Body work is work that focuses directly on the bodies of others: assessing, diagnosing, handling, treating, manipulating, and monitoring bodies, that thus become the object of the worker’s labour. It is a component part of a wide range of occupations. It is a central part of health care, through the work of doctors, nurses, dentists, hygienists, paramedics and physiotherapists. It is a fundamental part of social care, particularly for older people in the form of personal care and the work of care assistants (Twigg 2000a). Body work is also a central theme in alternative medicine (Sointu 2006). It is at the heart of the body pleasing, body pampering trades such as hairdressing, beauty work, massage, and tattooing (Black 2004, Sweetman 1999), and it extends to other, more stigmatised occupations, such as sex workers (Sanders 2004, Brents, Jackson and Hausbeck 2010) and undertakers (Howarth 1996). The contexts within which these practitioners operate, the knowledge systems they draw on, and the status hierarchies in which they are embedded, vary greatly; however, as we have argued elsewhere (Twigg 2000b, 2006, Wolkowitz 2002, 2006), there are certain commonalities that can be traced across these contexts that make the concept of body work sociologically useful.
but those who are not participate any sports they are not conscious to their health as a result they suffer many health problem, diabetes. Obesity, heart and respiration, mental health. Sports is such a programme which does not require more time only some time is morning and evening is sufficient to make his body. Healthy and fit sports is such a programme who maintain our physical and mental health and keeps all the parts of the body active sports activity helps increasing capacity of heart, respiration rate, and nervous system.
Body condition scoring methods have been developed for horses, cows, sheep, goats, and chickens. They are used for evaluating the adequacy of previous feed supply, determining future feed requirements, assessing the health status of individual animals, and establishing the condition of animals during routine animal management. Body condition scoring needs to be approached in a systematic manner. Systems have been developed based on an index of either 1 to 9, or 1 to 5. In each case a score of 1 is used to describe animals that are extremely emaciated, and the maximum score of 5 or 9 describes animals that are very fat or obese.
Florence Maybrick, who spent 15 years in prison for the murder of her husband, recalled in her memoir that in separate confinement, ‘all individuality, all friendship, all things that make human beings attractive to one another are absent’. She described how women would shriek loudly, tear their clothes and smash their cell windows when kept in such a condition. 22 Similarly, Susan Willis Fletcher, who had been imprisoned in Westminster Prison in the early 1880s, described spending 23 hours a day in a tomb-like cell as an experience that was, ‘bad for the health of the body, worse for the health of the mind’. 23 However, a report made by Rendle in 1854 illuminated the contradictions in beliefs about the effects of separate confinement upon women. He claimed the system would not prove injurious to prisoners in mind or body as they would have contact with the matron and the chaplain, have exercise and attend chapel. Yet he ordered the re- moval of a woman from the separate cells to be placed in association as she was restless and constantly talking to herself. 24 Similarly, in 1858, he found that poor conduct was often attributable to a need for association. Brixton already had three large cells that each accommodated up to three women who required this greater association. He rec- ommended building four more. 25
The strength of appearance-related motives to depilate visible leg, bikini-line and underarm hair are reflected in findings from both qualitative and quantitative studies, often alongside evidence of the powerful social pressures women experience to conform to the hairless body ideal. Body hair on women has become an elicitor of shame and self-consciousness; those who choose not to depilate are typically subject to ridicule and abuse by comments that question their femininity, sexuality, hygiene and morality, and assume aggressiveness, animalistic traits, poor education, or mental health issues (Terry and Braun, 2013). This form of ‘social policing’ (Terry and Braun, 2013) is often executed by significant others and loved ones. In a US study by Fahs and Delgado (2011), female students who did not to remove their body hair for 12 weeks regularly received comments from mothers, sisters and partners, who let them know of the undesirability of their ‘gross’ hairy bodies and their ‘betrayal of appropriate femininity and sexuality norms’.
In this alternate ontology, ill-health and health are located beyond the physical body of biomedicine, within the network of relations that sociology studies. ‘Health’ is the body’s capacity to affect and be affected, to form new relations, and thus to resist forces of territorialisation that limit these capacities. The ‘health’ of a body is the outcome of biological capabilities and cultural mind-sets, alliances with friends or health workers, struggles for control over treatment or conditions of living. It is neither an absolute (defined by whatever discipline) to be aspired towards, nor an idealised outcome of ‘mind-over- matter’. It is a process of becoming, of rallying capacities, resisting physical or social territorialisation, and experimenting with what is, and what might become. Health sociology can pull apart, intellectually and in practice, the ill-health assemblages that affect the material lives of people and the public health of nations.
Introduction: A low body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased mortality and low health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. The Asia-Pacific classification of BMI has a lower cutoff for overweight and obese categories compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The present study assessed patients with COPD among different BMI categories according to two BMI classification systems: WHO and Asia-Pacific. Patients and methods: Patients with COPD aged 40 years or older from the Korean COPD Subtype Study cohort were selected for evaluation. We enrolled 1,462 patients. Medical history including age, sex, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ-C), the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) were evaluated. Patients were categorized into different BMI groups according to the two BMI classification systems.
