Biotechnology and Art

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‘PATENT ASPECTS FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INVENTIONS – TRADITIONAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY’

‘PATENT ASPECTS FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INVENTIONS – TRADITIONAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY’

equivalent to prior art and states that state of the art comprises everything that is made available to the public by means of a written or oral description or by use in any other way before the date of filling of the European Patent application. The United Sates Patent law, the European Patent Law and the patent law in India state that any invention which is known or published or patented, being part of the prior art, is obvious and does not involve inventive step. Therefore, an invention, which is a part of the prior art, does not involve inventive step and is not patentable. The invention shall be a leap forward from the state of art or it shall be a step forward from the already existing knowledge that is prior art. It shall be an advancement of existing knowledge in the public domain. It implies that courts while determining the obviousness of any invention shall have to consider the scope of the prior art. In fact, law courts have taken into consideration the knowledge in the public domain or in the state of the art in deciding obviousness of an invention. The presumption is that on the basis of prior art, if an invention becomes obvious to the person having skill in the relevant art, such invention does not constitute an inventive step and must not be patented.
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Visual representation of science: how cartoonists define crop biotechnology

Visual representation of science: how cartoonists define crop biotechnology

Fig 7. Tag cloud of words used by BiotechToons cartoonists . The study demonstrated that cartoons as a popular art form can contribute to greater awareness and understanding of the technology through the use of images that the public can relate to. An artist articulates this observation: There is low interest in science among readers but it is vital to the country’s progress. Cartoons provide nuggets of wisdom through visual symbols. We need to get the right information out. The relatively positive image of a scientist and the institution that he/she represents in a local setting demonstrates a favorable level of respect and credibility from the viewpoint of visual communicators. This deviates from traditional stereotypes of scientists which indicate ambivalence or low trust towards science as reported by Christidou et al. (2011). Cartoons can be a springboard into a transparent debate and discussion on a technology that has benefits just waiting to be tapped. By providing science-based information to cartoonists as experienced in the BiotechToon project, particularly those in the mass media, visual practitioners can narrow the complexity of the subject matter and allow readers to share their thoughts on an otherwise contentious issue. In the same manner, artists represent the general public in being able to contribute to the discussion on the topic and link it to a broader social context. An artist forwarded this insight: Biotech is a new topic for me. I read about it on the internet but there is so much information. We have to make sure it is accurate. I see the potential of the technology but farmers must still make the choice of whether to use it or not. Similar to political cartoons, science-focused cartoons can also provide commentary and debate by mirroring the wider socio
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Biotechnology and biodiversity conservation: are they conflicting

Biotechnology and biodiversity conservation: are they conflicting

about ten thousand years ago and lie at the basis of human cultural evolution from small bands of hunter-gatherers to large, settled communities, cities, and nations, giving rise, in turn, to writing and other technologies. It is unclear that, at the outset, the first biotechnologists assumed the effects of their actions, and so the reason for their determination in pursuing, for example, selective breeding over the hundreds of generations essential to show much advantage in food value, (Rae, 2002). On the other the art of utilizing living organisms and their products for the production of food, drink, medicine or for other benefits to the human being, or other animal species. Biotechnology plays an immense role in biodiversity conservation such as vegetative multiplication of many species, allows the production of large numbers of plants from of the stock plant in relatively short period of time free plants. It also has potential application in production of somatic hybrids, organelle and cytoplasm transfer, genetic transformation and hrough freeze-preservation Apart from its uses there are also some concerns or worries which modern biotechnologies such as the Terminator technology and Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) which are developed through genetic engineering, can "Genetic pollution" and "Genetic contamination" and social consequences which needs economic, environmental considerations. “Genetic pollution” and collateral damage from GE field crops already have begun nvironmental havoc. Wind, rain, birds, bees, and insect pollinators have begun carrying genetically-altered pollen into adjoining fields, polluting the DNA of crops of (Cummins, 1999). EU regulators are considering setting an "allowable limit" for genetic GE foods, because they don't believe pollution can be controlled. Because they are alive, altered crops are inherently more unpredictable than chemical pollutants they can reproduce, migrate, and mutate. Once released, it is virtually impossible to recall GE organisms (Kolehmainen, 2001).This a review on the conservation of biodiversity, the important roles of biotechnology for the conservation of biodiversity and some potential ricks of modern biotechnology
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Acceptance of biotechnology and social cultural implications in Ghana

