increase the accuracy of diagnosis, however, it is hard to be achieved within the real recording scenario. In most of the time, heart sound interferes with lung sound and leads difficult to extract clear lung sound from mixed heart-lung sound signal (Pasterkamp et al., 1997a; Lin and Hasting, 2013). Hence, extraction of a clear lung sound by separating the mixed heart-lung sound signal regarded as an example of BSS issue with respect in biomedicalfield.
ABSTRACT: This paper gives the details about the methods of biomedical image processing and after that it also describe about medical imaging modalities. Some of the medical imaging modalities are described in this paper like X- ray imaging, CT, MRI, and ultrasound. The optical modalities like endoscopy, photography and microscopy are also more important in this field. The following steps of image analysis are explained in this paper, feature extraction, segmentation, classification, quantitative measurements and interpretation. It mainly focuses on segmentation of biomedical images, because of its high relevance. Special segmentation methods and techniques have been developed in the medical field.
It is now clear that complete understanding of the fundamental concepts, application of models, prototypes, and processes, an inspired vision and thoughtful problem-solving approaches demonstrate the importance of biomedicalfield in various life-centric contexts. The recent advances in medical imaging, intelligent control, and robotic surgery, computational biology and bioinformatics, health data and modeling, and molecular dynamics simulation provided insights into specialized functions and mechanisms of complex biological systems. Synthetic metal, polymer, ceramic and semiconductor biomaterials have applications in drug delivery devices, intraocular and dental implants, bone replacements and orthopedic fixations, heart valves and skin substitutes, vascular grafts and hip replacements, biosensors and implantable microelectrodes, multisensory systems, and deep brain stimulation. Major technological breakthroughs in the medical and industrial spheres are expected shortly, and the prospects of biomedical engineering look bright in the light of these advancements. The detailed study of the toxic effects of different genetically modified products has to be conducted, and their medical benefits have to be critically evaluated. Some of the recent biomedical research areas include bio-molecular engineering and environmental toxicology, biomedical signal processing, bioinformatics data analysis, computational neuroscience, cardiovascular engineering, bio-microelectromechanical systems and nanotechnology, modern biomaterials and nanobiomaterials, tissue engineering and artificial organs, medical electronics, technologies for chronic diseases, outreach and health tracking devices, sterile services management, mechanobiology and neuroimaging and nanomedicine. Recent biomedical breakthroughs and discoveries such as heart transplant from a cadaver, skull transplant using a plastic tailor-made 3D- printed piece, arm system that controls movements, electronic skin and bionic eye, and electrosurgical unit prove that there is ample scope for further clinical research and development in the field and a bright career for the interested and inclined young minds. There is a need to evolve effective medical service mechanisms including adequate public health system equipped to deal with emergencies and create health centers that would provide multiple health care services from physical ailments to psychological disorders, and other related services from forensic department to legal advice agencies under one roof. Recent advancements in genetic engineering and genomics
In the past several years, we have witnessed significant advances in stimulus-activepolymers. They can change their shapes (configuration or dimension) or produce mechanical power in response to heat, light, electricity, magnetic field, and water/solvent. In the recent years these materials are used as artificial muscle. EAP polymers based artificial muscle giving new innovations in the field of biorobotic and biomedical. Due to increasing demand of technology these materials are widely using in these fields due to their inherent properties resembles to natural muscle. Thus new development in the EAP polymer can change the view of these materials in biomedicalfield and will give better and live longer human life in future.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with prevalence of about 1-2% of the world’s population (Mormann, Andrzejak, Elger & Lehnertz, 2007). It is characterized by sudden recurrent and transient disturbances of perception or behaviour resulting from excessive synchronization of cortical neuronal networks; it is a neurological condition in which an individual experiences chronic abnormal bursts of electrical discharges in the brain Monitoring brain activity through the electroencephalogram (EEG) has become an important tool in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Epileptic people are two or three times more likely to die prematurely when compared to a normal person. Hence, study of epilepsy has always been an utmost importance in the biomedicalfield of research. Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder, characterized by seizures, which can affect any person at any age. The epileptic seizures occur because of the malfunctioning of the electrophysiological system of the brain, which causes sudden excessive electrical discharge in a group of brain cells (i.e. neurons)present in the cerebral cortex. Involvement of cerebral cortex leadsto abnormalities of motor functions causing jerky (tonic-clonic) spasms of muscles and joints.
Biomedical scientists are responsible for investigating and diagnosing patient illnesses . Their work is primarily lab-based, using advanced medical equipment and automated systems to grow, test and analyze cultures from infected samples . The three specialties (major) in Biomedicalfield are namely infection sciences (clinical microbiology, virology, and immunology); blood sciences (clinical chemistry, transfusion science, and hematology); Cellular sciences (histopathology, cytology, and reproductive sciences) .
