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BLACK SEA STUDIES DANISH NATIONAL RESEARCH FOUNDATION S CENTRE FOR BLACK SEA STUDIES

BLACK SEA STUDIES DANISH NATIONAL RESEARCH FOUNDATION S CENTRE FOR BLACK SEA STUDIES

Chronology may not always be considered the most exciting subject by archae­ ologists and ancient historians, but its importance can hardly be overestimated, and recent years have certainly witnessed a renewed interest in chronolog­ ical problems. When the Danish Research Foundation’s Centre for Black Sea Studies was established in February 2002, it was decided that the Centre’s first international conference should have as its theme the chronology of the Black Sea area, with special focus on the period from 400 to 100 BC, a period which has indeed had its share of chronological debates and revisions. Thus the destruction of Olynthos in 348 BC as a chronological fixed point has been challenged; the tentative chronology proposed by H. Thompson for Athen­ ian Hellenistic pottery has in recent years been corrected by S. Rotroff; and the chronologies of Hellenistic transport amphoras originating in Black Sea workshops such as Herakleia Pontike, Sinope and Chersonesos, as well as the precise datings of a number of local coinages, are still hotly debated. It goes without saying that the chronological framework established for the Greek colonies on the shores of the Black Sea is also of crucial importance for the dating of the nomad cultures of the steppes during the first millennium BC.
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International Congress on BLUE BLACK SEA

International Congress on BLUE BLACK SEA

Sergei Goncharenko, (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Russian Federation, Moscow), Russia Dimitrios Triantaphyllou, (International Centre for Black Sea Studies (ICBSS), Athens, Greece Oleg Barabanov, Professor Dr. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University of the MFA of Russia), RF

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A 2020 Vision for the Black Sea Region: A Report by the Commission on the Black Sea

A 2020 Vision for the Black Sea Region: A Report by the Commission on the Black Sea

A clear encouragement and sponsorship of intercultural dialogue among the peoples of the Black Sea would support regional cooperation. A useful example that could serve as an inspiration and model is the Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation for the Dialogue between Cultures which is based in Alexandria in Egypt and operates within the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. Another reference is the Alliance of Civilizations which was established in 2005, at the initiative of the governments of Spain and Turkey, under the auspices of the United Nations. Similar models should be encouraged at the sub-regional level. Intercultural dialogue should be promoted hand in hand with interfaith dialogue, aimed at bringing together the religious leaders of the region’s confessions. Cooperation between universities should be enhanced as should student exchange programmes in order to create linkages and networks between young people of the Black Sea. A joint Black Sea Studies graduate programme needs to be established between the region’s universities in order to create academic linkages for the future. In terms of the media there are few foreign correspondents from Black Sea countries reporting on events in one another’s countries. This means that what news there is often comes from external sources not well attuned to the interests of their readers or viewers. Funds should be found to address this problem.
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Long term trends in the sea surface temperature of the Black Sea

Long term trends in the sea surface temperature of the Black Sea

The warming of the World Ocean over recent decades has been firmly established (e.g. Levitus et al., 2005, 2009 and references therein). In the Black Sea, studies of inter-annual variability of the physical properties are commonly restricted in their time coverage to the last 20 to 50 years, see e.g. (Kazmin et al., 2009 and references therein). Polonsky and Lovenkova (2004) gave a detailed analysis of SST variabil- ity and their possible causes over the period of 1960–1990, however their study was limited to a single transect across the Black Sea. Potential causes of temperature changes and their link with North Atlantic Oscillations were also dis- cussed by Oguz (2005) and by Kazmin et al. (2009). Studies covering longer periods are mostly concerned with changes in the sea as a whole and are based on the analysis of the monthly/yearly mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) de- rived from 1 ◦ ×1 ◦ gridded data sets (see Oguz, 2005 and
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Hieron: The Ancient Sanctuary at the Mouth of the Black Sea

