This section is the result of the mapping of affordance and activity in the Blue Lagoon, and its analysis to formulate the biophilicdesign principle, as the purpose of this paper. By syntesizing the map of previous research findings, the theory of affordance, and the biophilicdesign principle, the result would be examined into 5 elements to manifesting the generic of tourism design product. These are physical plant, service, hospitality, freedom of choice, and involvement. Each point may related to the 8 urban design elements which offers the design strategic criteria to increasing the healthy, productivity, and the well-being of Blue Lagoon as the biophilicdesign tourism area.
Abstract Sustainable architectural design is the design of the age. It is based on the solution of environmental, social and economic problems of architectural design for providing resources and improving the quality of life for mankind. Sustainable solutions of architectural design result mainly from the principle of sustainability which is derived from natural systems and what they offer to humans. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the natural strategies of solving the problems of sustainable architectural design as an integrated approach for the knowledge of the secrets of sustainability. These strategies of sustainable architectural design derived from nature and interacting with it. The first strategy is inspired from nature by implementing the Biomimetic design which mimics the performance of nature and provides clean technologies. The second strategy is integrated into nature by using Biophilicdesign and its role in achieving human well-being and improving their performance. This research follows the deductive approach that analyzes the design strategies and methods taken from nature to contribute to the development of a comprehensive nature-based framework for sustainable architectural design to benefit the designers, innovators and decision makers that nature is the main source for achieving sustainability in architectural design.
Increasingly urban planners and policymakers recognize the potential of designing cities in ways that integrate nature. Some planners have begun to speak of biophilic cities or biophilicdesign [105, 106]. The premise of the idea of biophilia  is that as a species we have an in- nate connection to nature, that we are happier, healthier and able to lead more meaningful lives when nature is around us where we live and work. Biophilic designers argue that the integration of nature into urban design and planning is an important step toward future cities that are uplifting, restorative, beautiful and designed around a sense of connection with and wonder about the natural world. A full presentation of the theory of biophilicdesign is beyond the scope of this work. Below, we highlight two ways that biophilic cities, in which na- ture is integrated into its citizens’ everyday lives, can have tangible benefits for mental and physical health. While our examples are primarily from cities in the de- veloped world, where these two types of programs are most common, we believe that they can potentially be applied in cities in the developing world as well.
Biophilic Architecture is based on the original ideas proposed by American Biologist E.O. Wilson in ‘The Biophilia Hypothesis’. The term ‘Biophilia’ has ancient Greek origins (bios: life and philia: love) and Wilson termed it as “the urge to affiliate with other forms of life” [16-17]. The concept of Biophilia has been a part of human life since millenniums and it became a separate discipline of Architecture in late 1980s after Wilson collaborated with Kellert for the development of Biophilicdesign . Frumkin categorized all aspects of Biophilia under the subheads of Animals, Plants, Landscapes, and Wilderness . The above mentioned aspects are further detailed as ‘14 patterns of biophilicdesign’ and put into three major subcategories known as: Nature in the Space, Natural Analogues and Human-Nature Relationship. These subcategories are used in identification of biophilicdesign elements in different environments.
Biophilicdesign, therefore, is based on the attempt to transfer the innate inclination of individuals towards natural systems and processes—biophilia (Kellert et al. 2008)—in the urban project, trying to overcome the dif- ficulties associated both with the ability to understand the true character of this inclination, and the ability to identify innovative approaches that can be used by plan- ners and developers. Kellert has identified two main dimensions of biophilicdesign: the organic or naturalis- tic dimensions (the forms of the built environment that refer directly, indirectly or symbolically to nature) and a place-based or vernacular dimension (when the built environment or landscape refer to the culture of a given territory). According to Kellert, the two dimensions are linked to six biophilicdesign elements (environmental features; natural shape and forms; natural patterns and processes; light and space; place-based relationships; evolved human-nature relationships) which are in turn found in more than 70 biophilicdesign attributes (Kel- lert 2012). This categorisation is certainly evolving and continues to be enriched by the outcomes of studies con- ducted in different disciplines (just think of 14 Patterns of BiophilicDesign, Browning et al. 2014), but so far it has had the merit of systematising for the first time an inno- vative approach with the goal of enriching the concept of sustainability and reconnecting the built environment with the well-being of individuals.
