Modern globalization is characterized by the exchange of free information between countries and focus on overall development. Moreover, as our Mukhtar Auezov said: "The people with the people, a man with a man are united by knowledge." One of the most important needs of our young Kazakh people is to become world leaders. The reason is that all the news and discoveries of science in the world, are mostly written in English. For example, international research and knowledge in the field of biology and medicine are mainly published in English press. Mr. Nazarbayev reported this at the third meeting of education and science workers: "The need for English today is a worldwide necessity" (Nazarbayev 2004).
This part of vocabulary sometimes causes difficulties for translators. But there are traditional translation methods for such terms, these methods have been used in the English text of the ET. Transliteration is among them, for example, inhibitor – , hydra , pharynx , as well as long-held translation equivalents: coelenterates , intestine, tapeworm humus and others. The source of the traditional translation methods is specialized lexicographical sources (The Environment Encyclopedia and Directory, 2005, The New English-Russian Dictionary of Biology, 2009; Glossary of Biodiversity Terms). One more group of terms is used as conventional scientific terminology (internationalisms). This vocabulary can be used both in non-terminological and terminological sense. The task of the translator is to correctly interpret the meaning of terms and internationalisms in the context and provide the most accurate information transfer. We refer to such lexemes as: parasite, capsules , cuticle and others. Various lexical and grammatical classes of words, used to describe the basic concepts of biology, participate in the creation of biological terms: nouns (nutrition, respiration, excretion), adjectives (intracellular, extracellular, digestive), verbs (capture, breathe, absorb), adverbs (throughout, sexually) and others. Function words (prepositions and conjunctions) and words that provide connections between the individual elements of statements (mainly adverbs) play a big role, for example: - Firstly liver fluke produces a lot of eggs, and secondly its larvae are reproduced asexually: embryos are divided many times. Many cnidarians have both life forms (both generations) which follow each other (alternate) throughout the life cycle, from birth to death of the organism. Some (hydra, coral polyps) are not free-floating forms (jellyfish). Others (some scyphomedusae) lost form of polips.
Abstract : The purpose of this study is to integrate western curriculum into English Programs at the upper secondary level education. English is used as the medium in transferring core subjects (English, Science, Math) and selected requirements such as Social Studies, History, Religion, Art, and Computer to predominately English as Second Language (ESL) students. This challenges ESL educators to continually improve techniques and tactics in transferring their specific subjects to students. In this study, lectures taught from US undergraduate university level biology textbook combined with integrated learning and psychological approaches fulfilling the core standard required by Thailand’s Ministry of Education to study three consecutive years of biology at high school level for science major students from M4-M6 (Grades 10 to 12). The study sample group consisted of 24 science major students at M4 level and 22 students at M5 level. This study was performed at the Demonstration School of Rajabhat Suan Sunandha University with the intent of building a strong biology foundation in English and inspiring students preparing for university level studies. Observed results from two progressive academic years exhibited students’ improved proficiency to understand the biology content through students’ class performance in class interaction and discussion, online research in preparation for performing laboratory experiments and writing preliminary scientific reports prior to instructor’s teaching of experiment procedures, assignments in concept map and mind map format, PowerPoint presentation in group and assessment as individual students.