Hieron: The Ancient Sanctuary at the Mouth of the Black Sea

Menippos divided the sailing itinerary of the three continents (Asia, Europe, and Libya) as follows:. from the so-called Hieron of Zeus Ourios, located at the very mouth of the Pontus,[r]

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Data poor stock assessment in the Black Sea

Data poor stock assessment in the Black Sea

 Graph showing retrospective analysis for predicted F/Fmsy and B/Bmsy trajectories. CMSY++ is on the way….[r]

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Black Sea Basin Programme Our Projects

Black Sea Basin Programme Our Projects

To achieve stronger regional partnership and cooperation between the universities from the Black Sea Basin by the implementation of a joint Master Degree Program on the Management of Re[r]

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Life-History Traits of the Black Scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus) in Southeastern Black Sea

Life-History Traits of the Black Scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus) in Southeastern Black Sea

& Leong, 1985; Murua, Kraus, Saborido-Rey, Witthames, Thorsen, & Junquera, 2003; Macchi et al., 2005). Individual fecundity-length and fecundity-weight were correlated. For preparing the ovaries for histological analysis, each stage of maturation phases of gonads was determined based on both the macro and microscopic characteristics of the gonads. The maturity phases of gonads were determined considering the differences in oocytes microscopically in histological sections. Several studies have been conducted to reveal the maturity phases of the gonads. However, in these studies, differences were observed both in terms of definition of maturity phases of the gonads and in numbers of maturity phases (Selman & Wallace, 1989; Murua, et al., 2003; Munoz, Sàbat, Vila, & Casadevall, 2005; Koya & Munoz, 2007; McMillan, 2007; Nunez & Dupochelle, 2008; Stahl & Kruse, 2008, Brown-Peterson, Wyanski, Saborido-Rey, Macewicz, & Lowerre-Barbieri, 2011). Macroscopic and microscopic maturity stage were defined as; immature, developing, spawning, regressing and resting stages according to Brown-Peterson et al. (2011). For the microscopic analysis of the development stages, sampling was performed monthly. Firstly, the ovaries were kept in Bouin’s fluid. The samples were dehydrated in graded alcohol (25%, 50%, and 75%) for 15 min. The samples were cleared in xylene (75%) and embedded in paraffin at 65°C in an incubator for 12 h. The histological sections of 5–10 µm were cut using microtome (Leica RM 2135) and tissues were stained with Hematoxylin- eosin in order to determine oocyte and gonad development under a microscope (Nikon e400). The deviations from the expected 1:1 sex ratio were
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Feeding Habits of Black Scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus, in the South- Eastern Black Sea

Feeding Habits of Black Scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus, in the South- Eastern Black Sea

Feeding habit of Scorpaena porcus changed seasonally in this research. It was found that the black scorpionfish fed on harbour crab most frequently in summer and on red mullet in winter. The main diet components of black scorpionfish (both sexes) in summer were mud shrimp and harbour crab. However, females’ preference was mostly mud shrimp and male preference was mud shrimp. Seasonal variation of the diet seems to be associated with the availability of the prey, whose distribution and abundance are related to the dynamics of the water masses of region (Muto et al., 2001). In other scorpaenids, the feeding intensity followed roughly a seasonal trend (La Mesa et al., 2007). Several studies revealed that the highest percentage of empty stomachs occurs during reproduction, owing to a significant decrease in food intake in such a period for scorpaenids (Morte et al., 2001). Similar result were found in this study. Stomachs of S. porcus were found to be empty (V% = 28.33) in summer samples.
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Quantifying the impact of basin dynamics on the regional sea level rise in the Black Sea

Quantifying the impact of basin dynamics on the regional sea level rise in the Black Sea