On the architecture frontiers, biophilia should not be seen as only a kind of luxury aesthetic adaptation in design. It has existed for all of humanity since the beginning of time and it has to be given relevant space in architecture so that there can be a positive impact on the mental health of the population and its immediate surroundings in the most suitable way possible. Multidisciplinary approach has to be adopted in order to conduct further research within the directives of biophilicdesign on case-to-case basis to find out the preference, productivity and efficiency under certain set of criteria. It can include the weightage of each of the 14 patterns of biophilicdesign or the development of a more comprehensive and analytic tool like the Biophilic Quality Index (BQI) proposed by Malaysian Architect K. Yeang. Detailed research with respect to the different aspects like economics, use of energy and health in biophilicdesign must be taken in accordance with the issues like absenteeism and presenteeism for work environments. If humans do not evolve to a point where they can live without nature, then biophilia has a long journey to thrive. There is an optimistic possibility that with the guidelines of LEED and environmental sustainability directives, a lot more can be targeted for expanding the scope of sustainability through biophilicdesign.
The synthesizable 2-input nand gate we are to examine is shown in Figure 2.1. It is part of a larger synthesizable design. Written in VHDL code, the model has an active low output and is designated as such by appending a “neg” to the end of its name. (The reason for this particular convention is explained later.) This is a per- fectly good model of a nand gate—if you are designing nand gates for synthesis only. On the other hand, if your job is to create a nand gate model that will be used as an FPGA simulation primitive or an off-the-shelf component to be used in a board-level simulation, you might find this model has some deficiencies. Let’s look more closely at this model to see how it can be enhanced with simulation in mind, our goal being to create a VHDL model for the nand gate and the SDF to accompany it.
Still, commercial ECL families aren’t nearly as popular as CMOS and TTL, mainly because they consume much more power. In fact, high power con- sumption made the design of ECL supercomputers, such as the Cray-1 and Cray-2, as much of a challenge in cooling technology as in digital design. Also, ECL has a poor speed-power product, does not provide a high level of integra- tion, has fast edge rates requiring design for transmission-line effects in most applications, and is not directly compatible with TTL and CMOS. Nevertheless, ECL still finds its place as a logic and interface technology in very high-speed communications gear, including fiber-optic transceiver interfaces for gigabit Ethernet and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks.
Knowledge of prevailing memory technologies’ strengths and weaknesses is a key requirement for designing digital systems. When memory architecture is chosen that complements the rest of the sys- tem, a successful design moves much closer to fruition. Conversely, inappropriate memory architecture can doom a good idea to the engineering doldrums of impracticality brought on by artiﬁcial complexity. This chapter provides an introduction to various solid-state memory technologies and explains how they work from an internal structural perspective as well as an interface timing perspective. A memory’s internal structure is important to an engineer, because it explains why that memory might be more suited for one application over another. Interface timing is where the rubber meets the road, because it deﬁnes how other elements in the system can access memory components’ contents. The wrong interface on a memory chip can make it difﬁcult for external logic such as a microprocessor to access that memory and still have time left over to perform the necessary processing on that data. Basic memory organization and terminology are introduced ﬁrst. This is followed by a discussion of the prevailing read-only memory technologies: EPROM, ﬂash, and EEPROM. Asynchronous SRAM and DRAM technologies, the foundations for practically all random-access memories, are presented next. These asynchronous RAMs are no longer on the forefront of memory technology but still ﬁnd use in many systems. Understanding their operation not only enables their application, it also contributes to an understanding of the most recent synchronous RAM technologies. (High-per- formance synchronous memories are discussed later in the book.) The chapter concludes with a dis- cussion of two types of specialty memories: multiport RAMs and FIFOs. Multiport RAMs and FIFOs are found in many applications where memory serves less as a storage element and more as a communications channel between distinct logic blocks.
In a recently reported work , the limits of CGE has been examined and then stretched by adding a couple of new advances: transparent pipeline clock-gating (TCG)  and elastic pipeline clock- gating (ECG) . TCG introduces a new way of clock-gating pipelines. In traditional clock-gating, latches are held opaque to avoid data races between adjacent latch stages; this N clock pulses are needed to propagate a single data item through an N-stage pipeline, even if at a given clock cycle all other (i.e., N 1) stages have invalid input data. In a transparent clock-gated pipeline, latches are held transparent by default. TCG is based on the concept of data separation. Assume that a pair of data items A and B simultaneously moves through a TCG pipeline. A data race between A and B is avoided by separating the two data items by clocking or gating a latch stage opaque, such that the opaque latch stage acts as a barrier separating the two data items from each other. The number of clock pulses required for a data item item A to move through an N-stage pipeline is no longer only dependent on N, but also on the number of clock cycles that separate A from the closest upstream data item B. For an N-stage pipeline, where B follows n clock cycles behind A, only floor (N=n) clock pulses have to be generated to move A safely through the pipeline. ECG is a different technique that achieves further efficiency by exploiting the inherent storage redundancy afforded by a traditional master–slave latch pair. ECG allows the designer to allow stall signals to propagate backward in pipeline flow logic in a stage-by-stage fashion, without incurring the leakage power and area overhead of explicitly inserted stall buffers. Logic-level details of TCG and ECG are available in the originally published papers [24–26]. As reported there, TCG enables clock power reduction to the tune of 50% over traditional stage-level clock-gating under commercial (TPC-C) class workloads. Even under heavy floating-point workloads, where fewer bubbles are available in the pipeline, the clock power in the floating-point pipeline can be reduced by 34%. The significant reduction in dynamic stall power (27%) and leakage power (44%) afforded by ECG in a FPU design have also been reported in the published literature.
