The ordinary motion control methods in robotics are comprised of two phases: 1) the motion planning phase  and 2) the trajectory following phase. In the biped robots, the motion planning (i.e. the gait generation) phase may be performed off-line or on-line . The offline gait generation cannot adapt to the environment changes like obstacles, which can reduce the robot’s abilities to walk. There are different methods for the on-line gait generation that can adapt to the environment. An on-line adaptive optimal gait pattern would facilitate best the biped robot motion control. Although consuming more efforts to reduce the error of tracking is the goal of lots of control problems, perfect joint trajectory tracking is not necessary in the biped motion control since the biped robot may have normal and acceptable walk even if there are some errors in the trajectory tracking of the joints. Thus, ordinary robot motion planning methods may not fit well to the biped robots. The Human walking approach is based on optimal algorithms, which use some goals and constraints to displace the body or the Center of Mass (CoM) from one point to another, while considering and predicting the environment changes, in order to decide adaptively to accomplish safe and without falling walk . A suitable way of imitating this behavior for motion control of the biped robot is to state the problem as a non- linear model based predictive control [15-17]. With an appropriate objective function, while considering the state and the control signal constraints plus the physical constraints, it is possible to combine the gait patterngeneration phase with the control phase and allowing the NMPC to decide about both the gait pattern and the control signals. In this approach, there are no trajectories to follow. Instead, the control signals are generated by the NMPC directly in such a way that the biped robot is able to walk. In addition to the advantages of the on-line gait generation, this method considers the biped dynamics, constraints of the control signals, the present and the future of the biped states, and the physical constraints in the robot to execute more optimal and practical walking.
methods have been used successfully for this purpose: Optimization-based gait, COG-based gait and the interpolation-based gait [5-8]; see the references therein. Despite the miscellaneous walkingpatterngeneration and stabilization approaches, it is difficult to find a thorough method that can tune the walking parameters to satisfy the kinematic and dynamic constraints: singularity condition at the knee joint, zero-moment point (ZMP) constraint, and unilateral contact constraints. This paper resolves the above problems and can give answers for selection of the suitable walkingpattern that ensure continuous dynamic response with high stability associated with ZMP criterion.
The compass-gait biped robot showninFig. 1 canwalk downon a gentle slope from a suitable initial condition without any actuation as showninFig. 2. Note that the foot-scufﬁng during the single sup- port phase is ignored. This style can be considered an ultimate walking motion from the energy consumption point of view, and this is also an ultimate DBC. By applying the passive dynamic walking mecha- nism to gait synthesis of biped robots, it is expected that natural and energy-effective active dynamic walking on a level can be realized. Some related studies have beenreported so far. As anadvanced study, energy tracking control proposed by Goswami et al. is especially ex- cellent . This is realized by tracking control for a constant reference energy which is obtained in passive dynamic walking on a gentle slope. By using this method, a stable limit cycle on a level can be generated; however, some essential factors such as torque pattern become dramat- ically different from those of original passive dynamic walking. For further discussion, the reader is referred to . We must be careful to reproduce the principal mechanism of passive dynamic walking on the horizontal plane without destroying its properties.
on to study children in Bangladesh and when compared to the original data, found a greater prevalence of ITW amongst the German participants (5.2%, n = 19) com- pared with the Bangladeshi participants (1.1% n = 11). The researchers attributed the lower rate of toe walking in Bangladeshi children to a lack of footwear, proposing the absence of footwear increased sensory input to the feet therefore decreasing the need for toe walking to gain this input. There was no data or testing noted within the article to support this supposition. Unequal cohort sizes, lack of standardised testing and limited recruitment information are major limitations of this study. On this basis, it is proposed that a definitive rela- tionship between sensory processing and ITW could not be demonstrated by this study.
Abstract: Now a day different data mining algorithms are ready to create the specific set of data known as Pattern from a huge data repository, but there is no infrastructure or system to save it as persistent storage for the generated patterns. Pattern warehouse presents a foundation to make these patterns safe in the specific environment for long term use. Most organizations are excited to know the information or patterns rather than raw data or group of unprocessed data. Because extracted knowledge play a vital role to take right decision for the growth of an organization. We have examined the sources of patterns generated from large data sets. In this paper, we have presented little importance on the application area of pattern and idea of patter warehouse, the architecture of pattern warehouse then correlation between data warehouse and data mining, association between data mining and pattern warehouse, critical evaluation between existing approaches which theoretically published and more stress on association rule related review elements. In this paper, we analyze the patterns warehouse, data warehouse concerning various factors like storage space, type of storage unit, characteristics, and provide several research domains.
