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Declaring the activism of black feminist theory

Declaring the activism of black feminist theory

Trafford Rape Crisis was successful in obtaining funding for the event from Feminist Review (2013) and the Psychology of Women Section of the British Psychological Society (2000-2013). We argued our case for the necessity of the convention, with persistent determination and passion, to the Home Office department of the Ministry of Justice. When it looked hopeless and energies were low, we turned to the activism of Black feminist theory seeking out the testimony of Black women’s experiences of collective-working (The Combahee River Collective, 1977), and to Lorde. After much hard work and detailed documentation that interweaved the activism of Black feminist theory with Home Office government policy papers (Home Office, 2010; 2011), we managed to shift the position of the Ministry of Justice from one of not being able to see the relevance of the convention in terms of our service provision to a position whereby they agreed to a substantial financial contribution, effectively underwriting the convention.
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Declaring the activism of black feminist theory

Declaring the activism of black feminist theory

Trafford Rape Crisis (traffordrapecrisis.com) was launched in March, 2011, and the Black Women’s Service was launched in March, 2012 during International Women’s Week. The activism of Audre Lorde in particular, and the activism of Black feminist theory in general, continue to provide the foundation of Trafford Rape Crisis organisational structures, vision, mission and support services and was instrumental in my role as the Trafford Rape Crisis Black, Asian and Minoriticised Ethnic Women’s Service Development Worker (2011-2013). For example, the recruitment, training and support of volunteers that ran between December, 2011 and March, 2012 founded on the activism of Black feminist theory significantly increased the number of Black women in the Collective. In turn, these significant changes in the demographic constitution of Trafford Rape Crisis reconstituted the ideology, discourse, practices and vision of the organisation. For example, the Collective started to include a monthly Black women-only reflective space. Even though this space was not always comfortable (Nayak, 2015: 94; The Combahee River Collective, 1977: 266) or consistently well-attended, there was a shared sense that ‘[t]hese spaces are not only safe - they form prime locations for resisting objectification as the Other’ (Hill Collins, 2000:101). This was primarily through a process articulated by hooks as an:
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Claiming Our Foremothers: The Legend of Sally Hemings and the Tasks of Black Feminist Theory

Claiming Our Foremothers: The Legend of Sally Hemings and the Tasks of Black Feminist Theory

Of the innumerable stories that have been told by African American women about sexual relationships between slave women and white men, only those that illustrate a p[r]

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Location as method

Location as method

November 2015, and danced at the ‘Activism of Black feminism’ conference in March 2015 and in 2012 we had a ball ‘Declaring the activism of Black feminist theory’ convention in March 2012. It is important to say that these spaces were inclusive, accessible international gatherings, where people from our communities out-numbered the academics. These activism of Black feminist gatherings embodied a troubling defiance of two mutually constitutive issues; a) the question of what counts as theory and who count as theorists and (Christian, 1987); and b) the use of location to produce and legitimize what counts as theory and who count as theorists. This is a clear example of method and content co-producing and re-producing each other; location as a procedure in the production, control, selection, organization and redistribution of what counts as theory and who count as theorist; location and locating functioning as an aspect of the ‘certain number of procedures whose role is to ward off its powers and dangers, to gain mastery over its chance events, to evade its ponderous, formidable materiality’ (Foucault, 1981:52).
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Essays on Electoral Accountability and Equalization Transfer under a Decentralized Context: The Case of Peruvian Municipalities

Essays on Electoral Accountability and Equalization Transfer under a Decentralized Context: The Case of Peruvian Municipalities

their very own stories influences their criminal decision-making. The purpose of this study is to explore, through Black women’s narratives, the intersection of Black womanhood, poverty, and incarceration using Black Feminist Thought. As well as explore that a sub-field of Criminology can describe the unique circumstances of imprisoned black women. Feminist Criminologist Hillary Potter introduces a Black Feminist Criminology theory that can advance future theorizing, research, and policy making regarding imprisoned battered black women (Potter, 2008). As a foundation for her research, Potter utilizes research from feminist criminology that argues the existence of a clear correlation and/or pathway between women’s victimization and any consequent criminal behavior (Potter, 2008). Black Feminist Criminology expands on feminist criminology and is grounded firmly in Black feminist theory and critical race feminist theory. Black Feminist Criminology goes beyond just economics, race, and gender. It does more than just recognizes a significant connection between intimate partner abuse against women and crime, but also explore the impacts of structural, cultural, and familial influences on Black women’s criminal behavior and pathways to crime. When considering the research question in addition to Black Feminist Thought, Black Feminist Criminology allows for an understanding and way to explore those interconnected situations through the women’s life stories of their experiences. Upon exploring these interconnected situations, offered through Black Feminist Criminology, Black Feminist Thought I assumed it to provide a relevant context for
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"The Forgotten Victims" How Racialized Gender Stereotypes Lead to Police Violence Against Black Women and Girls: Incorporating an Analysis of Police Violence Into Feminist Jurisprudence and Community Activism

