NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, 23681
A low-speed experimental investigation has been conducted on a 5.8-percent scale Hybrid Wing Bodyconfiguration in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was designed with specific intention to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project goals of reduced noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This HWB configuration incorporates twin, podded nacelles mounted on the vehicle upper surface between twin vertical tails. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics were assessed through the acquisition of force and moment, surface pressure, and flow visualization data. Longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics were investigated on this multi-component model. The effects of a drooped leading edge, longitudinal flow-through nacelle location, vertical tail shape and position, elevon deflection, and rudder deflection have been studied. The basic configuration aerodynamics, as well as the effects of these configuration variations, are presented in this paper.
Our findings show that ratings of voice attractiveness can be used to predict significant variation in sexually dimorphic bodyconfiguration. Females with smaller WHRs and males with larger SHRs had voices that were consistently rated as more attractive. For females, WHR conveys information about hormonal profile, reproductive maturity, fecundity, and health (for a review, see Singh, 1993 ). For males, SHR correlates positively with beta- lipoproteins, hormones that are related to testosterone and muscle development ( Evans, 1972 ), and higher androgen levels in males may contribute to the development of sex-related differences in skeletal morphology and muscle mass at puberty ( Kasperk et al., 1997 ). Because the sex hormones that influence the emergence of sexually dimorphic configurations of SHR and WHR are the same as those that drive the emergence of sex differences in vocal
A comparison of the aerodynamic efficiency of the three configurations developed as part of this effort (i.e., HWB 777, 777F Advanced Tube-and-Wing, and HWB 757) along with other existing aircraft is depicted in Figure 33. Also depicted in this figure is the aerodynamic performance of the original HWB military airlifter (HWB Strategic) developed under the AFRL sponsored RCEE program. This figure highlights the large increase in aerodynamic efficiency possible with the hybrid wing bodyconfiguration. It also highlights a key finding from this study -- that the performance of the HWB is scalable from a relatively small 757 sized freighter to a large 777 sized freighter. This is a critical finding that answers one of the primary questions going into the study. Another important finding was that the HWB 777 achieved a cruise speed of M=0.85 or higher. This is significantly higher than the M=0.81 cruise speed achieved with the HWB strategic military airlifter. As described in a following section, this was enabled with increased inboard wing thickness.
Wake Evolution of Wing-BodyConfiguration from Roll-Up to Vortex Decay
Takashi Misaka ∗ , Frank Holz¨apfel † and Thomas Gerz †
Deutsches Zentrum f¨ur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), 82234 Oberpfaﬀenhofen, Germany The development of aircraft’s wake vortex from the roll-up until vortex decay is studied. An aircraft model and the surrounding flow field obtained from high-fidelity Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes simulation are swept through a ground-fixed computational domain to initialize the wake. After the wake initialization, the large-eddy simulation of the vortical wake is performed until vortex decay. The methodology is tested with the NACA0012 wing and applied to the DLR-F6 wing-body model. The roll-up process of the vorticity sheet from a main wing and the merge of an inboard wing vortex into the wingtip vortex are simulated. Vortex parameters such as the radially averaged circulation, vortex core radius and vortex separation are also evaluated. The growth rate of the vortex core radius is relatively small during the roll-up where the fine mesh resolution in the LES is required to capture the tiny vortex core in the RANS simulation.
Hybrid Wing BodyConfiguration Scaling Study Craig L. Nickol 1
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681
The Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration is a subsonic transport aircraft concept with the potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions compared to conventional concepts. Initial studies focused on very large applications with capacities for up to 800 passengers. More recent studies have focused on the large, twin-aisle class with passenger capacities in the 300-450 range. Efficiently scaling this concept down to the single aisle or smaller size is challenging due to geometric constraints, potentially reducing the desirability of this concept for applications in the 100-200 passenger capacity range or less. In order to quantify this scaling challenge, five advanced conventional (tube-and-wing layout) concepts were developed, along with equivalent (payload/range/technology) HWB concepts, and their fuel burn performance compared. The comparison showed that the HWB concepts have fuel burn advantages over advanced tube-and-wing concepts in the larger payload/range classes (roughly 767-sized and larger). Although noise performance was not quantified in this study, the HWB concept has distinct noise advantages over the conventional tube-and-wing configuration due to the inherent noise shielding features of the HWB. NASA’s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project will continue to investigate advanced configurations, such as the HWB, due to their potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions.
