Bluetooth scatternet formation algorithm

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Enhancing Bluetooth Authentication using Diffie Hellman Algorithm

Enhancing Bluetooth Authentication using Diffie Hellman Algorithm

topology with better performance. The two piconets with a joint slave becomes a blue star island [2]. John D. Padgett, Booz Allen Hamilton, Herndon, VA, discussed a technical background on how Bluetooth security works, requirements associated with designing and deploying and Bluetooth based solutions for use in the DOD. Services level security modes are discussed security mode1, security mode2 and security mode3. In security mode1 the device will never initiate pairing in a connection. In security mode2, a remote device has sent request to device for security requirements. In security mode3, the device will always initiate the security to logical link establishment. So this mode is referred to as a link level security mode. In this, solutions are also discussed for security modes [3]. Pushpa R.Suri, Sona Rani had discussed some background information about Bluetooth system and security issues to isolate various attacks in the Bluetooth network. They had proposed asymmetric key exchange method. This has reduced the risk of triggering eavesdropping on pairing process and finding the Personal Identifier Number (PIN) used. In this pairing process, mutual authentication and key types are discussed along with their working [4]. Mostafa Akhavan-E-saffar 1, Vahid Tabataba Vakily discussed about the cable replacement technology called Bluetooth and various attacks which are possible in Bluetooth. These attacks are broadly classified into active and passive attacks. Author also discussed, that if Bluetooth architecture is poorly implemented then Bluetooth network is more vulnerable to security attacks [5]. Deepak Jayanna, Gergely V. Záruba discussed various piconet and scatternet formation network topologies. These topologies are like Bluetree, Bluestar, blue net . They had proposed a new piconet formation protocol by following strict rules of protocol development [6]. Zhifang Wang, Robert J. Thomas, Zygmunt Haas discussed the Bluetooth topology called blue net topology. This topology removes the disadvantage of blue tree topology [7]. Rohit Pandharkar and M. A. Joshi discussed about the Diffie- Hellman algorithm which is used to set a secure communication channel .In Diffie-Hellman algorithm various type of attacks are possible. To prevent these attacks, they made enhancement in the Diffie-Hellman algorithm.[8]. Lein Harn, Manish Mehta, Wen-Jung Hsin made enhancement in the Diffie-Hellman algorithm. In this they have integrated digital signature scheme and diffie-Hellman to ensure data integrity and confidentially [9].
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Proposal of an Intelligent Surveillance Algorithm for Scatternet Network

Proposal of an Intelligent Surveillance Algorithm for Scatternet Network

On the other hand, a Piconet is the type of Bluetooth connection that is formed between two or more Bluetooth- enabled devices, which has the maximum size of a Piconet to 8 devices with the ratio of 1 master and 7 slaves [15]. But a Scatternet is a number of interconnected Piconets that supports communication between more than 8 devices and is a type of ad-hoc network consisting of two or more piconets. A Several Bluetooth enabled devices are internetworked to form scatternet and developing the secure network is an important issue in the scatternet formation.This paper discusses some of these issues and highlights a number of vulnerabilities in the current generation of Bluetooth enabled devices also introduced a solution to the security problem by generating an algorithm to detect the intruder [13].
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A Survey on Real Time Presentation Slide Sharing over Bluetooth

A Survey on Real Time Presentation Slide Sharing over Bluetooth

Hiranmayi Sreenivas and Hesham Ali [3] introduced a Bluetooth scatternet formation protocol that uses a genetic algorithm to calculate and find the best, or “fittest”, combination of masters, slaves and bridges in a given Bluetooth network. They have developed and simulated a scatternet formation algorithm that produces scatternets with certain desirable characteristics like minimal delay to the end-users during scatternet formation, minimal number of piconets in order to reduce inter-piconet interference during communication and bounded number of slaves to minimize the overhead associated with slave parking and unparking operations in a given Bluetooth network.
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A Real Time Data Sharing over Bluetooth

A Real Time Data Sharing over Bluetooth

Hiranmayi Sreenivas and Hesham Ali [3] introduced a Bluetooth scatternet formation protocol that uses a genetic algorithm to calculate and find the best, or “fittest”, combination of masters, slaves and bridges in a given Bluetooth network. They have developed and simulated a scatternet formation algorithm that produces scatternets with certain desirable characteristics like minimal delay to the end-users during scatternet formation, minimal number of piconets in order to reduce inter-piconet interference during communication and bounded number of slaves to minimize the overhead associated with slave parking and unparking operations in a given Bluetooth network.
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AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM BASED ON BLUETOOTH CORDLESS COMMUNICATION

AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM BASED ON BLUETOOTH CORDLESS COMMUNICATION

The master Bluetooth module continuously scans the whole Bluetooth fre- quency range (79 channels), searching for secondary units. When it finds one, a con- nection is established and the master module starts sending the people information (the unique Bluetooth address and the temperature) over the UART interface. The information is updated in 1 second intervals. When the slave device goes out of range, the master device does not receive information any more.