Acceptance of biotechnology and social cultural implications in Ghana

Despite major scientific progress in the application of biotechnology in agriculture, public attitudes towards biotechnology in general and genetically modified food (GM food) products in particular remain mixed in Africa. Examining responses on acceptance of GM food through a stakeholder survey in Ghana, it was established that half of the 100 people sample interviewed were not in favor of GM foods. To this group acceptance of GM foods would make farmers loose focus on the traditional ways of cultivation, putting the whole nation at the mercy of profit driven foreign companies who produce GM foods. In order to have clear and unbiased attitudes towards agricultural biotechnology in Africa, there is the need to substitute dominant ideologies in the way biotechnology research and dissemination are conducted in developed countries with tailor-made methodologies in developing countries. This paper emphasizes the social dynamic force of food focusing on the need for social shaping of biotechnologies to reflect local and regional needs. Respondents’ perceptions of GM foods suggest that food is seen as not just a commodity to be consumed but food has both cultural and national identities. Generally, people are identified by their consumption and nutrition lifestyles and therefore take pride in what they eat. A proposal is made to set biotechnology research agenda in the context of social choices; social scientific coalition of biotechnology with endogenous development pathways’ as opposed to ‘exogenous biotechnology research’. Also there is the need for adequate capacity building of the existing regulatory institutions to handle ethical and moral issues associated with biotechnology research since survey findings showed lacked of public confidence in them.
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Future of Biotechnology in Pakistan

Future of Biotechnology in Pakistan

Korzun, V and E. Ebmeyer. (2003) Molecular markers and their applications in wheat breeding. In: Pogna NE, Romano M, Pogna EA, Galterio G (eds) Proceedings of the 10 th International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Istituto Sperimentrale per la Cerealicoltura, Rome, Italy, Vol 1, pp140–143. Langridge, P and K. Chalmers. (2004) The principle: identification and application of molecular markers. In: Lörz H, Wenzel G (eds) Molecular marker systems in plant breeding and crop improvement. Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg., vol 55.pp 3–22. Langridge, P.E., S. Lagudah,, T.A. Holton, A. Appels, P.J. Sharp and K.J. Chalmers. (2001) Trends in genetic and genome analyses in wheat: a review. Aust J Agric Res., Vol.52, pp.1043– 1077. Ma, Z.Q., B.S. Gill, M.E. Sorrells and S.D. Tanksley. (1993) RFLP markers linked to two Hessian #y resistance genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from ¹riticum tauschii (coss.) Schmal. Theor Appl Genet., Vol. 85, pp. 750-754.
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Industry dynamics in biotechnology

Industry dynamics in biotechnology

total of 197 biotechnology firms primarily engaged in the research, development, manufacturing and/or marketing of products based on genetic analysis and genetic engi- neering 2 . Observations were available annually. We have chosen number of employees as proxy for firm size real- izing that for technological and research industries such as biotechnology, there are additional measures one could use. On this, we have built on earlier literature on firm size where size had been proxied by sales, income, number of employees, or total assets [1,4,7,16-18]. An interesting property of firm size distributions noted in previous studies of large firms is that the qualitative cha- racter of such distributions is independent of how size is defined [4].
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Work with your hands and your mind Work with new ideas and new products Work in many careers and build your future

Work with your hands and your mind Work with new ideas and new products Work in many careers and build your future

Process technicians must be highly skilled and dedicated workers. Their employers often entrust them with batches of product worth millions of dollars. They are responsible for the production of each batch and for helping to ensure its quality by taking samples for testing. If they identify problems, they help resolve them. Qualified process technicians are integral to the success of many biotechnology employers. It can take several years to train someone on all phases of a complex manufacturing process, so employers are highly motivated to retain their experienced process technicians with competitive salaries, excellent benefits, and opportunities for advancement. If you like technical work and get satisfaction from making things, you would probably make a good process technician.
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Ethics in the development of biosciences and biotechnology: a process system and endless debate