The basin-wide satellite altimetry measurements have re- vealed that the BSSL change is not uniform, which is related to the dynamic factors that redistribute water within the basin (Stanev et al., 2000, 2001; Korotaev et al., 2001).The main feature of the Black Sea dynamics is the cyclonic Rim current flowing along the continental slope. The general cyclonic cir- culation results in a lower sea level in the interior of the basin and a higher sea level along the coast (Blatov et al., 1984; Si- monov and Altman, 1991; Oguz et al., 1993; Stanev, 1990; Stanev et al., 2000; Korotaev et al., 2001). It has been shown that the seasonal and interannual variability of the Black Sea circulation is driven by changes in the wind curl averaged over the basin (Blatov et al., 1984; Stanev, 1990; Stanev et al., 2000; Korotaev et al., 2001; Grayek et al., 2009; Kubryakov et al., 2016). In winter, the cyclonic wind curl and, therefore, the onshore Ekman transport increase and cause divergence in the center of the basin by moving water towards the coast. The compensating vertical uplift (Ekman suction) in the cen- ter of the sea brings cold and saline deep water to the surface, while warm and fresher surface water is pushed towards the coast, where downwelling motions occur (Stanev et al., 2000, 2004; Korotaev et al., 2001; Kubryakov et al., 2016). In sum- mer, the cyclonic wind curl weakens, Ekman divergence de- creases and the water accumulated along the coast flows back into the basin’s interior (Zatsepin et al., 2002; Kubryakova and Korotaev, 2017).
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Biological Diversity of the Turkish Black Sea Coast

Biological Diversity of the Turkish Black Sea Coast

Öztürk (1999) reviewed to the general biodiversity in the Turkish Black Sea, and stated that the presence of 140 fish species. Bilecenoglu et al. (2002) have published a checklist of the marine fish fauna of Turkey and report a total of 151 species are given in the Turkish Black Sea coast. However, a few data are available on the fishes of Turkish Black Sea coast (Slastenenko, 1955-1956; Akşiray, 1987; Bilecenoglu et al., 2002; Can and Bilecenoğlu, 2005). In the recently study a total of 94 fish species belonging to 44 families were identified in the Sinop and Samsun coast (Bat et al., 2005). Acipenser persicus, Apletodon dentatus bacescui, Gobius cruentatus and Zebrus zebrus were new recorded from Sinop Peninsula of the Turkish Black Sea (Bat et al., 2005 and 2006). Considering to one of the last review (Keskin, 2010), a total of 161 species present in the Turkish Black Sea: 62.73% of which is Atlanto- Mediterranean species, 6.83% cosmopolitans, 28.57% endemics (18.01% Black Sea endemics, 10.56% Mediterranean endemics) and 1.86% introduced species (Indo-Pacific and Atlantic origins) such as, Liza haematocheila, Sphraena obtusata and Salmo salar. Finally Black Sea Fish Check-List was given by BSC (2010).
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Development of Black Sea nowcasting and forecasting system

Development of Black Sea nowcasting and forecasting system

Monthly-mean atmospheric circulation is of a cyclonic character above the Black Sea during the whole year. Pre- vailing of cyclones provides positive wind stress curl for the whole year with maximum in winter and minimum in sum- mer. The positive wind stress curl and the buoyancy contrast between the fresh river inflow and salt water supply through the Bosphorus Strait induce cyclonic circulation in the sea. A permanent feature of the upper layer circulation is the Rim Current, encircling the entire Black Sea and forming a large- scale cyclonic gyre. The Rim Current is located above the continental slope and has the width of 40–80 km. Direct ob- servations of current velocity from surface buoys show that the maximum speed of the stream is usually 40–50 cm s −1 increasing sometimes up to 80–100 cm s −1 . The shape of the coastline probably conditions appearance of two smaller cy- clonic gyres in the western and the eastern parts of the basin. The Rim Current is concentrated above the shallow pycn- ocline and the volume transport by the current is estimated as 3–4 Sv. A general opinion is that shallow and sharp pycno- cline restricts propagation of seasonal signal from the surface and seasonal variability is concentrated in the upper 100 m. General cyclonic circulation induces the rise of the dynami- cal sea level toward the coast. Full range of spatial variability of the dynamical sea level depends on a season and changes from 25 to 40 cm so that the mean amplitude of the sea level spatial variability is about 15 cm (Blatov et al., 1984).
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In the sea of memory : embodiment and agency in the black diaspora