In this paper, we demonstrated the application of atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (APAPJ) in biomedical science such as cancer therapy and biomedical engineering such as surface modification of polystyrene Petri dishes for animal cell culture.We observed that APAPJ, when exposed to breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) for 60 seconds at a distance of ~ 2.5 cm, reduced the cancer cells by 57%. This reduction in cancer cell concentration demonstrated the cancer-kill- ing property of APAPJ. Further optimization of APAPJ's various operational pa- rameters and in-depth biochemical study is required to figure out the mechanism responsible for killing cancer cells. Also, we investigated cell adhesion and pro- liferation due to APAPJ treatment by Crystal Violet (CV) staining and MTT As- say. We observed that APAPJ treatment of polystyrene Petri dishes for 60 - 240 s at a distance of ~ 3.5 cm exhibited enhancement in adhesion of breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). We also demonstrated the increase in hydrophilicity by a reduction in contact angle to 30.3°±3 after 240 seconds of APAPJ treatment of polystyrene samples. The hydrophilicity of the substrate has proven to enhance cell adhesion. Consequently, APAPJ could be employed as a simple, inexpensive and environmentally friendly method for surface modification of polystyrene plates for animal cell culture.
Biomedical waste management in a health care setup is an alarming human and environmental health concern. Despite the implementation of biomedical waste management and handling rules by the Government of India, the biomedical waste management still remains a serious issue due to the lack of awareness, improper knowledge and practices among the health care personnel. Health care workers should have proper knowledge and training regarding collection, segregation, and disposal of biomedical waste. Best management practices should be followed, especially when disposing hazardous wastes. Biomedical waste management program should be made a part of the academic curriculum and continuing dental education. This article provides a detailed overview on biomedical waste management in medical and dental settings and emphasizes on the importance of public health stakeholders.
For this reason, I now summarize several articles that discuss many types of adjectives in particular. In the article “Measurement scales in natural language” (Solt, 2014) Solt starts her research by looking for adjectives, specifically, the gradable adjectives, for instance, ‘tall’ from the adjectival field. Then, Solt’s discovery drives her to the class of quantity and amount with some examples such as ‘more beautiful than’, or ‘more residents than’. Then she discusses the scales in the domain of verbal semantics. For instance, a ‘lot of books’, or ‘I slept a lot’. Finally, she states the nominal gradability (nouns) and the modal expressions with a detailed explanation about them. In addition, she mentions that not all of the languages around the world have the same types of scales or degrees. For example, some languages do not have words like ‘too’ and ‘enough’. In addition, Stevens in his two articles about “The Theory of Scales of Measurement” was interested to search more on names, numbers, adjectives that refer to equality and quantity between elements, and the degrees which used in different specialties such as, time, plane angle, energy and electric charge. Cresswell also has focused his investigation on the semantics of gradable adjectives and the semantic analysis of expressions in the English language. Also, he showed several terms that related to comparison such as ‘expensive’, ‘greater’ and many other examples of terms which have discussed above in the second theme in my literature review. Likewise, the article of “Modifiers” from the course of “Semantics in natural language” focused on how to get the semantics from adjectives and adverbs in the English language. The authors in this article have divided adjectives in three types or categories, and they have given some examples for each one.
In this study, we focused onunderstanding the cytokine composition of concentrated vitOrganinjection solutionby using cytokine antibody array. As a result, a list of 123 molecules was found in the concentrated injection solution. To our knowledge, this is by far the most extensive inventory of molecules from vitOrganreportedinthe field. We have learned the types of molecules exist in vitOrgan and the types of cellular signaling pathways that these moleculesare intensively involved in.The results can help us anticipate the molecular mechanism related tothe treatment ofvitOrgan and can further provide theoretical guidance for potential clinical applications. On the other hand, these cytokines from vitOrgan may also participate in the repair and metabolism of organs. Potential targeted organs include:
We found that of the two steps of disease recogni- tion, disease mention gets the higher inter- annotator agreement (vs. concept mapping). We have applied a statistical and an NLP method for the automatic recognition of disease concepts in two genres of biomedical text. While both methods show good performance (F=77% vs. F=76%) on the sentence corpus, results indicate that the statis- tical model is more robust on the query corpus where very little disease context information is available (F=74% vs. F=70%). As a result, the priority model will be used for disease detection in PubMed queries in order to characterize users’ search contexts for contextual IR.
can be applied to problems that require the iden- tification of large but finite sets of entities, par- ticularly in biomedicine. To begin with, instead of using a gold-standard corpus as training set, we propose utilizing the wealth of manual annotations that currently exist in biomedical databases. In- deed, several freely-available databases provide a growing number of annotations concerning gene name identifiers associated to biomedical docu- ments. The main drawback of these annotations is that they are weakly labeled, as they do not specify the precise location in which the genes are men- tioned within the documents. However, there are ways to infer these locations (Jain et al., 2016).
