Black/African American women

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Knowledge Construction of African American Women in an Historically Black College and University Setting

Knowledge Construction of African American Women in an Historically Black College and University Setting

Black women have a precarious relationship with the rest of society primarily due to being female and Black; their identities have been constructed and portrayed in a negative light. These societal relationships have served to silence Black women, and in some cases erased Black women altogether (Blue, 2001, p. 119). The ways in which Black women are socially constructed and defined, directly influence how those with power and/or privilege can construct and define themselves. “Because Black women are duly oppressed by axes of race, class and gender, it is necessary for them to take on the responsibility of recreating cultural identities, politicized knowledge, and theoretical assumptions based on criteria that are important and relevant to them (Blue, p. 135). In this study, the participants dealt with internalized and gender oppression. This constant self monitoring/self reflection to be visible and heard is a way of life. As role models for other African American women in an
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A theatre of black women : constructions of black female subjectivity in the dramatic texts of African American women playwrights in the  1920s and 1970s

A theatre of black women : constructions of black female subjectivity in the dramatic texts of African American women playwrights in the 1920s and 1970s

Encyclopaedic historical narratives written by black scholarsand intellectuals, such as those that were written to record and documentthe history of white domination and black racial opp[r]

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The K-12 Experiences of African American Collegiate Women in STEM Majors: A Counternarrative.

The K-12 Experiences of African American Collegiate Women in STEM Majors: A Counternarrative.

From as early as elementary school, I can remember positive and consistent exposure and experiences with science and technology. Continuing in this thread of early exposure I attended a magnet high school in Philadelphia where this interest in science was further cultivated. Attending G.W. Carver High of Engineering and Science provided me with a plethora of opportunities, all which solidified my desire and goal to pursue biology as my undergraduate major. Attending North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, a historically Black college and university (HBCU), I developed an appreciation for my role as an African American woman majoring in a field where African American women are underrepresented. However, while a supportive environment was propagated prior to and during my undergraduate experience, I altered my trajectory towards science education. “Two roads diverge in a yellow wood, and sorry I cannot travel both.” This line from Robert Frost’s (1995) poem, “The Road Not Taken” is representative of how I have viewed my life and my journey as an educator. As a science educator I began to understand even more the relevance and impact that I would have on future students as an African American woman in a field still dominated by White males.
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African American Women Superintendents in Texas: An Exploration of Challenges and Supports

African American Women Superintendents in Texas: An Exploration of Challenges and Supports

By 1950, half of the African American professionals in the United States were teachers. However the criti- cal legal case Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka significantly impacted the presence of African Ameri- cans in the field of education (Alston, 2005; Horsford & McKenzie, 2008; Moody, 1973; Taylor & Tillman, 2009). After this landmark case, which required American schools to desegregate, the number of Black educators began to decline (Irvine, 1988). Many Black teachers and administrators lost their jobs due to the closing of segregated Black schools. Teachers, princi- pals, and even superintendents, who were looked up- on as role models, advocates, and spokespersons for the Black community, were demoted or fired once their students were forced to integrate into the pre- dominantly White schools (Alston, 2005; Horsford & McKenzie, 2008; Lyons & Chesley, 2004). As a result of the landmark case, a “whole generation of Black educators was lost” (Lyons & Chesley, 2004, p. 302). School desegregation decreased the availability of teaching jobs for many African American educators
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The Experiences and Perceptions of African American Women Who Reside in Nursing Homes

The Experiences and Perceptions of African American Women Who Reside in Nursing Homes

explored whether financial stability increases the quality of care and nursing homes. The results of the study indicated that nursing home performances differed between nursing homes that housed predominately black residents in those with little or no African American residents (Chisholm et al., 2013). The nursing homes which had high percentages of black residents also ranked low for financial stability (Chisholm et al., 2013). The nursing facilities which had no black residents had higher revenues and could secure other means of finance and provide better care. The higher the Medicaid census, the lower the financial performance and the lower the quality of care (Chisholm et al., 2013). Peterson, Burns, Cocamide, Mason, Henderson, Wells, and Powell (2014) stated that nursing homes lack the resources needed to invest in and promote quality of care. Chisholm et al. (2013) suggested that while financial factors may contribute to the link between racial composition and nursing home quality, other factors may also influence disparities and quality of care. Wiltshire, Elder, Kiefe, and Allison (2016) identified factors such as health status, income, and insurance disparities. Chisholm et al. (2013) indicated that African-Americans are a greater risk of being in nursing homes with little financial viability and a decreased quality of care. Thus, African Americans may decide not to enter long-term care based on reduced quality of attention.
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The Climate Experiences of African American Women Community College Faculty in North Carolina.