Dino Roman 5
The Boeing Company, Huntington Beach, CA, 92647, USA
A computational study was performed for a Hybrid Wing Bodyconfiguration that was focused at transonic cruise performance conditions. In the absence of experimental data, two fully independent computational fluid dynamics analyses were conducted to add confidence to the estimated transonic performance predictions. The primary analysis was performed by Boeing with the structured overset-mesh code OVERFLOW. The secondary analysis was performed by NASA Langley Research Center with the unstructured-mesh code USM3D. Both analyses were performed at full-scale flight conditions and included three configurations customary to drag buildup and interference analysis: a powered complete configuration, the configuration with the nacelle/pylon removed, and the powered nacelle in isolation. The results in this paper are focused primarily on transonic performance up to cruise and through drag rise. Comparisons between the CFD results were very good despite some minor geometric differences in the two analyses.
As pointed out in  for another half wing-bodyconfiguration, the propagation process is a three- dimensional phenomenon. This can be seen in figure 14 from both the stream-wise and span-wise propagating waves affecting the dynamics of the shock motion and separation line. The propagating waves can thus generate a feedback mechanism, as proposed in  for the two-dimensional case, which must be then be extended to the three-dimensional situation. In a recent paper it was argued that the reason for the broadband-frequency nature of three-dimensional buffet (rather than distinct periodic shock motions) has to be sought in the three-dimensionality of the shock pattern. 21 Unlike the two-dimensional case, the stream- wise distance travelled by the acoustic waves before hitting the shock is not constant along the span of a three-dimensional wing. Thus, the buffet phenomenon is not characterised by perfectly periodic motions. These conclusions will be investigated further.
The analytic studies of the blended-wing-body concepts have utilized computational fluid dynamic (CFD) design tools developed to support the Integrated Wing Design Element of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology program, in- cluding an inverse design methodology coupled with a Navier Stokes flow solver and turbulence model. The design conditions selected for de- tailed study were for a Mach number of 0.85 and a mid-cruise lift coefficient of 0.45. To validate the applicability of the CFD codes to a configura- tion with such a thick center section (a chordwise maximum thickness ratio of over 17 percent) it was necessary to obtain experimental force and moment data and wing pressure distributions at high Reynolds numbers for comparison purposes. Since the design study on such a configuration was at an early stage and CFD design tool appli- cability and validation was the primary concern, representation of the propulsion system was not included so that the effort could be simplified. To this end a 0.017-scale model of a blended-wing- bodyconfiguration was designed and built for testing in the Langley Research Center’s National Transonic Facility, which, using cryogenic nitro- gen as a test medium, provides Reynolds numbers much greater than conventional wind tunnels.
Active flow separation control investigations were carried out for a 3D high-lift wing-bodyconfiguration under low speed atmospheric tunnel conditions. For a Mach number of M=0.2 and Reynolds number of Re=1.5x10 6 the experimental results confirm the concept for the pulsed blowing from the flap shoulder as a suitable tool for delaying or suppressing local flow separation with a remarkable global aerodynamic enhancement. The successful and unique experimental setup is a relevant subject for CFD analyses. The verification of the numerical investigations points out that large computational times are required for a consistent evaluation of the unsteady flow. It is highlighted that the URANS AFC simulations are feasible with the compressible solver DLR-TAU-Code. The numerical results are of acceptable agreement in comparison with the experimental findings and offer us viable details of the flow topologies. The changes for the aerodynamic coefficients over time do not show an extreme variation, e.g. maximum 5 lift counts for the lift coefficient when AFC is applied. The global lift enhancement is mainly triggered by increments in the main wing surface distribution as result of the improved circulation at the trailing edge flap. The flow patterns at different blowing momentum coefficients indicate that a further optimization of the energy consumption may be achieved. The inboard flap shows the local separation suppression for C µ ≈ 0.2%,
A direct coupling 10 of the inlet and full-annulus fan blades in the computational domain would give a more realistic simulation of the inlet-fan interaction, but the computational cost would be prohibitively large, especially for shape-design applications, in which more than tens of flow simulations are usually required. The body force approach 9,11-14 has been drawing attention as an alternative to simulating the coupling with full-annulus fan blades. This approach uses body force terms to model flow turning and loss due to rotor/stator blade rows. The body force terms are added as source terms in the flow equations for grid cells swept by blade rows. Body force coefficients or parameters need to be fitted to, or interpolated from, single-passage Navier-Stokes flow simulation results or experimental test data. The body force approach allows relatively accurate flow simulation of BLI inlet-fan interaction problems that consider blade force effects without actual full-annulus simulation of the rotor/stator blade rows.