Only articles published in peer-reviewed journals of the mentioned databases without limitations on the publica- tion date were included in this review. Studies were ana- lyzed without restrictions regarding the time of follow-up or intervention. Only studies that analyzed hu- man subjects without limiting their sex, age or physical condition were taken into account. The participants of these studies could have a good health status or suffer from a disease for which WB-EMS was applied as a pos- sible treatment; afterwards, an analysis of the effect of its application on the symptoms of this disease was per- formed. In addition, the studies included in this review should apply whole-body electrical stimulation in the lower and upper limbs simultaneously as an intervention in at least one group of the sample population. Random- ized and nonrandomized clinical trials with control or other equivalent comparison group (control group (CG) or comparison groups formed by subjects who had a dif- ferent treatment or groups that did not perform any type of physical activity) were included (Table 1).
F indings reported in this chapter suggest that adverse effects on women’s reproductive health can be added to the list of obesity-related problems. Some reproductive risks are well-known, for example, in relation to hypertension in pregnancy while others are less so. Few previous studies have been able to investigate the effects of both childhood and adulthood BMI on reproductive problem s since they lack data on heights and weights during this critical period. Some of the inconsistencies in the literature arise from the measurement (§3.1) and analysis of body mass. A growth spurt occurs ju st prior to m enarche with taller and heavier children having an earlier m enarche and this m ay distort w eight-for-height measurem ent around puberty. Thus, it was preferable to use heights and weights at age 7 in the analyses, rather than at other ages. Three analytical strategies were used here, producing consistent results and thereby em phasising the reliability of the findings. Some studies suggest that the distribution of body fat in women may have more im pact on m enstrual abnorm alities and fertility ^ than obesity, but such data were not available in the cohort study.
The relationship between body height and body weight has been described by using various terms. Notable among them is the body mass index, body surface area, body shape index and body surface index. In clinical setting the first descriptive parameter is the BMI scale, which provides information about whether an individual body weight is proportionate to the body height. Since the development of BMI, two other body parameters have been developed in an attempt to determine the relationship between body height and weight. These are the body surface area (BSA) and body surface index (BSI). Generally, these body parameters are described as clinical health indicators that described how healthy an individual body response to the other internal organs. The aim of the study is to discuss the use of BSI as a better clinical health indicator for preclinical assessment of body-organ/tissue relationship. Hence organ health condition as against other body composition. In addition the study is `also to determine the best body parameter the best predict other parameters for clinical application. The model parameters are presented as; modeled height and weight; modelled BSI and BSA, BSI and BMI and modeled BSA and BMI. The models are presented as clinical application software for comfortable working process and designed as GUI and CAD for use in clinical application.
Abstract: Nowadays, remote patient health monitoring using wireless technology plays very vigorous role in a society. Wireless technology helps monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature, heart rate, respiration, blood pressure and ECG. The main aim of this paper is to propose a wireless sensor network system in which both heart rate and body temperature ofmultiplepatients can monitor on PC at the same time via RF network. The proposed prototype system includes two sensor nodes and receiver node (base station). The sensor nodes are able to transm it data to receiver using wireless nRF transceiver module.The nRF transceiver module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to PC and a graphical user interface (GUI) is developed to display the measured data and save to database. This system can provide very cheaper, easier, and quick respondent history of patient.
Obesity can have serious adverse health consequences including early death andheart disease . Therefore, with almost 70 % of American adults at an unhealthy body mass index , interventions to support healthy eating, exercise, and weight loss have become increas- ingly commonplace. Previous interventions addressing obesity have primarily focused on encouraging health- related behavioral changes such as to diet or physical activity among participants, without taking into account other factors that may be contributing to the problem [3–7]. Yet, a variety of other factors are known to affect obesity. The Social Ecological Model, which emphasizes the relationships among multiple factors affecting health, can be applied to the study of obesity . Studies have reported associations between demographic factors such as education, relationship status, and socioeconomic sta- tus and obesity [9–11]. Work-related factors such as job stress, long working hours, and shift work have also been associated with obesity [12–14]. Demographic or work-related factors can affect obesity through many pathways from directly influencing physiology to influ- encing diet or physical activity . For example, chronic exposure to stress at work can result in neuro- endocrine dysregulation , and may also lead to un- healthy behaviors .
It should be stressed that in some way ABSI agrees with the WHO recommendation concerning waist circumfer- ence inclusion into health risk evaluation . Similarly, other authors have suggested that both BMI and WC con- tribute to the prediction of body adiposity in white men and women . The importance of WC measurements in diagnosis of health risk has been suggested by many authors since it has been postulated that WC provides in- direct information about visceral fat accumulation [39,40]. At present it is well documented that visceral fat due to its location and metabolic characteristics contributes to distorted metabolism to a much greater extent than subcutaneous fat [41,42].