"The Forgotten Victims" How Racialized Gender Stereotypes Lead to Police Violence Against Black Women and Girls: Incorporating an Analysis of Police Violence Into Feminist Jurisprudence and Community Activism

While these stories differ, the overarching systems of oppression foster an environment that leads to police violence against Black women and girls. In each case, police officers used physical or sexual aggression to maintain control and domination over the victims. Regardless of age, class, or location, Black women and girls share victimization. Each story adds a layer of understanding to the overall Black feminist theory that will help create vocabulary to push a social justice agenda. Police violence against black women is underreported, under-documented, and under-highlighted. Black women are left with these questions: Who do I call to police the police? What are social and legal remedies for Black women who experience violence? What does it take for people to recognize that this problem is widespread and normalized? How do we unlearn these stereotypes about Black women and ensure that their futures are not jeopardized by police violence?
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Reading Black, Reading Czech: UnravelingtheFigureofthe Czech TragicMulatta

Reading Black, Reading Czech: UnravelingtheFigureofthe Czech TragicMulatta

Following Ann DuCille’s (2010) call to explore what black feminist theory can offer to its “other,”this paperoffers a blackfeministreadingofŽivotopis černobílého jehněte (2009) by Tomáš Zmeškal, a novel set in communistCzechoslovakia, to demonstrate that such reading not only reveals how communist ideology challenges notions of blackness but also unravels a new African female Diasporic figure—the figure of a Czech tragic mulatta—that exposes a slippage in Czech racial homogeneity and epitomizes the racial anxieties of Czechs. This figure, a reincarnation of Viktorka’s [Božena Němcová’s fictional character’s] drowned baby, points to a line of Czech tragic female fictional characters who dared to love “the dark other,” whom the Czech society has, historically, linked with evil. The paper thus points to and makes the first step in a new direction for black (and Czech) feminist literary studies: a search for and an investigation into what happened to Viktorka’s drowned baby and its many reincarnations.
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Feminist Legal Theory: A Liberal Response

Feminist Legal Theory: A Liberal Response

None of this counts as a form of discrimination under the cur- rent difference approach to gender discrimination." That approach asks only whether men and women [r]

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The Salience of Species Difference for Feminist Theory

The Salience of Species Difference for Feminist Theory

To the extent that feminists (and others concerned with human injustices) criticize naturalized differences, there is no logical reason to exclude species difference [r]

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An African Child Becomes a Black Canadian Feminist: Oscillating Identities in the Black Diaspora

An African Child Becomes a Black Canadian Feminist: Oscillating Identities in the Black Diaspora

An African Child Becomes Cet article examine h mouvance et h my own lived experience as an African rhimtalhtion d z m une nouvelle ~ocalith woman with multiple identities living qui &boucbent sur unef[.]

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Towards a feminist theory of women's literature