Ethics in the development of biosciences and biotechnology: a process system and endless debate

the need for control over natural processes in order not to cause environmental damage. If the findings were not controlled it would be feared to be monsters that disrupt the environment. Eric Houwink-colleague of Mangunwijaya, a biotechnologist-on the human cloning project does not see his objective and medical purposes (Modern Biotechnology: Bringing Us to Biosociety in Remembering YB Mangunwijaya Intellectual Struggle in the Anxiety Era, Kanisius, Yogyakarta 1999: cited by Sularto, 2002 ). Do nature and faith, biotechnology and religion, genetic engineering and bioethics, be thesis-antithesis or statements and arguments? Each has its own principles and justifications. Human cloning, for example, is said to be a lifesaver for infertile couples acquiring direct or beneficial married couples (couples) who fertilize the egg by difficult sperm in the womb. Meanwhile, ethicists and clerics hold firm to the principle that in Biotechnology, not everything that can be done is worth doing. These anthologies demand moderation: it takes a synthesis, so that together leads to the purpose of life, that is, the respect for dignity and humanity's integrity. The goal was developed both by genetic engineering and the preservation of eternal humanitarian principles. Concretely, if one of the religious rules, say the Catholic Church, affirms rejecting the tube baby, then ultimately the choice is returned to the conscience of each person. Even the question of euthanasia, the good death, which is still controversial, but in the Netherlands has only been legally permitted, but it is banned by the Catholic Church, as it may later evolve in the direction of: a return to the choice of conscience and case by case.
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Biotechnology Research and Development in Academia: providing the foundation for Egypt's Biotechnology spectrum of colors  Sixteenth Annual American University in Cairo Research Conference, American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

Biotechnology Research and Development in Academia: providing the foundation for Egypt's Biotechnology spectrum of colors Sixteenth Annual American University in Cairo Research Conference, American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

The spectrum of colors in biotechnology was discussed. Blue biotechnology is the focus of the current ongoing project between the American University in Cairo, King Abdullah University for Science and Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute on an environmen- tal genomics approach to analyze marine microorganisms in the Red Sea for biotechnological and pharmaceutical potentials. Green Biotechnology and novel approaches in transgenic crops has been addressed in more than one talk. Additionally, Red Biotechnology and the genetic engineering technology was a major component of the ongoing projects at Center of Excellence for Advanced Sci- ences (CEAS) and Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division of the National Research Center (NRC), in Cairo, Egypt. The conference was concluded by addressing the importance of academic research and development in providing the platform for the spectrum of colors in bio- technology.
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The transaction costs in biotechnology

The transaction costs in biotechnology

while the scientific basis for food production are part of a revolution, it is unclear how to implement technologies for biotechnology advocates and much of agrifood policy makers around the world project a positive future technology overcomes the food shortages, improving the environment, eliminates disease and leads to healthy and prosperous societies. However, a reverse reaction expressed by consumers and environmental advocates have founded arguments for considering that biotechnology represents, in contrast, exacerbation of food insecurity, environmental threats and hazards to human security, ultimately, worsening global society. This thesis does not take a stand against these dilemmas, but rather we are interested in seeing how responsive government institutions and the implementation of biotechnology, in particular, if public policy in Colombia provide the conditions to adapt or innovate biotechnology so that it can improve the quality of life and welfare of a majority of its population.
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Marine Biotechnology A European Strategy for Marine Biotechnology

Marine Biotechnology A European Strategy for Marine Biotechnology

For the last two decades the common conclusions of international fora considering strategic challenges in science have uniformly identified the marine biotope as a large and untapped area for exploration. The rich diversity of marine form and function, and its unique physiological adaptations to the harsh marine environment coupled with new developments in biotechnology, has opened up a new and exciting vista for the extraction of bioactive products of use in medicine, novel industrial processes and environmental monitoring. Yet to this day no concerted and focused initiative to realise this vision has materialised in Europe. Current events and needs suggest that now is the time for such action.
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Empirical Study on the Distribution and Growth Trend of Biotechnology Patents in China

