Black Power

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Walter Rodney And Black Power: Jamaican Intelligence And Us Diplomacy

Walter Rodney And Black Power: Jamaican Intelligence And Us Diplomacy

minister or US diplomats, without any attempt on his life, apparently did not share their wild delusions about black power’s proposed final solution for people of visibly mixed African ancestry. Indeed, the Americans tarred Hill with the same feather they used to airbrush Rodney and other black power activists. In another post-Rodney assessment, this one resulting from an interview with the Rev. Henry, an encounter in which the US diplomat failed to identify himself as such, the Americans would describe how Hill, “who has attempted to replace Rodney, and other racists and black power advocates have also visited Henry.” 86 Hill’s report on the Montreal congress, according to the US diplomatic assessment, extolled Marcus Garvey and pan- Africanism, urged black combination across national boundaries, and proposed a “Black Heroes Day” in honor of the “martyred” Patrice Lumumba, to be celebrated on July 14, the birthday of the slain Congolese leader. Hill then turned from the global to the local: “A real crowd-pleaser, perhaps as part of his effort to fill Rodney’s shoes, Hill lauded the Rastafarian poet Ras Dizzy, Mrs. Garvey, and other stars in the local Black Power galaxy.” On the whole, the US official thought his “address was mild. He did not exhort the audience to any kind of violence.” Perhaps he was being coy, the Americans surmised, his moderation, as they would have it, a result of undercover police presence, an issue to which Hill had referred. 87
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Two Dead in Mississippi: Black Power, Vietnam, Memory, and the 1970 Jackson State Shootings.

Two Dead in Mississippi: Black Power, Vietnam, Memory, and the 1970 Jackson State Shootings.

subjugation of the Vietnamese people to white imperialism. This global scope constituted one of the defining characteristics of the Black Power philosophy. Students offered striking statements throughout the course of both the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) and the Scranton Commission’s investigations into the causes of the tragedy at Jackson State. When asked about precipitating factors, students frequently pointed to a combination of forces, mainly the war and racial discrimination. During an FBI interview, one student poignantly stated that “in his opinion this incident did not start recently but started as far back as September 1969. He believed that the Anti-Vietnam Committee started to influence and to attempt to get the war veterans on campus to join with them. He stated that they had organized enough of a following to cause trouble and turmoil all during the school year.” 169 Another set of students interviewed by the FBI claimed that they had attended the on-campus rally of May 8 and that afterward “About ten or more students left the rally dissatisfied with its outcome. These students made plans to create incidents to be performed on JSC’s campus 5/13/1970 in order to have the National Guard and the local police agencies brought on campus to focus national attention on their grievances.” 170
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Black Power Movement 2.ppt

Black Power Movement 2.ppt

⚫ Students will analyze primary sources through document based questions in order to explain how the Civil Rights Movement transitioned into the Black Power Movement.... Warm-up (10/14[r]

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Black Historical Memory of Slavery and Emancipation in the Activism and Politics of the Civil Rights, Black Power, and late Pan-African Movements, 1960-1988.

Black Historical Memory of Slavery and Emancipation in the Activism and Politics of the Civil Rights, Black Power, and late Pan-African Movements, 1960-1988.

56 On October 29, 1966, Stokely Carmichael, the newly elected leader of SNCC, spoke to a crowd of students at the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley), proclaiming, “We have found all the myths of the country to be nothing but downright lies. We were told that if we worked hard we would succeed, and if that were true we would own this country lock, stock, and barrel. We have picked the cotton for nothing.” 113 Comparing the modern condition of black people to the exploitation of their labor under slavery, Carmichael belied the notion that African Americans as a group could ever rise above oppression through their own hard work, continuing, “we are the maids in the kitchens of liberal white people; we are the janitors, the porters, the elevator men … we are the hardest workers and the lowest paid … Are the liberals willing to share their salaries with the economically insecure black people they so much love?” 114 Past racial progress had done little for the economic emancipation of African Americans. Throughout slavery, Reconstruction, and Jim Crow, black laborers struggled in the North and South to find middle to upper income jobs and were often denied advancements in their fields. Carmichael and other activists of the time believed that universities and colleges, essentially institutions of social advancement, held the key to black economic progress. Using the slogan, “Black Power,” he called upon student activists to stop relying on governmental change and “to start building [black] institutions and to fight to articulate our position, to fight to be able to control our universities … and to fight to control the basic institutions which perpetuate racism by destroying them and building new ones.” 115
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British Black Power: the anti-imperialism of political blackness and the problem of nativist socialism

British Black Power: the anti-imperialism of political blackness and the problem of nativist socialism