Towards a feminist theory of women's literature

A central concept for the material reproduction of labour-power is Marx's labour theory of value, a theory which is itself at the very heart of Marx's whole system. For Marx, labour- power is a commodity like any other which is sold at a price, the price being constituted in the form of wages. Like any other commodity the price of labour-power is equal to the amount of labour expended to create it in the first place. It is part of the general mystification of wages that while the labourer believes that the money he receives after a full day's work is equivalent to the value of the labour-power that he has expended when in fact he need only have worked part of the day to obtain the value of his subsistence — the value of the reproduction and main- tenance of his labour-power — the rest of the working day being spent on creating value over and above that of his subsistence for the benefit of the employer, i.e. surplus value. This is be- cause bourgeois economics sees the sale of labour-power as the sale of labour, thus obscuring the fact that the wage represents the cost of producing the labour-power in the first place. This conceptual obfuscation of the real object of the transaction between the labourer and the capita- list is directly responsible for the obscurity of the fact that labour is expended on the production of the worker's labour-power before he even enters into the bargain with the employer. The labour expended on the production of labour-power is that performed by women in the home. A certain portion of the wage is spent on commodities essential to life (housing, food, clothing, etc.), but then these commodities have to be transformed by the labour of the housewife (clean- ing, cooking, laundry, etc.). Thus through the labour that the housewife expends on the com- modities necessary for maintaining the worker's life as well as her own life so that she can continue to perform her reproductive function, domestic labour becomes a part of the mass of past labour congealed in labour-power. Domestic labour creates value (both use-value and ex- change-value) when the labourer enters into the labour market in order to exchange his labour- power for the means of subsistence, thus renewing the cycle. The value the domestic labourer creates is equivalent to the "production costs" of her own maintenance. Thus domestic labour performed by women is an integral part of the market production basis of capitalist society. ". . . behind every factory, behind every school, behind every office or mine is the hidden work of millions of women who have consumed their life, their labour-power, in producing the labour- power that works that factory, school, office or mine."^ ^
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Transforming Resistance: Strategies for Teaching Race in the Ethnic American Literature Classroom

Transforming Resistance: Strategies for Teaching Race in the Ethnic American Literature Classroom

we had seen in previous pages. Morrison’s portrayal of a black mother who hates her own child, I continued, can be read as an ironic reversal of the ideal white family in the Dick and Jane primer, the intertext that opens each chapter. I paused, expecting the class to chime in and further my point. A white male student raised his hand: “Actually, I’m not sure how race has anything to do with it. Pauline is just a frustrated parent. As for the Dick and Jane story, it’s class, not race, that’s presented as the ideal.” If I had expected this comment, I was certainly surprised when another white female student, upon whom I had often depended for astute insights, agreed: “I don’t think it’s race, either. It’s a matter of professional pride. I’m a mother, too, and if my kid messed up my work, I’d be just as mad.” The majority of the class, many of whom were white, nodded in agreement. “But see how differently she treats Pecola than the little white girl,” the first white female student insisted. Her peers did not seem to be persuaded, and the class hour was unfortunately coming to an end before I could meaningfully intervene.
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Feminist systems theory: learning by praxis

Feminist systems theory: learning by praxis

CST and Action Researchers use participatory methods when social science researchers actively participate in their research. Further to this, that participation in the research process is initiated by a dialogue on what questions should be researched. This contrasts to the conventional paradigm- centred research or client-centred research approaches, the legacy of ‘hard’ system thinking infused through the social sciences. As a community of researchers, professionals prompt questions and promote action around emancipation. According to Levin (1994) emancipation is best understood as a process within a given context. It is therefore beholden upon researchers and professionals, to conduct interactions with participants in organizations or communities that support the emancipation process. As Levin (1994) points out, “The contradiction and real challenge in this process are how to integrate professional skill and knowledge in the participants' struggle to develop control over their own situation. [Action research and critical systems theory] professionals can support a micro-emancipation process or they can act as suppressors. Accordingly, emancipation is linked to and cannot be separated from the process by which it is acquired.” (pp. 26-27) FST is now being used as guidelines, with a suite of tools, to make a valued contribution to theory, methodology and practice in the community development field. The next sections of this paper will focus on what this practice is revealing in the way of appropriate methodology and practice.
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Conditions of Reciprocity: The Possibilities and Potentialities of a Feminist Perspective on Theorising Dis/ability

Conditions of Reciprocity: The Possibilities and Potentialities of a Feminist Perspective on Theorising Dis/ability

Feminist research is described by Dorothy Smith (1988:107; cited in Morris, 1992:159) as being a mode of research that “at the outset of inquiry, creates the space for an absent subject, and an absent experience, that is to be filled with the presence and spoken experience of actual women speaking of and in the actualities of their everyday worlds”. This, if applied justly and authentically to disabled people’s

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Black Canadian Feminist Thought: Tensions and Possibilities

Black Canadian Feminist Thought: Tensions and Possibilities

Black Canadian Feminist Thought Tensions and ~ossibl NJOKl N W A N E Cet article est l'etude d'une tentativie qui visait 2 remplir les lacunes dans I'ensemble des connaissances sur les Canadiennes de[.]

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The K-12 Experiences of African American Collegiate Women in STEM Majors: A Counternarrative.

The K-12 Experiences of African American Collegiate Women in STEM Majors: A Counternarrative.