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A Novel Approach for Ultrasonic Sensor Obstacle Detection Using Internet of Things

A Novel Approach for Ultrasonic Sensor Obstacle Detection Using Internet of Things

Ling Hu et al, Member filter which is unified to detect either the vehicle license plates or the vehicles from the digital camera imaging sensors of urban surveillance systems in smart cities [16]. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to design this kind of filter to detect the vehicle/license plate objects. We tested our filter with different images. The results show that our filter can automatically detect the highest energy frequency areas out from the images, which makes our proposed algorithm a simple and effective method to automatically detect vehicle objects for IoT. Suzanne Choney et al, Bluetooth does not mean a headset that looks unusual when a phone client strolls the city roads. This innovation is assuming an expanding job in the car advertise where Bluetooth for sans hands considers builds the quantity of processing plant introduced vehicles, plays out similar assignments, and transmits computerized music records to the vehicle's sound system. In the up and coming year, Bluetooth gushing video can be conveyed to the rearward sitting arrangement excitement gadget, and maybe the vehicle's Bluetooth sensor can advise the driver when the tire weight is excessively low. "This innovation, second broadly utilized beside a vehicle's Bluetooth headset, would now be able to stream music through a vehicle stereo utilizing a cell phone or
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Predicting Indoor Position Using Bluetooth Low Energy And Machine Learning

Predicting Indoor Position Using Bluetooth Low Energy And Machine Learning

is connected, an experiment is carried out to measure the distance from the BLE tag to the smartphone. This study only measures the distance from the BLE tag to the smartphone.The research conducted by Sugandh Memon[12]does as Ankush did, but the difference is there are advertising intervals on beacons that are tested. The interval value used are 100ms, 500ms and 1000ms. 100% accuracy were obtained for 100ms and 500ms intervals, while 94% accuracy obtained for 1000ms interval.The research conducted by Quang Huy Nguyen [8]took an approach of indoor positioning system thatoptimized by using BLE to detect the location of smart devices in a room (Static device). The first stage of the experiment is the calibration stage to measure RSSI. The second step is cleaning the RSSI value by using three different filter types, namely the Gaussian filter, Feedback filter and Kalman filter, the best result is Kalman filter, therefore the result of cleaning Kalman filter is used for the next stage, which is estimating the position results with using three different methods, namely Trilateration-weighted Centroid, Least Square Estimation (LSE) and Improved LSE. The results with the highest accuracy are using Improved LSE with a difference of 0.2 - 0.35m with the real position. The difference obtained in this study is still very large.The research conducted by GokhanŞengül(Karakaya & Sengul, 2017)using machine learning technique and classification of locations with a size of 1x1 meters. The algorithm used in this study is supervised learning, namely K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm (kNN) and Discriminant analysis classifier (Dac). The first experiment was carried out only by using 1 BLE to find out whether by increasing the number of BLE the results would be better. The next experiment used 2 BLE and the results of each algorithm, namely kNN and Dac are both good, which is above 90% and these two algorithms can be used for indoor positioning. The disadvantage of this research is that the location classification will be better if the results that appear are in the form of x and y coordinates.Research conducted by Jes´usLov´on-Melgarejo[13]uses kNN machine learning techniques and Support Vector Machine (SVM) in conducting indoor positioning systems, the level of Tx in BLE is set, 0x06, 0x07 and 0x08. The results obtained are pretty good is to use the kNN technique at Tx0x06. This research also uses location classification.Some studies had proposed indoor positioning system with the use of machine learning technique, but the machine learning technique used is only for location classification. In this study we use machine learning technique as a regression to predict user location.
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Fuzzy Based Indoor Navigation System for Physically Disabled

Fuzzy Based Indoor Navigation System for Physically Disabled

Autonomous navigation of the wheelchair in an uncertain situation is difficult task. To discover the optimal path for the navigation, various methodologies like Road map building, artificial field potential, fuzzy logic controller, neural networks, genetic algorithms have been proposed based on both classical and reactive method [3]. They present a free intelligent navigation FIN algorithm which has two main stages. The first stage is the sub-fuzzy set model uses the proper fuzzy set to find the shortest distance. The second stage generates the navigation of the vehicle according to the output of first stage.IR sensor and ultrasonic sensors are used for the obstacle detection and distance measure from the vehicle and obstacle, this measurement is used to find the shortest distance from the obstacle and take desired decision to reach target. The curve fitting method is used to create a map of unknown environment based on sensed data. Fuzzy sensor fusion and curve approximation. The ultrasonic sensor and infrared sensor are used to discover the unknown environment [4].
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Security Risks in Bluetooth Devices