Empirical Study on the Distribution and Growth Trend of Biotechnology Patents in China

Since 1980s, world economy structure is undergoing a new round of major adjustment. High technology indus- tries, such as biotechnology industry, rise quickly, which radiates and drives the development of the whole econ- omy. Life science and biological technology is currently one of the most active fields among the innovations of science and technology, biological economy, led by life science and biotechnology, will cause profound changes to the global economic structure and great adjustment to the interest pattern. This entire situation makes global economy, science and technology development pattern undergo a profound and significant change. The overall trend of world economy growth has had a profound and important influence on the international protection of intellectual property rights. Economic competition be- tween countries has already been translated into competi- tion of patents. For developed countries, patent strategy is one part of its global strategy to monopolize the global market. More and more countries and enterprises realize that intellectual property is the most important strategic resource for improving their core competition capabili- ties [1].
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Median Base in the United States : $54,755 per year Median Base in 10 selected NC cities: $53,355 per year Base Range in 10 Selected North Carolina Cities: $49,702 to $60,181 per year

Median Base in the United States : $54,755 per year Median Base in 10 selected NC cities: $53,355 per year Base Range in 10 Selected North Carolina Cities: $49,702 to $60,181 per year

Process technician positions generally require a two-year Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.) degree, and many community colleges have created degrees and certificates aimed specifically at readying individuals for process technician work. These degrees or certificates may be named biowork, biotechnology, bioprocess technology or industrial pharmaceutical technology.

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Median Base in the United States : $54,755 per year Median Base in 10 selected NC cities: $53,355 per year Base Range in 10 Selected North Carolina Cities: $49,702 to $60,181 per year

Median Base in the United States : $54,755 per year Median Base in 10 selected NC cities: $53,355 per year Base Range in 10 Selected North Carolina Cities: $49,702 to $60,181 per year

Process technician positions generally require a two-year Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.) degree, and many community colleges have created degrees and certificates aimed specifically at readying individuals for process technician work. These degrees or certificates may be named biowork, biotechnology, bioprocess technology or industrial pharmaceutical technology.

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Station 1- Part A Directions:

Station 1- Part A Directions:

Situation 1: Biotechnology uses science to alter the characteristics of particular breeds of animals. For example, Boiler Chickens are bred to grow very quickly to supply a lot of food for people to eat, however this also causes their bodies to grow faster than their legs.

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Station 1- Part A Directions:

Station 1- Part A Directions:

Situation 1: Biotechnology uses science to alter the characteristics of particular breeds of animals. For example, Boiler Chickens are bred to grow very quickly to supply a lot of food for people to eat, however this also causes their bodies to grow faster than their legs.

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Profile of Public Research Activity in Ireland 1998 – 2006, December 2010

Profile of Public Research Activity in Ireland 1998 – 2006, December 2010

1. Financial input and staff information on the Higher Education Sector was based on Forfás Higher Education Research and Development (HERD) survey‟s 1998 – 2006 and input from the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). The OECD original FOS classification was used in earlier survey‟s to collect data and the 2006 data was available by both the original and revised FOS classification. To facilitate comparison across years, the OECD original FOS classification was used for all years, including 2006, and mapped onto the 19 mFOS in the trend analysis. This means that for some of the 19 mFOS there was no trend analysis because data for these fields was not available under the OECD original FOS classification (i.e. Biotechnology, Nanotechnology and Mechanical Engineering). There were two categories where data was collected together in a combined category in the OECD original FOS classification (i.e. Computer & Information Science and Mathematics).
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Patents and Medical Biotechnology: an Empirical Analysis of Issues Facing the Australian Industry

Patents and Medical Biotechnology: an Empirical Analysis of Issues Facing the Australian Industry