An application example of an LSI chip that employs SOI devices has been described here. Against the backdrop that the SOI CMOS process has been recognized as a key technology for increasing the performance and reducing the power consumption of logic LSI circuits, there is a strong need by information distribution services for LSI chips of higher performance and lower power consumption, improvement of the quality of thin-film SOI substrates based on Si substrates, lower cost, and development of suitability for mass production. Furthermore, progress in explaining the physical phenomena of SOI devices is progressing, and another major factor is the establishment of control technology in both device design and circuit design for the characteristics that bulk Si devices do not have, especially the floating body effect. On the other hand, it is said that future LSI chips will be oriented to the system-on-a-chip era, in which memory circuits, RF circuits, analog circuits, etc., will reside on the same chip, rather than digital logic circuits alone. Although SOI structures are effective in reducing cross talk, as has already been described, problems exist concerning the establishment of a precise circuit model of the devices, which is necessary for application of SOI devices to analog circuits as well as ascertaining the influence of the floating body effect on circuit precision. It is also necessary to continue with studies on countermeasures for memory pass gate leakage in DRAM, SRAM, etc.
The survey was conducted on students and instructors in the graphic design college, the primary data collection methods included individual interviews with the instructors as well as the experiences of one of the researchers who participated in team teaching this course. The subjects participating in the interviews consisted of two primary faculty instructor and eight assistant instructors who were teaching blended courses in the college during the same semester. A statistician was engaged to ensure processing of data was done properly satisfying the requirements of the research project. Data were keyed in into a statistical package system and processed to obtain the results. The interviews aimed to know how instructors experienced in teaching the blended course including their perceptions about virtual classes, the strategies employed, and the challenges facing participants within the blended context. In our survey questions, the researcher’s experiences in this course influenced the initial list of questions for the interviews as well as analyses of the data collected. In terms of the data is a mix of the students’ experiences in this study, a course evaluation survey and the course instructors’ critique assessment reports all were utilized to interpret the data collected and uncover any differences between the instructors’ comments and other data sources.
to logically group areas of the model. The analogy with a typical Schematic Entry system is a schematic sheet. In a typical Schematic Entry system, a level or a portion of the design can be represented by a number of schematic sheets. The reason for partitioning the design may relate to C design standards about how many components are allowed on a sheet, or it may be a logical grouping that the designer finds more understandable. The same analogy holds true for block statements. The statement area in an architecture can be broken into a number of separate logical areas. For instance, if you are designing a CPU, one block might be an ALU, another a register bank, and another a shifter.
One of the most far-reaching developments in digital electronics has been the introduction of programmable logic devices (PLDs). Prior to the development of PLDs, digital cir- cuits were constructed in various scales of integrated circuit logic, such as small scale inte- gration (SSI) and medium scale integration (MSI) devices. These devices contained logic gates and other digital circuits. The functions were determined at the time of manufacture and could not be changed. This necessitated the manufacture of a large number of device types, requiring shelves full of data books just to describe them. Also, if a designer wanted a device with a particular function that was not in a manufacturer’s list of offerings, he or she was forced to make a circuit that used multiple devices, some of which might contain functions neither wanted nor needed, thus wasting circuit board space and design time.
In terms of design, which circuit is best, the one that implements the POS expres- sion or the one that implements SOP expression? The POS design shown here would appear to be the better choice because it requires fewer gates. However, the SOP design is nice because it is easy to work with the Boolean expression. For example, which Boolean expression above (POS or SOP) would you rather use to create a truth table? The SOP expression seems the obvious choice. A more down-to-earth reason for using an SOP design has to do with the fact that special ICs called AND-OR-INVERT (AOI) gates are designed to handle SOP expressions. For example, the 74LS54 AOI IC shown below creates an inverted SOP expression at its output, via two 2-input AND gates and two 3-input AND gates NORed together. A NOT gate can be attached to the output to get rid of the inversion bar, if desired. If specific inputs are not used, they should be held high, as shown in the example circuit below and to the far left. AOI ICs come in many different configurations—check out the catalogs to see what’s available.