Fate maps only indicate which structure cells will eventually form, but not when their fate is determined. Several experimental approaches have tested whether limb buds can self-regulate i.e. accommodate either tissue deletions or additions. When undiffer- entiated tips of early and late buds were interchanged, limbs with either deleted or additional structures developed suggesting that the proximal-distal pattern is not regulative (Summerbell et al., 1973), but see (Kieny 1977) for experiments showing some evidence of regulation. In contrast, when the early chick limb bud was made either narrower or wider by cutting out a central strip of limb bud or by adding an extra strip, in both cases a normal patterned set of digits developed, showing that antero-posterior pattern in the early bud is highly regulative (Yallup and Hinchliffe 1983). More remarkably, it was discovered that when the cells of the mesenchymal core were disaggregated, the cells then mixed together, reaggregated, and encased in a limb ectodermal jacket, limb structures could still form (Fig. 3). Typically, such reaggre- gate limbs develop digit-like structures at the tip while more proximal structures are less recognisable (Zwilling, 1964; Ros et al., 1994; Hardy et al., 1995). The digit-like structures however do not have any recognisable pattern. Pattern can be rescued by grafting an intact polarizing region at one edge of the limb reaggregate (Ros et al., 1994). One particularly intriguing finding is that reaggregate limb buds made entirely from anterior limb mesenchyme form digits (Ros et al., 1994). However, if the posterior half of the early limb bud is cut away leaving just the anterior half still attached to the chick embryo, this anterior half only forms proximal structures (Niswander et al., 1994). This suggests that the anterior part of the limb bud is able to form digits but normally is inhibited from doing so and that the process of disaggregation/reaggregation in some way relieves this inhibi- tion.
The experiment was designed to measure kinematics, synchrony, smoothness under varying walking conditions such as speed and obstacles when provided with cognitive load. The subjects who participated in the experiment were divided into two major groups: Dual task (Biped and Human walking groups) and Single Task (Biped and Human walking groups). The biped control group controlled the gait of the biped on a treadmill using their hand movements while the human walking group performed normal gait on a treadmill. Dual task groups performed a cognitive task of counting backward by seven from a random three digit number below 500 during each trial. All subjects started from the same number in a trial but the starting number was varied between trials. The single task group is the same group from Chapter 4. The study consisted of a total of eight sessions. Each session comprised of eight trials. Each trial was for duration of one minute followed by a thirty second rest. The speed of the treadmill during each trial was as shown in Table 4.1. The speed was varied after thirty seconds in Sessions 3, 4, 7 & 8. Sessions 5-8 included users stepping over an obstacle. The number of obstacles presented to each leg was the same, though not in the same sequence. Twice the number of obstacles was included for the biped group in order to offset for their reduced speed. Both groups avoided obstacles with only one foot during a trial and the obstacle avoidance was alternated between both feet in the successive trials.
Testing of the system is done to avoid the defective component in the system rather than replacing the component later . Once circuit is designed, it is important to test the circuit for their proper function and usability. Cost of the testing is one of the important factor in testing and it is depending on the testing time and circuit complexity. Good Test Pattern Generator (TPG) consumes large time and higher test data. Components within the Integrated Circuits (IC) are increased for the need of the user, so testing of the component requires powerful testing methods to check the proper function and usability of the components.