Qualitative research allows researchers to explore the meaning individuals ascribe to a social problem, providing participants with a voice (Creswell, 2007). Merriam (2002) extends this notion by explaining that meaning is socially constructed by individuals and qualitative research uncovers meaning that participants have constructed about a particular phenomenon. This qualitative study is grounded in Critical Race Theory (CRT) and Black Feminist Thought (BFT). CRT and BFT provide a lens to understand the K-12 experiences of African American women prior to selecting their undergraduate STEM major. While each framework posits that issues of race and gender are endemic and woven throughout our social and institutional structures, collectively these frames provide a counternarrative to the historically silenced experiences of African American women. Stories are a powerful tool to convey one’s experience. Using a narrative approach provides a unique insight on the perspectives of African American women illuminating a new perspective to the dominant discourse.
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Say Their Names: Black Feminist Thought and the Power Elite

Say Their Names: Black Feminist Thought and the Power Elite

purpose. Whether excluded from racial justice movements on the basis of gender or dismissed from feminist movements on the basis of race, Black womxn’s knowledge has been continuously subjugated. Brittney Cooper further explores the public conceptions toward Black womxn in Eloquent Rage, and she writes “the truth is that Angry Black Womxn are looked upon as entities to be contained, as inconvenient citizens who keep on talking about their rights while refusing to do their duty and smile at everyone” (Cooper, 2018, p. 3). This removal from the civic body has been part of a project of benign neglect, in which feminist organizers have been heavily surveilled and regulated. Nevertheless, the work Black feminist scholars have produced has resisted these mechanisms of control.
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Critical Thinking, Bias and Feminist Philosophy: Building a Better Framework through Collaboration

Critical Thinking, Bias and Feminist Philosophy: Building a Better Framework through Collaboration

actively limiting and hurting the pursuit of knowledge within the discipline as well as maintaining a narrative harmful to women more generally. Given this argument, one could easily further argue that philosophy would benefit from a move away from the traditional school of logic; or at least drastically reform our attitudes toward its position as the prime method of reason. Rooney does not go this far and identifies two key problems with this line of argument. First, such an argument comes dan- gerously close to committing to a narrative of gender difference, advocating a position of masculine and feminine reason many feminists would find distasteful—or worse in terms of male and female reason. Second, this argument fails to account for the rise of women within similarly masculine themed fields such as Law; where women now comprise roughly 50% of admissions. Surely if the masculine theme of philosophy was the main deter- rent then the cutthroat and aggressive world of law would be equally off-putting. Rooney does, however, argue that the com- bative theme of philosophy is entirely unnecessary and argues its prominence is informed by a strong narrative of historic male preference and misogyny. Finally, she argues that philosophy should work hard to take on board feminist critique of its can- non and actively work toward un-entangling itself from the “embattled reason” narrative.
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"Things that stay":feminist theory, duration and the future

"Things that stay":feminist theory, duration and the future

durations; intense moments of the past which endure and which assemble with present and future temporalities. The past in this sense does not determine the future but rather, in Bergson‟s (1903/ 1999, 1908/ 2002) terms, the past is virtual and actualises the future. The past endures and assembles to produce particular (actual) presents and futures. It is in this necessary but non-determining relation between the past and future that the future is novel and creative; assembled with and through the past but different („in kind‟ [Deleuze 2002]) to it. In the next section I outline some of the ways in which „time‟ and the future is conceived in feminist theory and explain, through the work of Grosz, how Bergson‟s and Deleuze‟s time might instead underpin feminist theory. Taking up this feminist Bergsonian and Deleuzian time, I then explore the empirical material with a focus on how the futurity of becoming accounts for the relations between the girls‟ pasts, presents and futures.
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Unlikely Bedfellows: Feminist Theory and the War on Terror

Unlikely Bedfellows: Feminist Theory and the War on Terror

The contemporary threat of international terrorism has prompted states and scholars to reassess the public/private divide as it manifests in international law with particular regard to the principles of state responsibility. Without acknowledging the intellectual debt, much of the debate mirrors the concerns expressed by feminist theorists of international law in the 1990s. This paper explores similarities between some of the feminist literature and the counter-terrorism arguments in international law. The argument concludes that despite overlapping values in these two bodies of discourse there is no cause for optimism among feminists; the challenge to the public/private divide from the terrorism threat is unlikely to provide any relief to the most vulnerable of the world’s women and, to the contrary, the public/private divide remains essential to both counter-terrorism strategies and the wider agendas of Western governments within the international system.
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