Digital circuits can be designed at any one of several abstraction levels. When designing a circuit at the transistor level, which is the lowest level, you are dealing with discrete transistors and connecting them together to form the circuit. The next level up in the abstraction is the gate level. At this level, you are working with logic gates to build the circuit. At the gate level, you also can specify the circuit using either a truth table or a Boolean equation. In using logic gates, a designer usually creates standard combinational and sequential components for building larger circuits. In this way, a very large circuit, such as a microprocessor, can be built in a hierarchical fashion. Design methodologies have shown that solving a problem hierarchically is always easier than trying to solve the entire problem as a whole from the ground up. These combinational and sequential components are used at the register-transfer level in building the datapath and the control unit in the microprocessor. At the register-transfer level, we are concerned with how the data is transferred between the various registers and functional units to realize or solve the problem at hand. Finally, at the highest level, which is the behavioral level, we construct the circuit by describing the behavior or operation of the circuit using a hardware description language. This is very similar to writing a computer program using a programming language.
Following the mapping phase, the next step was packing, in which the LUTs and registers were packed into the CLBs. Once again, packing (which is still performed today, but else- where in the flow, as will be discussed in later chapters) is a nontrivial problem because there are myriad potential combi- nations and permutations. For example, assume an incredibly simple design comprising only a couple of handfuls of logic gates that end up being mapped onto four 3-input LUTs that we’ll call A, B, C, and D. Now assume that we’re dealing with an FPGA whose CLBs can each contain two 3-input LUTs. In this case we’ll need two CLBs (called 1 and 2) to contain our four LUTs. As a first pass, there are 4! (factorial four = 4 3 2 1 = 24) different ways in which our LUTs can be packed into the two CLBs (Figure 8-9).
FP7 lasted for seven years, between 2007-2013, with a total budget of €50 billion. The European Security Research Programme, a subset of FP7 funding, totaled €1.4 billion (Bigo et al. 2014: 6). PERSEUS, however, is only the largest project funded by FP7 for developing border surveillance technologies: there are at least 17 more FP7-funded research projects assisting the implementation of EUROSUR (see the Appendix for the full list of projects included, and Figure 1 for the projected 1-mode network of projects). Each research and development project is led by a major transnational firm in Europe, many of which are subsidiaries or directly affiliated with larger global defense firms. The coordinator sits at the center of (un)equal power relations driving the logics of research: these organizations may attempt to impose particular conceptions of how to conceive of the design of surveillance technologies and what these technologies are supposed to do. In order to understand the power dynamics involved, we turn to measures of network centrality to chart who the most central actors are in the networks before turning to the communities which they form.
As wellbeing is intended for human, the main point of departure should be understanding human needs and feelings. In this sense wellbeing is always subjective; very difficult, almost impossible to measure. On the other hand designers may explore this subjectivity with a balanced methodology in order to understand the changing range of criteria that build up wellbeing. Desmetand Pohlmeyer (2013) define well-being as a broad concept that represents an individual‘s overall quality of life. According to Naci and Ioannidis (2015), wellness refers to diverse and interconnected dimensions of physical, mental, and social wellbeing that extend beyond the traditional definition of health. It includes choices and activities aimed at achieving physical vitality, mental alacrity, social satisfaction, a sense of accomplishment, and personal fulfillment. Wellbeing research in general is concerned with several different disciplines, principally psychology, sociology, medicine and health. During the last decades wellbeing started to be one of the most important objectives also in all design practices. It has been accepted that our living environments can have a significant effect on our wellbeing. Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, and Schkade (2005) discuss that three major factors contribute to people‘s levels of wellbeing:
IDeas wall provides an interactive surface to present and create ideas and general purpose contents. It is a vertical display surface with direct manipulation capability which can afford collocated group interactions, including the presentation interaction style and the whiteboard interaction style of brainstorming sessions. The iDeas wall provides three methods for users to create and import content: they can sketch and write on the wall as they would on a whiteboard; they can import content from the iDeas blog; or they can bring up an iDeas notebook page directly by using the pen as a command device. Content created on the wall is saved to the iDeas blog. Design Principles