Complex mounting hardware geometry, such as the 40’x80’ wind tunnel sting assembly shown in Fig. 37a, can result in unsteady, separated flow during a wind tunnel test. This unsteadiness can require computationally expensive, time accurate simulations, which may not actually influence the mean aerodynamics of the configuration of interest. Therefore, introducing simplifications to the geometry being simulated in order to eliminate unsteadiness in the flow solutions due to certain geometric features can greatly reduce computational expense without impacting the accuracy of the predicted mean aerodynamic quantities of the model. A good example of this was the modeling of the HWB with the 40’x80’ model support system, which included a large diameter vertical post as shown in Fig. 37a. CFD modeling of this original support post configuration (Fig. 37a) with FUN3D showed a low-level unsteadiness in the lift coefficient at 12 degrees angle of attack as shown by the solid blue lines of Figs. 38 and 39. Preliminary assessment indicated a large unsteady wake behind the post.
188.8.131.52 Establishing Baselines
Once the CM program exists on paper, it must be determined just what configurations it will control. The second major step of implementing effective CM is identifying what items, assemblies, code, data, documents, systems, etc. will fall under configuration control. With the configuration items identified, the baseline configuration must be identified for each item. For items that already exist it may prove to be nothing more than examining or reviewing, and then documenting. For those items that have not been developed yet, their configuration exists in the require- ments database or in the project plans. Until they come into physical or software reality, changes to their configura- tion will consist only of changes to the requirements or plans.
searches the i-config database and creates and modifies the standard CAD solid models and draft files from the master shelf. If no matches are found, the i-config engine creates a new job folder on the production shelf with new part numbers for both the model and draft files. If matches are found, then the engine sets up links within the database so redundant model files are not created; however, a new draft file is always produced because the meta-data information in the title block, which contains the job number and customer name, is always unique. The engine also has an interface to the CAD application via API’s (Application Protocol Interface). This allows the engine to modify the control and local variables in the CAD models and assemble the appropriate files based on the configuration selected in the user interface. If CAM files exist in the job directory for the matched model file, then the engine finds and records this information in the database and displays it on the final screen.
A Default PBX Integration template is also provided for those instances when your PBX is not in the pre- defined list. This Default integration uses the most common generic codes for low level board controls. If you choose the Default template during port creation, it is highly recommended that you later open and modify the default template to exactly match your manufacturer’s specifications. You can save the Default template under a new name and then edit the port configuration to change the PBX Integration selection to the new name.
XMP-TMC2500 Configuration. Opens a window for configuring the XMP- TMC2500 readers which are connected to the selected door control unit. For further details, please read the documentation of XMP-TMC2500 configuration. Display/Change Attributes. After clicking the button, a window for configuring attributes of the data points will be displayed. Please see details below. Define Custom Key 1 that is used for the encrypted communication between XMP-ACL32 system and the door control unit.
The default registration expiry time on this device is 3600 seconds. You may have to reduce that if you lose registration. Unfortunately, that can not be set on the web interface. You need to load a provisioning configuration file from a web or FTP server (details here, page 132 for file format). The parm is REG_EXPIRE_TIME_[n]="mmm", where n is line number, and mmm is the registration interval. e.g. REG_EXPIRE_TIME_1="180" to set line 1 registration time to 180 seconds. A symptom of this problem is that the telephone web interface shows that the line is registered, but the GTI control panel indicates that it is not registered. This device supports multiple provisioning files in a hierarchy.
Because the hybrid service is a managed service, Websense is responsible for managing system capacity. For this reason, the route of your email may occasionally alter within the hybrid service. To enable this to happen seamlessly without requiring you to make further changes, you must allow SMTP access requests from all the IP ranges listed on the Network Access page to Email Security Gateway port 25. Click Next to continue with hybrid configuration.
3. Note: Firewall rules that conflict with the phone adapters Internet ports will cause a disruption in service. Only if you configured specific firewall rules and are familiar with the configuration, please allow the following ports for the phone adapter; otherwise your router does not need extra firewall rules.