The Climate Experiences of African American Women Community College Faculty in North Carolina.

I was about nine years old when Dr. King was shot. I remember that night, but the funny thing is, even though she [her mother] was teaching at a White school, I still did not know who Dr. King was because I guess it had never been explained to me. I was still at a predominantly Black school. This was a little bit before integration that was just starting. So, I was at a Black school and I didn’t know who he was exactly. Gigi’s experience of living through the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King and her recollection of this event may have been skewed by her childhood naivety; digging deeper, it may have been a reflection of her environment and family life. Being a young girl in rural North Carolina, this poignant time in history was not even discussed with her, nor would she understand the full impact of this until late adulthood. Race issues for Gigi as an adult, are not bothersome as she obviously was taught that she was a capable and intelligent woman, inconsequential of race.
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Oppression and Emancipation of African American Women in Suzan Lori Parks’ Venus

Oppression and Emancipation of African American Women in Suzan Lori Parks’ Venus

Gender and Race are two dominant themes that represent authors’ interest in the life of black women. Her main con- cern here is not the discussion of race gender-based ideas per se. Rather; she is more interested in showing the role these elements play in deepening the already existing gap(s) between the Afro-American women and the representatives of the dominant white society. At the centre of this race, gen- der discourse in relation to the representation of black wom- en is the question of the status of the female body which is controversial in the modern social and political discourses. The complexities and intricacies involved in the exposure of women’s bodies on stage performance e constitute “part of a complicated system of patriarchal referents” (Ibid) that tend to either objectify or mystify them. Parks usually crit- icizes the stereotypical representations of the female body in her plays. However, in none, this criticism is as clear and strong as in Venus. It is often regarded as the master narrative in which black women have been constructed continually (Lewis, Looking Forward, 2012, p. 161). Parks dramatiz- es an extraordinary story of Baartman, Venus Hottentot, a 19 th century South African woman whose unusual anatomy
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The Career Experiences of African American Women Leaders in Parks and Recreation Organizations.

The Career Experiences of African American Women Leaders in Parks and Recreation Organizations.

explored or captured in literature. Pearl H. Vaughn, educator and community recreation professional, was a trailblazer and innovator during a time when Jim Crow laws were being enforced across the land (Hartsoe, Sanders & Bridgers, 2009). Vaughn’s career began as an entry-level recreation leader, yet she rose through the ranks to become a recreation supervisor and later faculty member at Grambling State University. Known as “Mother Pearl” to many, Vaughn was responsible for building a reputable parks and recreation academic program at Grambling State University and was an active member of the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA), particularly serving with the Society of Park and Recreation Educators and the Ethnic Minorities Society. Vaughn’s efforts and leadership would lead to Grambling State University hosting the first NRPA National Workshop on a historically black campus in 1970. The workshop focused on the role of black colleges and universities in preparing black professionals and students for problems they would face in the profession. During this time, NRPA president, Sal Prezioso, attended the workshop and recommended that the NRPA Board establish a national task force to develop and implement programs to educate and train minority professionals. He further recommended teams visit black colleges and universities and junior colleges to assist with development of parks and recreation curricula. Given Vaughn’s ethnic background and the time frame of Vaughn’s contributions to the parks and recreation profession, it’s likely she encountered numerous obstacles and barriers during her career, yet Vaughn demonstrated resiliency and used negotiation strategies of some sort, to navigate through challenges she encountered.
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Intersections of Race, Spirituality, and Domestic Violence: The Counternarratives of African American Women Survivors.

Intersections of Race, Spirituality, and Domestic Violence: The Counternarratives of African American Women Survivors.

skills she obtained from her Master’s degree helped tremendously with finding online legal aid assistance. However, she noted, “When I got to the shelter, I felt staff workers were surprised [that] I was educated and homeless.” She added, “I noticed their facial expressions and interaction.” Vanessa stated that her experiences with the social service worker validated her views of how White people feel about African American women who seek assistance. She said, “When the worker said ‘you people never pay your bills’ . . . I knew then . . . she thought I was a welfare queen.” Bobbi shared that due to lack of transportation and housing, she was unable to go to social services to reinstate her children’s Medicaid. She stated, “When I told the social worker my domestic violence story that led to no transportation and housing . . . I was denied Medicaid and told . . . not to take the system for granted.” For Tina, being homeless and working two full-time jobs refuted any notion that she might be lazy. She said, “I knew I had to do something . . . knew about the department of social services and how they treat Black women . . . so I had to hustle to get back on my feet.”
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The Role of African American Women in American Society (XIX-XX Centuries)