In a post-colonial world, rising powers such as China and India further challenge the colonial colour-line of geo-politics; they are themselves linked to the spread of super-exploitative capitalist social relations, rising inequality and forms of authoritarianism within the Global South; automation and outsourcing have seen the working classes of Western nations lose elements of their privileged role in the global economy; a plethora of non-white ethnic minorities within Britain continue to find themselves at the bottom of indicators such as wages and labour exploitation and others are seen as model minorities; and flows of migration induced by either war, inequality or climate change crash against racist Western border regimes. The recovery of political blackness’ idea of joined-up and transnational thinking about racialization and solidarity against racism, seems more needed than ever. Whilst we may wish to jettison the term political blackness and its ‘Black’ subject, due to the fears of ethnic homogenization or the erasure of the different forms and processes of racism suffered by different ethnic minority groups, or quite simply because it seems outdated, we would do well to recover its interlinking of domestic forms of race, class and gender domination with geo forms of exploitation and relations of power, and the formation of domestic and international forms of solidarity against such structures.
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Resituating Erving Goffman:From Stigma Power to Black Power

Resituating Erving Goffman:From Stigma Power to Black Power

appearance, and manner, and who, relative to the public institutions of our society find they are second class citizens’ are ‘all likely on occasion to find themselves functioning as stigmatized individuals’ (p. 146). For sure, the version of white normativity which Goffman depicts in Stigma tallies with accounts such as W.E.B. Du Bois’, who had argued two decades earlier in Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept that being Black in America is to be ‘badged’ by colour, to be marked out ‘for discrimination and insult’ (Du Bois, 2007, p. 59, p. 126). However, what Black Sociology also tells us is that living as a person racialised as Black in the early 1960s didn’t mean being stigmatised, ‘on occasion’, it meant daily confrontation ‘with the realities of racism, not simply as individual acts dictated by attitudinal bias’ but with an entire society organised through ‘racial terrorism’ (Davis, 2004, p. 496). Further, unlike his Black sociological elders and contemporaries, Goffman offers no account of why ‘to be unconditionally “American” is to be white, and to be black is a misfortune’, or how historical norms of white supremacy were being challenged as he wrote his book (Killian & Grigg [1964] in Carmichael & Hamilton, 1992, p. 31). Moreover, we reach a major contradiction in Goffman’s account of racial stigma, when he suggests that there is a natural difference between what he terms the ‘congenital’ sign of skin colour and imposed social signs such as ‘a brand mark or maiming’ (1986, p. 46). Goffman is here not only illustrating existing racism in US society but also normalising racial difference as a “fact” which is consequent of deeper genetic human difference. Indeed, his argument that the
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Civil Rights Movement Black Power Starts GAI.pdf

Civil Rights Movement Black Power Starts GAI.pdf

• Riots and violent protest in urban cities across the nation... Watts (Los Angeles)- 6 days of riots • 34 dead, 900 injured, 4000 arrested.[r]

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Investigation and Mitigation of Transformer Inrush Current during Black Start of an Independent Power Producer Plant

Investigation and Mitigation of Transformer Inrush Current during Black Start of an Independent Power Producer Plant

The energizing of large power transformers has long been considered a critical event in the operation of an electric power system. When a transformer is energized by the utility, a typical inrush current could be as high as ten times its rated current. This could cause many problems from mechanical stress on transformer windings to harmonics injection, and system protection malfunction. There have been numerous researches focusing on calculation and mitigation of the transformer inrush current. With the development of smart grid, distributed generation from independent power pro- ducers (IPPs) is growing rapidly. This paper investigates the inrush current due to black start of an IPP system with several parallel transformers, through a simulation model in DIgSILENT Power Factory software. The study demon- strates that a single genset is capable of energizing a group of transformers since the overall inrush current is slightly above the inrush of the transformer directly connected to the generator. In addition, a simple method is proposed to mitigate the inrush current of the transformers using an auxiliary transformer.
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Black Semiosis: Young Liberian Transnationals Mediating Black Subjectivity and Black Heterogeneity

Black Semiosis: Young Liberian Transnationals Mediating Black Subjectivity and Black Heterogeneity

Through hip hop signifying in particular, the young women in this analysis wielded language to reflect their own complicated occupation of blackness which co- terminously functioned as a reconfigured Africanness, and as a still-forming model of identity. In this sense, they lived out Homi Bhahba’s description of the underpinnings and consequences of mimesis among colonial subjects, a concept he called “colonial mimicry” (1984; 1994). He contends that in compulsory cultural replications by a designated Other, some slippage is inevitable, or possibly strategic (on both the part of the subject and the overseer), so that what gets lost in translation/re-articulation ultimately helps to maintain difference. What, then, do we make of fully self-initiated cases of a kind of mimicry that enlists an observable, and possibly tactical degree of imprecision or incongruence? I propose that communicative practices that at first pass may index (on a second or indirect level, per Ochs’s [1990] and Silverstein’s [1976; 2003] schemas) an apparent desire for closer proximity to American blackness or black Americaness, is somehow intended as a way to “emphatically not be” black (or “almost the same but not quite” [1994:86]). When we recall Bourdieu’s warning about the dissonance created by the valet speaking the language of the gentleman and apply Bhabha’s recalibration of such forms of alleged mimicry, the perceived threat of such performances to the socially-designated gentleman/s sense of cultural authority and authenticity easily computes.
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The Modeling of Weather Conditions and Wind Power in Cities of Western Black Sea Region by Using Linear Regression Method