maximum force generating capacity alone does not explain the changes in push-off intensity, neuromuscular control should be considered. Indeed, aging has been associated with altered motor unit discharge properties [37-40], reduced motor unit size and numbers [41, 42] and slowing in whole muscle contractile properties [43-46]. But irrespective of maximum force generating capacity, muscle force is largely explained by a force-length relationship which is extrapolated from the sarcomere level . In short, muscles operate on a force-length bell-curve such that, given a certain activation and contractile velocity, muscles may generate maximum force at approximately neutral length though shorter or longer muscle lengths prohibit maximum force generation . Older adult plantarflexor muscles have been shown to operate at shorter lengths than young adults during walking [48, 49]. Thus, older adults must either increase activation of plantarflexor muscles or operate at more optimal lengths (i.e. farther up the force-length curve) to increase muscle force output during walking. Increased activation during walking, however, also posed the potential to further shorten muscles and inhibit force generation abilities. Unfortunately, it is poorly understood how older adults may leverage muscle-level biomechanics to generate larger forces and, as a result, greater push-off intensity. As another main goal of this dissertation, we plan to investigate this force-length-activation relationship for older adults during walking to help understand some of the mechanisms by which older adults may modulate push-off intensity.
A Biped Robot being designed and which is controlled by servo motor controller using dsPIC30F2010 is proposed in this paper. An extensive Literature Survey conducted for the project gave profound insight on the requirements for building the Biped robot. Based on the Literature survey, the inputs for designing the robot have been decided and the hardware has been implemented so that the robot moves inculcating the gaits of a penguin.
In general, a bipedal locomotion system consists of several members are interconnected with actuated joints. In essence, a man-made walking robot is nothing more than a robotic manipulator with a detachable and moving base. Design of bipedal robots has been largely induced by the most sophisticated and versatile biped known to man, the man himself.
BIST is a design-for-testability technique that places the testing functions physically with the circuit under test (CUT). The basic BIST architecture requires the addition of three hardware blocks to a digital circuit: a test pattern generator, a response analyzer, and a test controller. The test pattern generator generates the test patterns for the CUT. Examples of pattern generators are a ROM with stored patterns, a counter, and a LFSR. A typical response analyzer is a comparator with stored responses or an LFSR used as a signature analyzer. It compacts and analyzes the test responses to determine correctness of the CUT. A test control block is necessary to activate the test and analyze the responses. However, in general, several test-related functions can be executed through a test controller circuit.
The biped robot developed in this study is displayed in Fig. 1. It is a 7-linked planner robot system whose motion is restricted to the vertical plane. Two parallel plates were installed vertically on the upper body in order to constrain its lateral motion. During experiments, two horizontal bars are positioned between the plates so that the robot body cannot move laterally. The robot’s height is 0.9 [m], the length of each legs is 0.6 [m], the width of the robot is 0.18 [m] and the total weight is 2.0 [kgf], respectively. The robot was equipped with four servo motors (Robotis co., Dynamixel XM430-W210-T) as main actuators to rotate each leg back and forth. The other motors attached on ankle joints assist lifting up and landing down of each foot link. The output torque of the motor is 3.0 [Nm] and its power consumption is 27.6 [W]. Motors of small size were employed to realize the energy efficient semi-passive walking. So the joints have enough backdrivability to be rotated easily by the gravity force when the motor torque is not applied. Also, two smaller servo motors (Robotis co., Dynamixel AX-12A) were equipped at the upper part of the knee joint to assist bending and stretching motion of each knee joint. The output torque of the motor is 1.5 [Nm] and its power consumption is 18 [W]. A microcontroller board (STM32F3discovery, STMicroelectronics co.) equipped with inertial sensor components for measuring posture was installed on the upper
Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to compare different methods to determine energy expenditure (EE) on incline walking. Approach: The methods tested were a conventional triaxial accelerometer (GT3X), a versatile system (SenseWear), both utilizing single regression models, and a device equipped with a triaxial accelerometer and an air pressure sensor (move II). Twenty-five healthy participants wore the activity monitors and a portable indirect calorimeter (IC) as reference while walking up- and downhill as well as up- and downstairs. The accuracy of the three devices for estimating EE was assessed based on Pearson correlation, ICC, and Bland–Altman analysis. Main results: For GT3X and SenseWear the ICCs showed a weak correlation (between 0.42 and 0.08) and for move II a strong correlation (between 0.97 and 0.84) between the prediction of energy cost and the output from IC, respectively. Overall, the differences absolute to the IC values were 11 to 35 (12 to 30) times higher for the GT3X (SenseWear) than for the move II devices. Significance: The study showed that a device equipped with an accelerometer and an air pressure sensor had higher accuracy in predicting EE during incline walking than a conventional accelerometer or a versatile system.