In the sea of memory : embodiment and agency in the black diaspora

Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, London: Reidel Publishing Company Fraleigh, Sondra Horton 1987 Dance and t[r]

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Extreme waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea

Extreme waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea

The individual waves were obtained by the zero-up crossing method and the distribution of individual waves was checked. A theoretical distribution function called Rayleigh distribution has been universally employed to describe individual wave height distribution. Although Rayleigh distribution has been very useful and practical in engineering studies of wave loading, some analyses of wave records indicated a deviation of the actually occurring wave height distribution from the Rayleigh distribution (Forristall, 1978; Nolte and Hsu, 1979; Goda and Kudaka, 2007). Deviation of individual wave height distribution from the Rayleigh is represented by the ratio of H s /η rms which is 4.004 if
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The Seawater Pollution Survey in the Northern Black Sea

The Seawater Pollution Survey in the Northern Black Sea

Estimates measured during the four seasonal surveys performed in the northern Black Sea were used in computations underpinning this paper. Measurings were made during the 60 th and 61 st expeditions of the R/V “Georgy Ushakov” (March and May, 1992) and during the 57 th and 58 th expeditions of the R/V “Ernst Krenkel'” (July and September, 1992) launched by UkrRCME; the uniform map of sampling stations did not change. Research interests focused on the seawater area of economic zones of Ukraine, Russia and Georgia. Figure 1 shows how the topography of zero horizon (0 m) changed depending on month in 1992 (see Georgiev et al., 1994 for details). Figure 2 shows position of the stations at which pollutants were measured in standard photic layers to 100 m depth. In these expeditions, researchers from UkrRCME collected seawater samples and then determined the content of eight heavy metals (Hg, Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Fe), arsenic, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), chlorine organic pesticides (DDT, DDE, DDD, hexachlorcyclohexan HCCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB).
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The Black Sea Dating Game and Holocene Marine Transgression

The Black Sea Dating Game and Holocene Marine Transgression

Dating of major sea-level changes using shells or calcareous microfossils is prone to errors in semi-enclosed ma- rine environments where inputs of seawater and river water vary over time and space. The need to refine mol- lusc-based age estimates for the rate of the Holocene marine transgression in the Black Sea is the focus of mul- tiple palaeoceanographic and archaeological studies. This ongoing “dating game” seeks to clarify conflicting evi- dence for a hypothetical catastrophic marine flood that forced the emigration of Neolithic farmers from the shores of a Holocene freshwater lake in the Black Sea. The potential importance of confirming or rejecting this megaflood hypothesis has led to multiple attempts at refining the chronology of the marine transgression and quantifying the palaeosalinity of the Black Sea surface water during the Holocene. Here we report that six new AMS radiocarbon ages of 8890 ± 50 to 8450 ± 40 yr BP were obtained for wood, grass and sedge leaves from peat layers in Core 342 at 33.16 - 32.71 m below present sea level on the Ukrainian Shelf. These plant materials pro- vide critical new ages for quantifying Black Sea carbon reservoir issues. The accuracy of our new AMS wood/peat ages is independently supported by palynochronological correlation. The ages of our plant materials have ~100 years precision and are ~420 - 520 years younger than those previously reported for unsorted detrital peat in Core 342. Paired mollusc—wood ages for brackish—freshwater Dreissena polymorpha shell from detrital peat also shows that an inaccuracy of >1120 yr can arise for shells during times when carbon reservoir values in the semi-isolated, brackish-water Black Sea could depart significantly from global average. Our revised sea level curve shows a gradual early Holocene transgression from water depths of −45.9 to −32.8 m, with initial Mediter- ranean inflow by 8.9 ka BP.
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Past and recent trends in the western Black Sea storminess