The Modeling of Weather Conditions and Wind Power in Cities of Western Black Sea Region by Using Linear Regression Method

The modeling of the western Black Sea region and the provinces in this region which had the maximum and minimum temperatures were conducted using linear regression method and the equations are given below. For Kastamonu T = -0.338Y + 28.739, for Sinop T = 0.4978Y + 14.594, for the western Black Sea region T = -0.0079Y + 10.295.

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Constructing a 'Black-on-Black' Violence: The Conservative Discourse

Constructing a 'Black-on-Black' Violence: The Conservative Discourse

This post 1980 family was made a site for sordid characters that perversely socialized youth. It was the simple and blunt end product of a complex setting up and constructing. It featured dysfunctional members – “welfare mothers,” “absent fathers,” “hardened teens,” “on-the-dole parents” -B that perpetuated prominent understandings of this family. But this 1980s family was distinctive in the sheer intensity of its othering. To Robin Kelley (1997), conservative voices once had these parents basically aware of societal norms but struggling (often unsuccessfully) to keep families intact. But post 1980, their awareness had disintegrated. To Los Angeles radio voice Ken Hamblin (1999), an avid commentator on “black-on-black violence,” underclass families “must now be recognized for what they [are] - the socially accepted shiftless.” This was the central ghetto element “decimated by three decades of destitution programs, welfare bailouts and affirmative action.”
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Black Deaf or Deaf Black? An investigation of identity in the British Black Deaf community

Black Deaf or Deaf Black? An investigation of identity in the British Black Deaf community

Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations University of Warwick Carter E, McGolderick M 1980 The family life cycle: A framework for Family Therapy New York: Gardner Carter, T, P , The nega[r]

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White Christ Black Cross: the emergence of a black church

White Christ Black Cross: the emergence of a black church

Index Page 10Cllor, primed in italics rder 10 illllslLllion :md caplions when Ihe per,on or sllhject referred 10 is not menlioned elsewhere on Ihe page... Index :'vlorley, Rev..[r]

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The Boondocks, Black History, and Black Lives Matter: Or, Why Black Popular Culture Matters for Black Millennials

The Boondocks, Black History, and Black Lives Matter: Or, Why Black Popular Culture Matters for Black Millennials

In mainstream discourse, the discussion of Millennials is often centered on European Americans, their obsession with avocado toast and craft beer, and the substantial burden of student loans. However, as cultural critic Sean Scott notes, “far too much writing about Millennials erases people of color and immigrants” (7). Indeed, Millennials in general have endured “unprecedented wealth stratification; the exacerbation of already-existing divides of race and sex; and America’s continuing militaristic endeavors abroad. The product of both landmark mid-20 th century Naturalization Act of 1965 and the arrival of Reagonomics in the 1980s, Millennials are simultaneously the most diverse and most disprivileged generation ever” (Scott 4). This erasure of Black youth from conversations about Millennials reflects a broader reality about the “uncertain place of young black people in our political communities” (Cohen 3). To better understand how Black popular culture can foster critical engagement with and among Black Millennials, we must reflect on some of the historical and structural forces that have shaped the lives of this generation.
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Power, Privilege, And Peril: Governing In A Suburban Majority Black And Middle Class County - A Regional Perspective

Power, Privilege, And Peril: Governing In A Suburban Majority Black And Middle Class County - A Regional Perspective

Notwithstanding racial discrimination headwinds, Prince George’s development potential has always been promising for several reasons, including, among other factors: its proximity to D.C. and other regional hubs; neighborhoods’ easy access to the Capital Beltway; its 15 Metro subway stations; a concentration of federal government agencies; and the presence of the University of Maryland flagship campus. The first county executive, Wayne Curry, even during the tumult of the racial transition, and despite the entrenched skepticism he faced from racially biased developers, appreciated these advantages. Current PGC leaders credit Curry for being among the earliest leaders to envision a thriving Prince George’s County with public goods, services, and amenities on par with or exceeding those of neighboring majority White counties. He focused on attracting middle class and elite Blacks, calling PGC the “land of milk and honey.” In particular, Curry sought to provide Black professionals “executive housing.” A Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission (M-NCPPC) official who has served in senior county leadership posts since the Curry Administration described Curry’s vision, echoing what I heard from other PGC leaders:
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Black Americans and Interracial Marriage: A Focus on Black Women