Transactions and Physical Review paved the way for other genre analyses of the SRA in its most current form. His methods and insights shaped future studies in several fields, including rhetoric of science and genre studies. Because of their thoroughness and focus on articles published all the way up until 1995, Gross et al. (2002) provide a particularly enlightening picture of the SRA as it stood at the end of the twentieth century. From their study of randomly selected articles from the most cited scientific research journals of the century (from fields such as physics, biology, biochemistry, as well as general science journals such as Science and Nature), they conclude that articles from 1900 on became more highly specialized as well as standardized, due in part to the significant increase in scholarly publishing. Journals began to issue style guides, and in many ways, they say, writing and presentation style converged. This century also saw the rise of what Halliday (1998) calls “scientific English,” or objective style, and Gross et al. note its rise not only in English- speaking countries, but also in countries whose primary language was different, and where their researchers desired a broader audience for the country’s scientific work. In a further discussion of style, Gross et al. note that one of the most significant changes to scientific articles is their cognitive complexity, saying, “As science has grown more theoretically and methodologically complex, its grammar has adapted by adding substantially to the
clearly communicated through writing, which takes many forms including reports, journal articles and conference presentations. Improving students’ writing skills in science degree programs is necessary because writing is an important form of profes- sional communication and also improves critical thinking (Libarkin & Ording, 2012; Peat et al., 2002; Quitadamo & Kurtz, 2007). It is clear that a greater emphasis on developing effective communication is required among scientists and thus needs be part of their education (Ali et al., 2007; Libarkin & Ording, 2012; Quitadamo & Kurtz, 2007). However a survey at the University of Wisconsin-Madison found that 45% of biol- ogy students did not like writing despite 98% regarding writing as important for learning (Manske, 2010). International students who do not have English as their preferred language are even more overwhelmed when faced with a technical writing task (Jordan & Kedrowicz, 2011). Tools and activities must there- fore be utilised that inspire students to want to develop their writing expertise. We have shown previously (Lee et al., 2011) that the use of writing activities embedded into a laboratory class can assist students to gain confidence in their writing and we were therefore interested if oral MQs could complement this approach to encourage international students to write.
average in that category. Therefore, the very large rrr for females and Technology majors is most likely a result of the small number female technology majors, on average. However, the rrr’s for black students are higher in every category, which implies that black students care more about recessions than white students when making their college major decisions. The Fine Arts and Biology majors stand out as the two exceptions to the hypothesis that high-wage, high-employment majors will be preferred after recessions. Previous psycholog- ical literature suggests that the result for Fine Arts majors is not as odd as it may seem. Csikszentmihalyi and Getzels (1973) report that Fine Arts majors compared to students who major in other disciplines have low levels of “superego strength” which indicates that these students do not conform to cultural or social standards. They also describe artists as “reso- lute and accustomed to making their own decisions.” Shelton and Harris (1979) confirm that those who major in the Arts possess an “assertive boldness.” Students who choose to major in Art already know they are making a risky financial decision and are probably students that place a very low priority on the investment value of their college major. That weight is unlikely to change by enough after a recession to induce them to switch majors to another field. Therefore, any shocks to investment value, like a recession, would have no visible effect on their decision to be an Art major. It is probably not the case that more students are majoring in Fine Arts after a recession, but instead the exact same students who chose an Art major before a recession are going to choose an Art major after a recession. If there are any changes at all in the number of students choosing to major in English after a recession, then the rrr > 1 for the Fine Arts major.
Each sample was first transcribed as faithfully as possible to the original text produced by the students, from the spelling right up to how the words were placed. This was to ensure that I captured a snapshot that was rich enough to provide me with multiple layers of analysis. With Matthew’s (pseudonym) writing sample, the reader is immediately brought into how the character was feeling at the time, expressed through highly descriptive and emotive words for his level of English proficiency level in comparison to that of his friends. Words like ‘scared’, ‘shoked (shocked)’, ‘nervous’ and ‘sad’ shine through the writing to illustrate a level of emotional connection between Matthew and the characters in the book. Next, I analysed the writing in terms of the vocabulary use, both general vocabulary, and the also the target vocabulary that had been taught in the lessons. Here I saw the target words ‘scared’, ‘nousi (noisy)’, ‘silence’ and ‘safety’ being used, as we had done several dramatic activities using these words prior to the writing task. However, it has to be made clear that this was not a test to determine language acquisition, as we did not have a reference point to make as to whether the words that Matthew used had been learnt before or after the relevant lessons. Instead of acquisition, this part of the analysis was interested in ‘uptake’ (adapted from Lyster & Ranta, 1997), where we are able to gauge if a student has managed to internalise a word and replicate it according to its correct usage. Acquisition on the other hand deals with retention of the learnt vocabulary, which in Case 1 did not have a high validity rating due to the short duration of the programme.