Past and recent trends in the western Black Sea storminess

Abstract. Storms are one of the most important phenom- ena producing coastal hazards and endangering human life and activities. In recent decades storm climate has become a subject of increased public awareness and knowledge of this issue can help the society to meet future challenges re- lated to extreme storm manifestation. Therefore, the goal of this study is to assess trends in past and recent storminess in the western Black Sea. The analysis of storm climate is based on a continuous hindcast dataset covering a substan- tial historical time-span of 63 yr (1948–2010). It was used to create a storm population and to estimate properties de- scribing storminess (proxies). This was done by introduction of criteria allowing separation of events with low probabil- ity of occurrence and at the same time keeping the informa- tion on their pattern, i.e. properties of storm phases. Eleven storminess proxies were analysed and the most indicative appeared to be storm duration; integral, mean and specific storm wave energy; and wind velocity and direction, which were obtained for each storm season.
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The contrasting oceanography of the Rhodes Gyre and the Central Black Sea

The contrasting oceanography of the Rhodes Gyre and the Central Black Sea

Figure 5 recapitulates the depth profiles of nitrate concentrations in the Black Sea during cruises by R/Vs Knorr and Bilim together with rough compu- tations of the second derivatives of nitrate concen- trations with respect to water density. Nitrate con- centrations are very low in the surface waters of the central Black Sea, increase to a maximum value in the pycnocline at water densities of around 15.4 and then decline, becoming zero at water densities be- tween 16.0 and 16.5 so that it is not necessary to consider concentrations in the deep anoxic waters. Eddy diffusion coefficients are not known accurately at these depths but the second derivatives of the con- centrations with respect to water density provide sig- nificant information. Clearly, in the region of the maximum nitrate concentration d 2
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Georgia Black Sea Coast Protection with Free Beaches

Georgia Black Sea Coast Protection with Free Beaches

In the paper, it is discussed reinforced coastal zones with resort-recreational functions, destructed in terms of anthropogenic pressure of the Black Sea, Georgia. Results of many years’ observations and researches prove low effec- tiveness of active methods of coastal protection, mostly causing and provok- ing intensive degradation of the beaches. Article highlights developing and constructing of free and unbounded beaches as an optimal coastal protection approach. Successful example of this approach was developing of coastal zone in 90s, in Gagra (West Georgia), Black Sea. Positive impact of this kind of ar- tificial beach still survives. In the thesis, it is presented an attempt to scientifi- cally prove extrapolation-traduction on the other similar coasts of the recov- ery of Gagra Zone beach. Based on morphodynamic analysis and comparison, according to the priorities of major features of reinforced coasts, it turned out that coast of three similar objects (Gagra, Ochamchire and Sokhumi) show homogenous aspects. Scientific expediency of providing extrapolation on oth- er similar objects of etalon objects i.e. Gagra Beach recovered by successful coastal protection experiment. Thereby, for the purposes of creating free-artificial beach, choosing of wrecking zone of Ochamchire is based on coastal protection effectiveness and economical principals, including technic- al-economical effectiveness.
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UTILIZATION OF SEA SALT IN BLACK COTTON SOIL FOR STABILIZATON

UTILIZATION OF SEA SALT IN BLACK COTTON SOIL FOR STABILIZATON

Black Soil is a most common soil in India, which covers more than 20 percentage land area of India and is also known as „regur‟. This soil is spread over Madhyapradesh, Gujarat, Andhrapradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka and other parts of India as well. Presence of montmorillonite clay minerals is mainly responsible for swelling and shrinkage characteristic of black cotton soil. The swelling and shrinkage characteristics of black cotton soil pose a serious threat to foundations and structures constructed on them. Light weight and small structures are generally more susceptible to damage due to their less amount of overburden pressure. In this study, experiments have been conducted to find out the effect of addition of sea salt on the behaviour of black cotton soil. From the laboratory test results it is observed that the addition of salt in black cotton soil significantly reduces the liquid limit, plastic index, swelling and plasticity index of soil with a minimum cost. Optimum moisture content and dry density of soil has also found to be changed with addition of sea salt. Keywords - Black Cotton Soil, Index Properties, Optimum Moisture Content, Maximum Dry Dencity,Sea Salt
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