed stoke. 2. METHODOLOGY
Abstract :The depletion of world petroleum reserves and increased environmental concern has stimulated the search of alternative fuel which is to be environment friendly. Bio-fuels have the potential to become alternative fuel for fossil fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, reliable, biodegradable and regarded as a clean alternative fuel to reduce exhaust emissions. In recent years, much research has been carried to find suitable alternative fuel to petroleum products. In the present investigation experimental work has been carried out to analyze the performance and emissions characteristics of a single cylinder compression ignition DI engine fuelled with the blends of mineral diesel and biodiesel. The simarouba biodiesel is considered as alternative fuel to diesel. A large amount of tree borne oils and fats are available for biodiesel production in developing and under develop countries. Simarouba glauca oil is one of these oils.
The cardanol which is derived from CNSL is non-edible. The cardanol is appears to be best and cheapest feed stock for bio diesel production. It was suggested that cardanol can be used as a potential fuel in internal combustion engines and has been reported by the results of many studies that biodiesel can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications Rajesh et al (2006) and Rakopoulos et al (2006).The author also tested the diesel engine with blends of CNSL and diesel. The experimental results showed that the brake thermal efficiency was decreased for blends of CNSL and diesel except the lower blends (B20). Also the emission level of the all CNSL and Dieselblends was increased compared to neat diesel Velmurugan et al (2011).The presence of a solvent additive in the biodiesel blend becomes necessary to improve the performance of the engine and hence improve the combustion characteristics. Many engine performance tests have been conducted using biofuels such as ethanol as a supplementary fuel Hansen et al (2005) and Abu-Qudais et al (2001). Various techniques have been developed to introduce ethanol into a compression ignition engine. However, the use of ethanol-dieselblends, usually named as e-diesel, has also some limitations: it has lower viscosity and lubricity, reduced ignitability and cetane number, higher volatility and lower miscibility Hansen et al (2001) and Li et al (2005) which may lead to increased unburned hydrocarbons emissions Merritt et al (2005). But there is a possibility of using higher percentages of biodiesel with solvent additives.