Security Risks in Bluetooth Devices

Bluetooth is a very nice technology but the security issue has to be taken into serious consideration. Risks are inherent to any wireless technology. The most significant risk in the wireless technology is that the underlying communication medium is open to everybody, including authentic users as well as the intruders. Bluetooth used short-range radio which is very vulnerable. For instance, if the intruders had the frequency to connect to your PC, they can use their own Bluetooth technology to monitor and mouse to get access. So they can have all information in your PC. And if the attacker’s headsets connected to your mobile phone by hacking the frequency, you will never know somebody bugged your phone and everything will be unsafe. Therefore we need to put extra efforts in security section to make sure the technology is safe for the users. The Bluetooth technology needs to sort out the following specific threats
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Micro Hi-Fi System OWNER S MANUAL. Please read this manual carefully before operating your set and retain it for future reference.

Micro Hi-Fi System OWNER S MANUAL. Please read this manual carefully before operating your set and retain it for future reference.

2. Operate the Bluetooth device and perform the pairing operation. When searching for this unit with the Bluetooth device, a list of the devices found may appear in the Bluetooth device display depending on the type of Bluetooth device.Your unit dispalys as “LG MICRO(XX:XX)”. XX:XX means the last four digits of BT address. For example, if your unit has a BT address such as 9C:02:98:4A:F7:08, you will see “LG MICRO (F7:08)” on your Bluetooth device.

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Bluetooth based advertisement system

Bluetooth based advertisement system

The Central Server includes a file server to deal with file requests from the APs. On startup, the file servercon figures itself using an XML file. When it’s running, it waits for an AP connection request on the default serverport, defined as 8060. As soon as a connection request is received, a new server process is spawned to attend it, leaving the main process to continue waiting for new requests. That process receives the AP message and checks if it corresponds with a standard Bluetooth request message or if, other wise, it must be ignored. If everything is correct, the process can obtain the requested file’s name and when was the last modification of that file (in case the AP had a copy in cache). When all that information is gathered, the server process checks if that file exists in the central server repository. If no such file is found in the server, a message reporting ”File not found” is sent back to the AP for it to continue working normally, without sending that file. If that file is in the server, the process verifies whether that file is newer than the one in the AP by looking into the last modification dates. In case no updating is necessary, a message containing ”File not updated” is transmitted to the client AP, informing that the file kept by the latter is suitable to be sent, avoiding unnecessary traffic. However, if the file in the AP is older or the AP does not have such file in cache, a message holding the new file will be dispatched and kept in the AP’s cache for future transactions.
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Vol 3, No 8 (2015)

Vol 3, No 8 (2015)

Abstract — Disruption-tolerant networking has gained currency in the United States due to support from DARPA, which has funded many DTN projects. Disruption may occur because of the limits of wireless radio range, sparsity of mobile nodes, energy resources, attack, and noise. The delay-tolerant- network (DTN) model is becoming a viable communication alternative to the traditional infrastructural model for modern mobile consumer electronics equipped with short-range communication technologies such as Bluetooth, NFC, and Wi-Fi Direct. Proximity malware is a class of malware that exploits the opportunistic contacts and distributed nature of DTNs for propagation. Behavioral characterization of malware is an effective alternative to pattern matching in detecting malware, especially when dealing with polymorphic or obfuscated malware. In this paper, we first propose a general behavioral characterization of proximity malware which based on Naive Bayesian model, which has been successfully applied in non-DTN settings such as filtering email spams and detecting bonnets. We identify two unique challenges for extending Bayesian malware detection to DTNs (“insufficient evidence vs. evidence collection risk” and “filtering false evidence sequentially and distributedly”), and propose a simple yet effective method, look-ahead, to address the challenges. Furthermore, we propose two extensions to look-ahead, dogmatic filtering and adaptive look- ahead, to address the challenge of “malicious nodes sharing false evidence”. Real mobile network traces are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
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PERSONAL AUDIO SYSTEM

PERSONAL AUDIO SYSTEM

mean that an electronic accessory has been designed to connect specifically to iPod or iPhone, respectively, and has been certified by the developer to meet Apple performance standards. Apple is not responsible for the operation of this device or its compliance with safety and regulatory standards. Please note that the use of this accessory with iPod or iPhone may affect wireless performance. • The Bluetooth ® word mark and logos are

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How To Use A 10\" Tablet With A Wireless Keyboard And Bluetooth On A Tablet With Bluetooth (For Android) And A Bluetooth Bluetooth Keyboard On A Blackberry Or Ipad (For Blackberry) With A Bluestore (