The concept of a healthy weight range is based on a measurement known as the Body Mass Index (BMI). It is one of the anthropometric indices of obesity, and has been suggested as an acceptable proxy to identify individuals at risk of cardiovascular diseases 1 . From the economic point of view, some researchers have taken BMI as an element of a life style which is closely related to health behaviours (Contoyannis and Jones, 2004). The interest in the relation between the components of socio-economic status (SES) and BMI has been renewed within the recent years. Body mass and the prevalence of obesity have been shown to be inversely associated with SES in the United States and other industrialized countries (Sobal and Stunkard, 1989; Jeffery and French, 1996; Montgomery, et al., 1998; Wardle, et al., 2004). However, for developing countries, the positive association between SES and BMI has been observed in many studies (de Vasconcellos, 1994; Delpeuch, et al., 1994; Reddy, 1998).
Two specific types of victim blaming are examined in this study: victim blaming for body weight and victim blaming for sexual assault. There has been much research examining attitudes of blame towards those who are overweight as well as towards rape victims; this study aims to bring these two research strands together to examine victim blaming attitudes towards overweight women who have been raped. Given that rape is a crime perpetrated primarily by men against women, many gender stereotypes come into play. Victim blaming attitudes towards rape victims can vary depending on several victim and situational characteristics. Rape victim blaming attitudes are strongly influenced by the woman’s sexual history (which is strongly tied to perceptions of her moral character) and her physical attractiveness. In today’s Western culture, a woman’s body weight is a primary component of her perceived physical attractiveness, sexual desirability, and her moral character. The following literature review will outline the stigmas of sexual activity and body weight that are imposed on women in Western culture, and describe how these cultural beliefs may influence victim blaming attitudes towards overweight rape victims. Specifically, these stigmas will be discussed in the context of health care focusing on how stigmatization by health care providers is a problem faced by many patients. Further, the negative effects that this stigmatization can have on the quality of care these patients receive will be considered.
Routine health check-up can help to find problems early for better treatment and cure. Balanced diet and proper lifestyle would keep our body running like a well-tuned engine, which would prevent diseases, suffering, morbidity and mortality in the long run. So, it became customary for everyone to have a yearly check-up even if someone is feeling perfectly well. The paper deals with routine physicals, screening tests, and good health tips for healthy & asymptomatic adults.
Our previous work demonstrated that obese patients were more likely to be satisfied with their patient care experi- ence than normal weight patients . The variables asso- ciated with the health status domain accounted for the largest modification in the BMI-patient satisfaction rela- tionship. This increased satisfaction would be consistent with an enhanced value placed on medical care by obese individuals. Berger, et al.  have proposed a model that has health status as the axis for the interface between an employee's well-being and an employer's demand for maximum workplace productivity. Employers' primary concerns about the employee are limited to the work- place. However, employees' investments into their jobs are balanced by the values placed on employment and non-work activities. Overweight and obese workers' emphasis on health may shift the investment of their efforts to seeking employment that offers health insur- ance.
The transfer of health research findings into practice has traditionally been slow and inefficient, taking up to 17 years for established evidence to reach patients [1, 2]. The result is substandard quality of care, health system inefficiencies, and ultimately reduced length and quality of life . In rec- ognition of this fundamental gap, dedicated efforts to in- crease use of research evidence to improve health have emerged . No unified term for these efforts exist , and appropriate nomenclature continues to evolve, be debated in the literature, and vary by geography . In Canada, “Knowledge Translation” (KT) is the term conventionally assigned to efforts aimed at moving health research into action. Its definition - the synthesis, dissemination, ex- change, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve health, health service delivery and the healthcare system  - is increasingly used worldwide [8, 9]. This definition recognizes that KT is complex and can span the entire research process from conceptualization to imple- mentation. KT is both a science and a practice, with an emerging body of evidence and theory.
In recent years, health risks are growing daily at high speed every day. Worldwide average births per year are 131.4 million and death rate is 55.3 million. Sources: population reference bureau & the world fact book. This is a big problem around the world. Hence, it is time to overcome such problems. The wireless sensor technology provides information on various wireless sensors by providing a change in diversity sensor technology. It receives data about the human body temperature (BT), blood pressure (BP), and heart beat (HB). This is undoubtedly more accessible via IOT platform through the Internet. The patient’s health history will be examined and analyzed at any time and by any doctor. Patient health information permanently stored on the server. This paper provides a health monitoring system that identifies human body conditions such as blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, ECG, respiration, accelerometer and more information on the IOT server via wireless network technology. In emergency situations, this system automatically sent a warning message/call to the patient's caregivers, to the hospital and also to the ambulance on if any strange data detected.
Human body metabolism is the result of complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental (primarily dietary and lifestyle) factors [156, 157]. Gut microbiota controls metabolism through physiologically im- portant biochemical circuits, which are parts of energy con- sumption, storage, and distribution . Gut microbiota plays key roles in controlling body metabolism, resistance to infections, and inflammation, as well as preventing autoimmunity disorders and cancer [18, 20, 38]. Brain-gut axis represents an important communica- tion system that regulates whole body energy balance. Information exchange between gut and brain is essen- tial for mammals to adapt to changing environments [38, 158]. EAA supplementation has been shown to improve the health span and metabolic health , by reducing body weight , increasing immune homeostasis [14, 15], promoting mitochondrial bio- genesis [2–4], preventing oxidative damage , and enhancing muscle protein synthesis and physical en- durance [2, 6–9].