The Role of African American Women in American Society (XIX-XX Centuries)

This is the way Gwendolyn Brooks looks at the society where immigrants leave. According to Brooks, when one says a word “American” he has to be a bit more specific which American he means. Brooks sees no wrong in that. An African American cannot be a native American, the latter cannot be transformed into a Mexican American. The au- thor appreciates each group’s advantages and talent. She thinks the very differences make them distinguished and im- portant. The main accents are made on the people of colour (based on her own origins and historical background) where black women writers are in the limelight who, according to her, were always distinguished from the rest. In addition, the verse considers the topic of interest which outlines the per- sonal attitude and viewpoint of Gwendolyn towards ethnic issues. Brooks focuses not just on ordinary fruits: an apple, pear, melon or some vegetables like tomatoes, cabbage or carrot, but a berry (a cranberry), fruit (an orange) and vege- tables (a tomato) which are differed from each other by the way they are cultivated, planted and taken care of. This is the sight from Brooks’ window and the way she is looking at American society and the ethnic minority it consists of.
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Infertility knowledge and treatment beliefs among African American women in an urban community

Infertility knowledge and treatment beliefs among African American women in an urban community

This study was conducted at a Historically Black College/ University (HBCU) affiliated safety-net hospital in an urban community in Atlanta, Georgia. The study participants were recruited from the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinics, staffed by resident physicians, attending physicians, nurse midwives and physician assistants. The insurance status of our patient population at this location is 52% uninsured, 38% public, and 10% private (Fig. 1). From March to April 2017, women presenting for either obstetrical or gyneco- logic evaluation were recruited to participate in the study. Recruitment was performed by the provider or clinic nurse after the clinic visit was completed to avoid the perception of coercion. Patients were provided with a cover letter de- scribing the study. The cover letter also explained that par- ticipation was completely voluntary and would have no
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The black maternal : heterogeneity and resistance in literary representations of black mothers in 20th century African American and Afro-Caribbean women's fiction

The black maternal : heterogeneity and resistance in literary representations of black mothers in 20th century African American and Afro-Caribbean women's fiction

Ayo was a conduit for Lizzie. Grace’s quilt and the act of making it performs an interesting triplicate, as Lizzie reveals her plans to her cousin Ruth: “I decided that the best way, the gentlest way, to reopen the subject of my past was to make this quilt. Kind of a story quilt. About Grace” (222). The act of quilting brings Sarah closer to Lizzie/Grace as they spend large amounts of time together. It is Lizzie who teaches her mother how to quilt, a quaint role-reversal of tradition. The quilt also reveals the tragedy of Grace’s story to Sarah. Grace’s truth is revealed to Sarah and allows for empathy and understanding to come into a formerly hostile situation between mother and daughter: “I didn’t realize until then…what a sad story it was” (225). The most important revelation the quilt facilitates to Sarah is the special connection between Lizzie, Grace and Ayo, that they are one and the same. The denouement of this revelation is quick and sometimes ugly. Sarah first gives voice to it: “[I was] Thinking that those pictures on here [the quilt] look just like my mother’s handiwork, you know. And then, I guess my mind started working overtime” (226). Yet, Sarah again denies the obvious. “No! You’re [Lizzie] not my mother! Or—oh, God—my grandmother! That’s insane…. I can’t go through this again!” (Perry 228). She not only denies Lizzie/Grace/Ayo with her words, but also with her actions, for Perry describes her movements away from Lizzie’s attempted embrace as “pulling away and standing up” as she yells her denial (228). Lizzie/Grace/Ayo refuses to accept defeat, reiterating their reality—Sarah’s place in the maternal line of power. Sarah finally accepts the power of the Black Maternal, the reality of the communal “I,” when her
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Railroading Black Families: African American Men, Family, and Labor in Post Emancipation Georgia

Railroading Black Families: African American Men, Family, and Labor in Post Emancipation Georgia