LS-Y201 is LinkSprite‟s new generation serial port camera module. It can capture high resolution pictures using the serial port. LS-Y201 is a modular design that outputs JPEG images through UART, and can be easily integrated into existing design. The serial JPEG Camera is being used to take images of the surroundings by Zeno as and when the user requires. The working of this module is primarily controlled by the microcontroller board. The code in the microcontroller board is used to accept data from Bluetooth module regarding button press and Request the camera to capture an image and send it to the mobile device.
The measurement of biomechanical variables has generated substantial insight into the mechanics of both normal [10,11,15] and impaired gait [7,8,16]. It can, however, only provide indirect evidence of the underlying control of the movement which is produced by the muscle activity. Rehabilitation, whether through manual techniques [17-19] or electrical stimulation [20,21] seeks to influence this muscle activity to attain better control of the movement. Understanding the effectiveness of these therapies can only be gained through direct measurement of muscle or motor cortex excitation, since the motor cortex is a principal actor in the changes in gait as its controls the muscle activity of the muscle groups at different stages of the gait cycle in order to achieve the target position [22,23]. The observation of muscle activity is therefore important information to observe when studying movement. Martin and Li quantified muscle activity and measured the energy consumption during treadmill and OG walking . Walking on a treadmill led to greater muscle activity defined by the root-mean-square and higher peak muscle activity , indicating higher energy expenditure. Lee and Hidler  also compared the muscle activity between treadmill and OG walking. They observed that, during treadmill walking the activity of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius was lower during the stance phase but higher during terminal swing compared to OG. The selected thigh muscles (adductor
robot has several types, including wheeled robots, legged robots, and spherical rolling. One type of legged robot is a humanoid robot that has a shape resembling a human. A humanoid robot has several advantages that other types of robots do not have. One of them is a humanoid robot that can work in complex human environments and uneven terrain . This ability is supported by humanoid robot form that resembles humans, thus making it able to adapt to the environment. Therefore, a humanoid robot is more appropriate to help humans with daily tasks in the human environment . Walking is a fundamental ability that must be possessed by a humanoid robot in order to be able to do work in the human environment . Humanoid robots must be able to walk in all directions or can be called omnidirectional walking. Omnidirectional walking on the humanoid is done by walking in all directions without changing the direction facing its whole body. Omnidirectional walking can also be done by turning by changing the direction facing its body. When the stationary position with the legs parallel, the humanoid robot is in a balanced state. However, when it starts to move, the centre of mass or Centre of Mass (CoM) humanoid robot moves. This condition can cause a humanoid robot to tend to fall. When the robot turns, CoM displacement follows the rotation of the robot body, causing a moment on the sole of the robot's foot which causes the robot to become unbalanced . If the CoM projection of the foot of the humanoid robot moves beyond the supporting leg's limit, then a moment will occur, which can cause the robot to fall. This concept of stability is known as the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) stability concept . Therefore, when turning, a humanoid robot requires actions to prevent the robot from falling, such as supporting leg movements and adequate torso to keep the CoM within the supporting leg boundary and placing the supporting leg next at the right time
All disable people aforementioned need a device to help them during their movement. Many exoskeleton devices have been developed but it is not all exoskeleton devices are satisfied to be a good helper because of friction that occurs during motion due to less accuracy of exoskeleton .In order to avoid the injuries that can be occurred for users during walking, reducing the friction between the exoskeleton and the leg is one solution, which means that smooth movement has to be generated by the exoskeleton to reduce this friction.Thus, generating trajectory motion that accurately matches real human motion, the smooth generated movement can be the solution to protect the user from injury.
As it is well known, residential water demand follows daily trends according to the habits of the users connected to the WDS. These trends are characterized by a variable number of peaks (usually 2 or 3) that represent the moments of highest consumption, and by a very low plateau that is localized in the night hours which can have a variable length and represent the moment of minimum consumption. These in the design process can be considered known points, given that they represent the inputs of the design process. Indeed, many works in scientific literature have tackled and analysed specifically the afore mentioned aspects of the daily demand pattern and thus can provide a good starting point for their estimation.