The meeting highlighted the importance of experimental and systems biological approaches for achieving a better understanding of stem cell behaviour and properties. The increasing influence of computational and modelling methods in the field of stem cell biology was illustrated by the fact that half of all the conference talks contained theoretical results. The computational methods presented were not restricted to data exploration and analysis. Instead, many of the speakers proposed theoretical concepts and mathematical models that aimed to explain quantitatively biological mechanisms. A key topic addressed by many speakers was the investigation of the mechanisms of cellular state transitions. The heterogeneity of stem cells and stem cell populations, a topic that is closely related to the issue of potentially reversible state transitions, was also discussed as an extremely important topic in stem cell biology. The presentation of recent experimental results and of new mathematical modelling approaches related to these fields was complemented by talks that presented upcoming technologies, such as genome-wide screening approaches or the construction and analysis of synthetic regulatory networks. To provide a concise overview of the topics discussed during this meeting, we briefly summarise the key findings according to the following two themes: (1) mechanisms of cellular state transitions; and (2) cellular heterogeneity of stem cells and stem cell populations.
speakers. Many of us including me want to be an English teacher. However, as non-English native speakers, are we able to become a good English teacher here? What are the advantages and disadvantages of it? What should we do to achieve this goal?
Garman and Good (2012) also investigated attrition in higher education at a community college. This research was particularly pertinent to this study due to its focus on success and attrition in college biology courses in traditional delivery compared to online delivery. The researchers found significantly lower success, as demonstrated by lecture grades, lab grades, and final grades, in the online delivery format (Garman & Good, 2012). In either delivery mode, mean grades were in the D range, illustrating that regardless of delivery, biological science courses at the college level are difficult for students. They were also able to confirm higher attrition rates in the online format, 22% online in comparison to 16% in the face-to-face sections (Garman & Good, 2012). Garman and Good assert that their findings “reinforced the notion that students may not be adequately prepared for the online course structure and withdraw after failing to pass the first and/or second exam (a time period which falls in the college’s official
After a quick lunch, the first speaker in the after- noon was Marco Antoniotti (University of Milano Bicocca, Italy), with a talk selected from the ab- stracts submitted to the meeting. Dr. Antoniotti described his investigation into modeling intesti- nal crypts using the SBML Spatial Processes pack- age and the Virtual Cell software environment . He discussed several issues he faced, such as the insufficient interplay between static and dy- namic representations, inconsistencies between the SBML Spatial Processes package and other SBML packages, and the difficulty of replicating spatial simulations. The next speaker was Hiroaki Kitano (Systems Biology Institute and Okinawa In- stitute of Science and Technology, Japan), one of the founders of Systems Biology and the initiator of the projects that gave rise to SBML and SBGN. Professor Kitano presented PhysioDesigner [29,114], an open software platform supporting multilevel modeling for physiological systems. The platform integrates the formats SBML, CellML and PHML, a language expressing hierarchies and the dynamics of biophysical functions. PhysioDesigner is compatible with the Garuda project, an ongoing effort to develop a computational and knowledge platform for healthcare research that can be used in both academic and industrial environments. Andrew Davison (CNRS, France) then presented the problems linked to large-scale neuronal net- works modeling, as well as some software tools for collaborative modeling, model sharing with tools, and formats such as PyNN [30,31] and NeuroML. Marc Lavielle (INRIA, France) intro- duced population pharmacometrics to the audi- ence, presenting models, methods and tools linked to this field. He notably introduced the modeling language MLXTran and the platform MLXPlore . MLXPlore is a graphical software system for the exploration and visualization of pharmacometrics models. MLXTran models can be run from MATLAB or R. Right after the coffee break, the last session of the day began with a short presentation from Hervé Turlier, a PhD stu- dent at the Institut Curie, on his biomechanical model of cell cytokinesis. Benjamin Ribba (INRIA Grenoble, France) then showed his work on mod- eling efficacy data in clinical oncology. More often than not, only a few measurements are performed to determine the efficacy of a given therapeutic treatment. In his presentation, Dr. Ribba showed a case study where clinical data was used to effi- ciently model the dynamic response of a tumor to antitumor treatment . Andrei Zinovyev
Before beginning the Elephant Project, students have completed their year of study on various Biology topics including units on biomolecules, ecology, DNA structure, protein synthesis, genetics, population genetics, natural selection and evolution. The elephant project is used as a culminating project for the year and as an end of the year assessment. It requires students to use previously acquired knowledge and explore the different ways biotechnology can be applied to solve a problem and help save and endangered species.