As this system is based on different bio-sensors, microcontroller&GSM technology is used to send datawirelessly, as great use in the field of medicine and helps theDoctor to keep a keen eye on the patient’s health. So a systemis used to monitor the overall health of patient, which needsconstant care, the data at receiver end which can be used toanalyse the patients overall health condition. Thus the bloodpressure, pulse rate, temperature, ECG signal is measuredfrom the different biosensors and respective diagnosis can bedone by doctors.
The segmentation of overlapped cervical cells from Pap smears is one of the most challenging problems in medical image process- ing field. We present a novel automated system for the cervical cell segmentation of cytoplasms and nuclei from multi-cell im- ages. First, this system employed a graph cuts method including two algorithms, namely unsupervised k-means initialization and max-flow/min-cut optimization for scene segmentation. The seg- mented clumps were considered as foreground regions. Then, we used Voronoi diagrams to divide every clump of overlapping cells into individual non-overlapped regions, each containing one nu- cleus. Finally, to improve the overlapped segmentation, each indi- vidual cell in a clump was fitted by a minimum enclosing ellipse and the overlapped region was replaced by the corresponding area in this ellipse. This overlapped area and the connected free- lying region were combined to form a region of one complete cell. The experiments were conducted on two publicly released databsets downloaded from websites of University of Adelaide. The quantitative performance presents the average Dice Coeffi- cient (DC) higher than 0.85. According to the explanation of evaluation metric in databsets, the “ good ” segmentation is evalu- ated with the DC > 0.7. Thus, the result of our proposed system outperforms 0.7 and achieves the state-of-art performance. Keywords
Suzhou New District (SND) is a 20-year-old national new and hi-tech industry park, which is located in the west of Suzhou city and covers a total area of 258km² with a total population of 720,000 people. SND is a cluster of hi-tech industries with more than 16000 domestic and foreign-invested companies. Its total industrial output value in the year of 2012 exceeded RMB25.75 billion and import & export volume USD35.3billion. Today, SND focus on the development of new strategic industries like Medical Device, New Energy, Software and BPO business. SND is an area to attract numerous hi-end talents, with multiple innovative platforms including Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology of China Academy of Science (SIBET), Suzhou Industrial Technology Research Institute of Zhejiang University. All this platforms play a great role in the combination of innovation and industrial development. SND is also a new township with great resource on waters and mountains. With great transportation facility and natural environment, SND becomes a great place for people to both work and live.
This rapid method of fiber production has been utilized by a relatively small number of research groups. Badrossamay et al.  first published their work in 2010 using the principles of a cotton candy machine to solution spin nanofibers. They termed the method rotary jet spinning (RJS). This method was able to produce aligned poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers ranging from 50-3500 nm in diameter for the guidance of rat cardiomyocytes. The range of fiber diameters produced was wide and dependent on the rotation speed of the spinneret. In 2014, the group published work with polymer-protein hybrid, poly(caprolactone)(PCL) and collagen or gelatin. This work utilized the same fiber production method (RJS) and were successful in producing highly aligned nanofibers for the purpose of influencing cell migration . Since then, this method has become of increasing interest in the field for tissue engineering  and this interest may be further increased with the availability of a commercial centrifugal spinning machine from the company FibeRio, based on the patented Forcespinning ® technology for producing nanofibers . One of the main advantages of a centrifugal fiber production method is the low cost and high yield . Although there are some limitations associated with this method such as constraints due to the materials’ properties resulting in variable fiber quality and morphology . An additional limitation is the ability to align the fibers has been shown to be unidirectional. However, it has been noted that for tissue engineering applications, control of lamination to mimic native extracellular matrices is highly sought after  and this has not been demonstrated with centrifugal spinning.
than half of experimental and correlational studies are reportedly reproducible (11). Inaccurate data can result in societal injury. For example, a now-retracted study associating measles vaccination with autism continues to resonate and may be contributing to low vaccination rates (12). Corrosion of the literature, whether by er- ror or misconduct, may also impede the progress of science and medicine. For example, false leads may be contributing to increas- ing disparities between scientific investment and measurable out- comes, such as the discovery of new pharmacological agents (13). In this study, we sought to estimate the prevalence of a specific type of inaccurate data that can be readily observed in the pub- lished literature, namely, inappropriate image duplication. The results demonstrate that problematic images are disturbingly common in the biomedical literature and may be found in ap- proximately 1 out of every 25 published articles containing pho- tographic image data, in particular Western blotting images.
All graduate degrees require 13-15 credit hours of Technical Depth. This will typically be satis- fied by four to five courses. At least three of those courses must be in Biomedical Engineering and these three courses must be at the 6000-level. The remaining Technical Depth courses have to be in engineering or science. Examples include, but are not limited to, BMED 6410: BioMEMS, BMED 6420: Clinical Orthopedic and Contemporary Research, BMED 6440: Biopho- tonics, BMED 6450: Drug and Gene Delivery, BMED 6500: Mechanobiology, BMED 6460: Bio- logical Imaging Analysis, BMED 6480: Biomedical Fluid Mechanics, BMED 6660: Muscle Me- chanics & Modeling.