How To Use A 10\" Tablet With A Wireless Keyboard And Bluetooth On A Tablet With Bluetooth (For Android) And A Bluetooth Bluetooth Keyboard On A Blackberry Or Ipad (For Blackberry) With A Bluestore (

Note: To change your tablet’s USB connection options, you should go to Settings -> DEVICE -> Storage, and tap Menu icon at the upper right corner.. Then [r]

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Automatic Door Locking System for Disabled People

Automatic Door Locking System for Disabled People

This is ongoing project. This paper gives basic idea of how to control home security for smart home, especially for door key locks. It also provides a security and easy for Android phone users. This project based on Android platform which is Free Open Source Software. So the implementation rate is inexpensive and it is reasonable by a common person. With the wireless Bluetooth connection in microcontroller permits the system installation in more easy way. The system has been successfully designed andaimed to control the door condition using an Android Bluetooth-enabled phone and Bluetooth modules via Bluetooth HC-05. Tillnow we have successfully implemented hardware and one small application has been invented using MIT app inventor. Future scope of our project is very high. In this semester we will develop the android app using eclipse. We have discussed a simple prototype in this paper but in future it can be extended
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The security analysis and improvements of link connection mechanism for mobile phone bluetooth transmission

The security analysis and improvements of link connection mechanism for mobile phone bluetooth transmission

As it is written, users use shorter PIN code of any length can ensure safety in data transmission. Bluetooth users need not to worry about the insecurity since the PIN code is short. Under the control of the given time period, within 10 minutes, it is difficult for attackers to crack PIN1. Experiments show that it is about 45 minutes. For crack PIN2, the attack firstly needs to obtain accurate T, which depends on the system time and current time period. At this stage, attackers are very difficult to obtain the source PIN code of Bluetooth. By using MD5 algorithm, PIN2 is changed into PIN3. PIN3 consists of characters and digitals and its length is 16 bytes. Testing and experiments show that it is impossible for attackers to crack the source PIN value even though they knew the MD5 algorithm clearly. This plan can defend the attack on PIN code and improve the link layer safety of mobile phone network.
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VAS 5054A User Manual. VAS 5054A Remote Diagnosis Head. User Manual, VAS 5054A.

VAS 5054A User Manual. VAS 5054A Remote Diagnosis Head. User Manual, VAS 5054A.

To communicate with the VAS 5054A, the application PC must have a Bluetooth adapter installed. Some application PCs (e.g. modern notebooks) feature a built-in Bluetooth interface. If your PC does not have Bluetooth, you need to install a Bluetooth adapter or Bluetooth PC card. In that case, you can order the VAS 5054A together with a suitable Bluetooth USB adapter (VAS5054/2). The following description of how to configure the Bluetooth software refers to this adapter.

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SAM: Bluetooth Controlled Security Alarm System

SAM: Bluetooth Controlled Security Alarm System

Security is one of the primary concerns every day. Most of the existing IoT based home automation system, controls fan, light, door, etc. In this work, a Bluetooth controlled home security alarm system, SAM, has been proposed which makes use of an Arduino Uno, Bluetooth module, Bluetooth SPP Manager, and a buzzer. In this work, an added feature has been added which alarms the outdoor human about the status of the home lock and the indoor human about the status of the door. It also involves remote door locking in case someone forgets to lock the door. The message will be displayed in the phone. In existing Bluetooth based home automation system [1], the home appliances are connected to the Arduino UNO board at input output ports using relay. The program of Arduino UNO board is based on high level interactive C language of microcontrollers; the connection is made via Bluetooth. The password protection is provided so only authorized user is allowed to access the appliances. The Bluetooth connection is established between Arduino UNO board and phone for wireless communication. In this system the python script is employed and it will install on any of the Symbian OS surroundings, it is portable. One circuit is meant and enforced for receiving the feedback from the phone, that indicate the standing of the device.
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Grandstream Networks, Inc.

Grandstream Networks, Inc.

Bluetooth is a proprietary, open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks with high level of security. The GXV3275 supports Bluetooth Class 2, version 4.0 + EDR. Users could use Bluetooth to transfer files, share contact information with other Bluetooth portable devices, use Bluetooth headset for making calls, switch calls to the GXV3275 from mobile devices using Bluetooth hands-free profile, and listen to media (music or other audio output) from the GXV3275.
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TECHNOLOGIE BLUETOOTH

TECHNOLOGIE BLUETOOTH

Tones generated by the hands-free telephony system linked to the mobile phone for the control of vocal servers, such as the operator's voice mail.. Pairing process: for more information,[r]

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