Commercialisation of biotechnology research is part of a wider trend favouring science that has commercial applicability in Australia. The interplay between public science and private commercialisation is a matter of ongoing debate in many areas of biological research and the influence of commercialisation on scientific research cannot be ignored. It would generally be accepted by most of the people involved in academic research, whether they are funders, policy- makers or researchers, that the emphasis of that research has changed vastly over the last couple of decades. The ivory tower academy has had to learn the language of business economics. As part of this, research that has commercial implications will be favoured by funding agencies over pure science. Collaborative research ventures with industry will be highly regarded. This trend of encouraging commercialisation, particularly in the form of collaborations between the public and private sectors is also seen in other jurisdictions. 119 One of the consequences of introducing commercial considerations into the academic sphere is that many of the scientists who are involved in upstream research and for whom academic kudos has in the past been sufficient reward are now required to consider the best ways to protect their intellectual property rights and transfer their technology to industry. This introduces sharper focus on commercial considerations in the research environment.
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Standardization of Sucrose and 6-Benzyl Aminopurine for in vitro Micro Tuberization of Potato

Standardization of Sucrose and 6-Benzyl Aminopurine for in vitro Micro Tuberization of Potato

Abstract: In vitro micro tuberization from regenerated plantlets of potato varieties was observed in Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bangladesh Agricultural University. Tubers of potato cultivars Diamant and Cardinal were used as initial experimental materials for meristem culture. The experiment was consisted of three factors; variety (Diamant, Cardinal), sucrose concentration (3%, 6%, 9%, 12%) and 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) levels (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 mg L -1 ). As a whole, 24 treatments were laid out in complete randomized design with three replications. Among the varieties, Diamant required minimum days (6-17) for micro-tuber initiation, produced more number of micro-tubers (4.97) and produced more average weight of micro-tuber (120.39mg) but there had no significant difference. Among the sucrose levels, quickest (6-15 days) micro-tuber initiation, the highest number of micro-tubers vial -1 (5.06) and the highest average weight of micro-tuber (137.31 mg) were found in 9% sucrose level. For different BAP levels, quickest (6-15 days) micro-tuber initiation, the highest number of micro-tubers vial -1 (5.38) and the highest average weight of micro-tuber (126.31 mg) were found at 5.0 mg L -1 . The best combination for minimum duration (6-8 days) of micro-tuber initiation, the highest number of micro-tubers vial -1 (6.00) and the highest average weight of micro-tuber (152.01 mg) was in Diamant with 9% sucrose at 5 mg L -1 . Concomitantly, the lowest number micro-tubers vial -1 (2.00) and the lowest average weight of micro-tuber (89.98 mg) were found in Cardinal cultured with 3% sucrose media where at 7.5 mg L -1 BAP and at 2.5 mg L -1 BAP, respectively.
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Open source biotechnology

Open source biotechnology

investigative journalist. Working largely from informal "hacker" writings pub­ lished on the Internet, I identified a range of business strategies compatible with an open source approach to intellectual property management (see chapter 4). Using web addresses published by the Biotechnology Industry Organisation and regional business associations in the United States, I searched the business de­ velopment pages of innovative technology companies, looking for conditions that might favour the application of open source principles: actual or potential sources of revenue, apart from licensing income, that might be boosted if a com­ pany's key technology were to become more widely used, as well as the poten­ tial for companies to reduce the cost of technologies that they used in-house by sharing research and development with other users. I wrote to the executive of­ ficers of companies in different technology areas requesting the opportunity to discuss alternative business models; the aim was to learn whether it would be feasible to implement open source strategies in those areas or, if not, to discover which aspects of the open source approach were considered unworkable. At the same time I contacted representatives of other institutions from different sectors of the biotechnology industry, including universities (both techology transfer of­ fices and academic departments), private non-profit research institutions, large agribusiness and pharmaceutical companies and research hospitals; scholars in the fields of law, economics, sociology of science and innovation management; leaders of the free and open source software movement and their attorneys; pro­ gram directors of major philanthropic organisations; the secretariat of the Con­ sultative Group on International Agricultural Research; instigators and leaders of existing collaborative research programs
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