Interestingly, slavery influenced even the free black man’s need to prove his role as protector and provider for his family. As James Oliver Horton noted, for early 19 th century free black men, “the ability to support and protect their women became synonymous with manhood and manhood became synonymous with freedom.” Indeed, in New York and Philadelphia black mutual aid groups and fraternal organization were specifically established to care for widows and orphans in the absence of husbands and fathers. At the same time, black newspapers encouraged free men to be strong enough to protect their wives and children. It was a black man’s duty to his family and to his race, to develop skills, and be industrious and enterprising. The role modeling and economic stability black men passed on to their children in many places in the North ensured racial progress. In the eyes of black men especially, part of protecting their wives meant keeping them out of the labor force. Racist economic conditions, however, made it impossible for black men to support their families without supplementary income from their wives. Consequently, many women ended up working for abusive white men and women. Under these conditions, it was unrealistic for black men and women to attain and sustain the gender conventions the small group of middle class blacks prescribed in the presses and in their organizations. After abolition in the North as in the South, the large majority of African American fathers would have to negotiate a range of conflicting constraints: poor economic conditions, black middle class ideologies and prescriptions for uplift, the lasting effects of the institution of slavery, and their own desires to protect and provide for their families—all of these conditions complicated their abilities to perform their paternal identity. James Oliver Horton, “Freedom’s Yoke: Gender Conventions among Antebellum Free Blacks,” Feminist Studies 12.1 (1986): 55.
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Beyond the Black Horizon: Perspectives of African American Collegians Who Studied Abroad

Beyond the Black Horizon: Perspectives of African American Collegians Who Studied Abroad

Michelle, while studying for a year in Uruguay, enjoyed staying in the home of a Uruguayan family. As the only African American student in her group studying abroad, she experienced the unique challenge of experiencing racism in another country and not having a faculty member, mentor, or administrator to turn to. Using public transportation to get around, “You can just tell, people lifting up their nose in the air, and not wanting to sit next to you, you could tell that it was probably racism..” She shared that when boarding the busses while abroad, White Uruguayan women held their purses tighter, in fear of being robbed by a person of African ancestry. Many of her classmates and strangers on the street assumed that Michelle was there on a scholarship, incapable of affording an education at the private university she was attending. One evening, when Michelle went to a local dance club accompanied by her White friends, a Uruguay man, whom she had never met before, singled her out of the group, grabbed her, and forcibly twisted her arm back. If not for one of her peers in the group intervening, the situation could have escalated into something much more severe. Although Michelle spoke to her parents about what she was experiencing, neither had experienced being African American in Uruguay, nor were they present to help her deconstruct these daily encounters with discrimination. Again, like Sierra, Michelle decided not to talk to a professor, or administrator:
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Faculty-Student Mentoring-Relationship Experiences of African-American/Black CES Doctoral Students

Faculty-Student Mentoring-Relationship Experiences of African-American/Black CES Doctoral Students

pregnancy you’ve been supportive. And I remember our very first class together when you introduced yourself and you talked about [being a licensed professional counselor] and your military background, and everything that you were doing. At that point I was just so curious about the LPC and what you can do. And it’s like I was thirsty for knowledge and you were the only person who has ever sat there and shared with me your journey to becoming an LPC, what led you to be an LPC, what you’ve done now that you’re an LPC, and what you plan to do after this degree with the license of an LPC. And that for me was like, okay, so I can do more than just go in private practice. Somebody finally has explained to me that this contributes to being visible. This is what you need in order to be visible. You’re not good enough being Black with a higher degree. This goes to our visibility, our having a voice, [our] having a say-so. And it sucks that that’s the way America is, but hearing that from somebody who’s Black and has been successful, it’s like, male or female regardless... Somebody is starting to pave the way. And for me, you were that one person because you were the first person that cared enough to sit me down and meet me where I was, in a classroom during a break, and just keep it real. Yeah, I talked to my husband and I [told] him, “My brother Steven and I, and my brother Daniel, we went out to this restaurant and I just can’t wait for him to come back from Texas so we can go back. Because that’s all we do is we eat, we talk, we laugh.” Life just seems so [much] more relaxed. It’s just like all of our troubles just pause whenever we get together.
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Joyous Reading: Aspects Of Literature Enjoyment For Black/african American Fourth Grade Students

Joyous Reading: Aspects Of Literature Enjoyment For Black/african American Fourth Grade Students

consideration of the broader African Diaspora, I also sought books about Black/African American people set outside of the United States (almost entirely in Africa, given the participant demographics), such as Faraway Home (Kurtz), GOAL! (Javaherbin), and The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind (Kamkwamba). I included African American celebrities’ books like those written by Debbie Allen, Nick Cannon, and Whoopi Goldberg. Some genres and formats had more Black/African American authors and characters than others. For example, the only modern horror book I found by a Black author was The Jumbies (Baptiste). Finding primarily comedic books in this regard also proved difficult. Similarly, many comics, graphic novels, and multimodal texts featured White people as sole/primary characters. In an effort to balance this outcome as much as possible, I intentionally added books in this format that included Black characters more generally (even if they were secondary). These inclusions were in addition to recommended, praised, and more readily accessible books with White characters/casts. Overall, I mostly aimed to include more diverse, quality literature for the participants to explore and
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Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women

Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women

Using constructs from social cognitive theory, the health belief model and theory of reasoned action, Roye & Hud- son [22] conducted a study to assess the impact of a cul- turally appropriate videotape-based intervention on condom use among urban adolescent women who use contraception. The study showed that the videotape based intervention promoted favorable changes in sexual behav- iors. Similarly, Kalichman et al [21] tested the efficacy of a culturally sensitive HIV prevention intervention for Afri- can-American women by randomly assigning African- American women to three intervention conditions: a sin- gle session public health service videotape intervention that provided HIV information delivered by two white women; a second videotape intervention that provided the same information but delivered by an African-Ameri- can woman; and a third intervention module that was similar to the second but with the addition of culturally relevant materials. The women who received the interven- tion that used culturally relevant materials reported in fol- low-up assessments an increase in antibody testing and requests for condoms. Taken together, these studies dem- onstrate that culturally sensitive videotape-based HIV pre- vention interventions may be effective in changing high risk sexual behaviors.
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Phenomenological Investigation of African American Women in Information Technology Upper Management

Phenomenological Investigation of African American Women in Information Technology Upper Management

opportunities and mentorships available for African American women. This limitation is detailed in an article on the Diversity Inc. website entitled “Do Blacks need to relax their natural hair to be promoted.” This website was created by Luke Visconti, founder and CEO of Diversity, Inc, who is a nationally recognized leader in diversity management. Visconti writes a column entitled “Ask the White guy” In his column Visconti states that individuals tend to train and mentor people that look like themselves, he further states that psychological tests show that people most trust individuals who look like them. “Since white men run most corporations in this country, straightened hair and/or lighter skin are going to be an advantage” (Visconti, 2012). He further states that companies that move past bias and hire, mentor and promote equitably have better talent. Diversity, Inc. has created a list of top corporations that embrace diversity. The results are generated by completed corporate survey submissions. In 2011, 533 companies participated in this survey. The companies were measured on the CEO’s commitment to diversity
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A study of student evaluations of African American faculty at a historically black college and university (hbcu)

A study of student evaluations of African American faculty at a historically black college and university (hbcu)

Similar concerns but more focused on bigotry and prejudice have been identified as affecting how certain faculty members are evaluated. These concerns are mainly found in institutions that are predominately white, and some research in these areas reveal that is a prevailing perception from African American faculty members that their ratings from students are lower compared to other faculty members of different races (Ho, Thomsen, and Sidanius, 2009; Basow, Codos and Martin, 2013). These ratings affect faculty members benefits and employment status such as tenure, promotion and position, such concerns have merit and evidence have been gathered to support this concern in other studies. For this study, the focus is on Historically Black College/ Universities (HBCU) to determine if, similar situations occur in these types of universities. Historically Black College/University (HBCU) institution- Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African American community. They have always allowed admission to students of all races and are often known for having more racially diverse faculty members and students. Currently, there are 107 HBCUs in the United States, including public and private institutions, community and four- year institutions, medical and law schools (Brooks and Starks, 2011; Betsey, 2011).The largest of these institutions have more than 12,000 enrollees for each school year and have more than
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The African American/Black Racial Tapestry: Black Adolescents\u27 Private, Independent School Experiences and Racial Identity Development

The African American/Black Racial Tapestry: Black Adolescents\u27 Private, Independent School Experiences and Racial Identity Development

instance, I experienced loneliness and isolation during my freshman year. When I began to reflect on the difficult circumstances surrounding my high school experience during adolescence, and again, as a young adult in college, feelings of frustration and anger arose as I attended to those emotions. The endeavor I chose to unpack my experience was onerous, but it sharpened my perspective and bolstered many positive transformative effects in my life such as being able to support other individuals who were in similar situations. I continued to embark on a journey of healing and restoration throughout my early twenties, and I ultimately gained an appreciation for my private school experience that cemented my commitment and desire to grow as a person and to make a mark in the world. I am now eager to learn about the identity formation processes of Black students in independent schools. Therefore, I conducted a study of twelve participants whom attend ten different independent schools and have distinct experiences, using a bricolage of methodical approaches to inform my positional lens and grounded theory methods to analyze the data.
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