Black Americans and Interracial Marriage: A Focus on Black Women

Rogers (1944) writes that: “David Livingtone, great mis- sionary, when he saw in Africa black men all about him and he, the lone white: ‘One feels ashamed of the white skin; it seems unnatural like blanched celery or white mice’” (pp. 122-123). It has also been written that throughout history, there have been White males and White females who prefer to date or marry Blacks. According to Rogers (1944): “Peter Nielsen, a white ethnologist, who lived many years among the blacks of South Africa, says similarly: ‘I have often heard white men who have kept native women say that they found the black or deep brown colour of the native woman far more beautiful... and I have also heard white women of culture and refinement admit that the black or dark-brown torso and tints of the African man have seem to them a more pleasing sight...’” Rogers adds, “I have met Frenchmen, and Belgians, and even Englishmen, who pre- fer the blackest Congolese to the whitest German” (pp. 115- 116). Another famous White explorer in Africa, Richard F. Burton adds in describing the beauty of the Blacks he encoun- tered on the continent: “Their well-made limbs and athletic frames... were displayed to advantage... and were set off by opal-coloured eyeballs, teeth like pearls, and a profusion of broad massive rings of snowy ivory round their arms, and conical ornaments like dwarf marling-spikes of hippopotamus tooth suspended from their necks” (Ondaatje, 1998: p. 354). Even during the most racist period in South Africa’s history, Maurice Evans (1901-1989), “A grand, robust, highly theatri- cal British classical actor,” was reported to have said of the Black South African male: “When thoroughly washed and duly anointed there is a peculiar richness about his color...” (Rogers, 1944: p. 117).
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Black box

Black box

When discussing the depiction of traumatic imagery in the fine art photograph, it is important to understand that there are an infinite number of ways to present trauma. In Black Box, much of the trauma results from the erratic flying and apparent falling of the crow. In order to understand the motives behind using the concept of falling within this project, it is imperative to contextualize this presentation of falling as traumatic image within other traumatic photographic presentations of falling. Both Yves Klein and Bas Jan Ader used the element of falling in the their photographic work. However, neither artist used this act as a means to evoke fear or terror in the viewer. Instead, falling was used as a way to force a tension on the viewer as they anticipate the climax of the image. In Klein’s Leap Into The Void (1960), the act of falling even takes on a spiritual aspect, where Klein appears to be at the moment of taking flight.
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Apparent Horizons of N Black Holes and Black Hole Rings

Apparent Horizons of N Black Holes and Black Hole Rings

The following is the code used in Mathematica for finding a first approximation for the apparent horizon of a black hole ring of mass 1. This code returns values for z and ρ that when plotted provide the visual aid to determining the first approximation to the location of the apparent horizon. The options used for the NDSolve command were a maximum step size of 0.1 and a maximum of 500,000 steps to achieve a precision sought was 16 digits. By changing the boundary conditions and adding a subroutine of the Bisection Method (similar to the one used in the case of N balck holes) this same code can be used to find a more accurate location of the apparent horizon.
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Why Black?

Why Black?

At the end of the seventeenth century, the city of Delft had over thirty pottery factories. The three most prominent factories were De Grieksche A, De Metaale Pot and Het Moraanshooft. In addition to their regular production, these three factories also delivered many products to order, not only in the Republic but throughout Europe. An example is an order of a Bohemian prince of the Lobkowicz von Bilina family, who ordered a multipart crockery set with a variety of family crests in the last quarter of the seventeenth century. 14 It is unknown whether there have also been orders for the creation of black faience. It is known, however, that two different techniques were used for the creation of Delft black. In one technique a white base layer of tin glaze was made, applied to the pottery before the colourful paintings, after which it was fired the first time. After the tin glaze was hard-fired, the colours like red, yellow, green and black were painted on it, leaving a small space of white between the black and the other colours, preventing the colours to melt in each other. An example of Delft black which is created using this technique is shown in figure 1.3. The second technique was a bit more difficult. The black fond, as the enamel layer is also called, was applied directly to the pottery and the colourful glazing is painted directly on the fond as shown in figure 1.2. The use of this technique was far riskier because there was a higher probability that the colour would blend when the oven was not set at the right temperature. 15 When looking at the two examples on figure 1.2 and figure 1.3, the different result is very well visible. On figure 1.2, no white is seen and therefore the other colours are more outstanding. Of both types a few examples are known, though from the type on figure 1.2 slightly more. In 1679, the German scientist Johann Kunckel (1632/34 - 1703) describes in his writing Ars Vitraria Experimentalis oder
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Black and Free

Black and Free

If the same man who wasted almost three days a year in line for coffee spends three dollars on his drink, he'll be spending over $600 a year.. Add a muffin-forget about it?[r]

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