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Relationship between Body Image Concern, Difficulty in Emotion Regulation, and Sexual Satisfaction of Healthy with Mastectomy Women

Relationship between Body Image Concern, Difficulty in Emotion Regulation, and Sexual Satisfaction of Healthy with Mastectomy Women

Fifty afflicted women to mastectomy who were operated and fifty healthy women that were their companion was selected by convenience sampling method, the objective of this study for the members of these 2 groups was comparing body image concerns, difficulty in emotion regulation, and sexual satisfaction between healthy and mastectomy women in Isfahan in 2016. The methodology was causal-comparative. People filled difficulty in emotion regulation scale (Gratz and Roemer, 2004) with 0.86 reliability, the body image concern inventory (Littleton, 2005) with 0.89 reliability, and Larson sexual satisfaction questionnaire (Larson et al., 1998) with 0.93 reliability. SPSS 22 software, descriptive statistical method (mean, standard deviation), and inferential statistical method (multivariate variance analysis) were used to analyze the hypotheses. Results showed that there is not significant difference between difficulty in emotion regulation and its dimensions (emotional rejection, difficulty in carrying out purposeful behavior, impulse control difficulty, lack of emotional awareness, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, lack of emotional clarity, and total difficulty) in mastectomy and healthy women. (P>0.05). There is not significant difference between body image concern in mastectomy and healthy women. (P>0.05). In addition, results showed that there is significant difference between sexual satisfaction in mastectomy and healthy women. (P<0.05)
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The Relationships between Selected Psychological Antecedents and Body Image Concern among Women Seeking Plastic surgery

The Relationships between Selected Psychological Antecedents and Body Image Concern among Women Seeking Plastic surgery

Chen, Gao and Jackson (2007) reported that body image concern or body dissatisfaction is associated with emotional distress, low sense of self- value and eating disorder. Indeed, in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in evaluating the links between bodily experiences and a number of psycho- social risks and psychiatric disorders such as suicide, personality disorders and obsessive compulsive symptoms (Anderson, Carter, McIntosh, Joyce and Bulik, 2002; Carter, Blackmore, Sutander and Woodside, 2004; Carrol, Scahill and Phillips, 2006). Many factors have been implicated in the onset and maintenance of body image problems, including biological factors (e.g., perfectionism, negative affect, low self- esteem) and sociocultural factors (e.g., family, peers and media) (Littelton and Ollenclick, 2003).
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Development of a Body Image Concern Scale using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in Chinese university students

Development of a Body Image Concern Scale using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in Chinese university students

Results: Six latent factors, namely the Social Avoidance, Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, Perceived Distress/Discrimination, Defect Hiding, and Embarrassment in Public, were identified. The factors and their respective items have composed a 24-item questionnaire named as the Body Image Concern Scale. Each factor earned a satisfactory internal reliability, and the intercorrelations between these factors were in a median level. Women scored significantly higher than men did on the Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, and Defect Hiding.
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Iranian adolescents with Scoliosis: Effects of Brace Treatment on Self-esteem, Body Image Concern and Quality of Life

Iranian adolescents with Scoliosis: Effects of Brace Treatment on Self-esteem, Body Image Concern and Quality of Life

Most of the support had come from family members, friends and peers. In a study in South Africa it was found that patients suffering from scoliosis who were categorized as "conforming" (i.e. patients who followed treatment instructions) reported significantly higher quality of life than their "non-conforming" counterparts (84 vs. 64.5 percent). "Conforming" children also scored higher on scales measuring wellbeing as well as social, emotional and physical functioning [19]. Most studies have clearly indicate that wearing the brace is usually not the treatment of choice and both parents and patients report that they conform because of fear or because they wish to avoid more drastic measures of treatment such as surgery [20] and that no matter what kind of brace is prescribed, most patients report discomfort and irritability and thus lower quality of life as a result of treatment [21]. In Iran, several studies have indicated adverse psychological effects associated with scoliosis in general [22] reporting increased depression, anxiety and aggressiveness in patients as well as lower quality of life and general psychological functioning in adolescents who had undergone surgery. However, psychological functioning associated with brace wear has not yet been systematically investigated in Iran. The aim of the present study was to compare quality of life (QoL), self-esteem and body image concern in adolescents diagnosed with scoliosis and normal adolescents. Further, to investigate the effects of wearing brace on these psychological indices.
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Body Image in Australian Adolescents: Exploring Functional and Aesthetic Body Image Across the Sporting Context

Body Image in Australian Adolescents: Exploring Functional and Aesthetic Body Image Across the Sporting Context

game of basketball among friends). In addition, general forms of physical activity may be undertaken for reasons that are different to those of sports activities. There is some evidence to suggest that appearance-related motivation for exercise are negatively related to body esteem and body satisfaction whereas functional motivations for exercise are positively related (Strelan, Mehaffey & Tiggemann, 2003). A common motivation to participate in general physical activity is for the improvement of appearance (Furnham, Badmin & Sneade, 2002), and, such activities have been associated with positive health/fitness evaluations and evaluations of appearance (Henry, Anshel & Michael, 2006), they may not highlight body functionality exclusively. There is also evidence that girls participating in team sports report a more positive body image than those participating in physical activity (Jaffe & Lutter, 1995), with non-sport physical activity participants reporting higher levels of body shame (Parsons and Betz, 2001). Indeed, fitness centre environments may also enhance objectification of the female body, since exercising in such environments has been associated with appearance anxiety, a drive for thinness (Slater & Tiggemann, 2010) and negative body esteem (Prichard & Tiggemann, 2008). In addition, where team sports participation has been associated with a sense of athletic competence, participation in physical activity rendered no such relation (Ference & Muth, 2004). As a result, when exploring the potential link between physical activity and body image, a distinction must be drawn between organised sports participation and involvement in general physical activity.
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Body image in patients with somatoform disorder

Body image in patients with somatoform disorder

the effects of treatment on body image (sensitivity to change) as well as the prognostic value of the DBIQ for treatment outcome in patients with SFD. Treat- ment for patients with SFD aims at goals such as re- ducing or coping with physical complaints, enhancing body acceptance, and ameliorating quality of life, all depending on individual situations and patient prefer- ences. With respect to these goals, vitality and body acceptance seem to be the most relevant subscales of the DBIQ, but the current study shows that domains of self-aggrandizement, physical contact, and sexual fulfilment should not be overlooked in the assess- ment, treatment and evaluation of patients with SFD. In addition to its potential diagnostic importance and use in treatment evaluation, measuring body image with the DBIQ may also be valuable in clinical practice to recognize body-related themes underlying symptom pres- entation [58] and to enhance communication between pa- tient and therapist about body-related experiences. Sexual fulfilment, for example, may be hampered by physical complaints [59] and is in fact, as the current study indi- cates, a prevalent problem for SFD patients. Because sexu- ality is a sensitive subject to discuss for patients as well as therapists, incorporating the domain of sexuality into a questionnaire may shed further light on possible problems with sexuality and enhance communication about this subject [60].
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Obesity and body image: An investigation of the causes of body dissatisfaction in obesity

Obesity and body image: An investigation of the causes of body dissatisfaction in obesity

Robinson, Bacon and O’Reilly (1993) examined ‘fat phobia’, referring to the ‘pathological fear of fatness often manifested as negative attitude and stereotypes about fat people’. They indicated that obese people are stereotyped as being ‘undisciplined, inactive, unappealing, having emotional and psychological problems’. Robinson et al requested 1135 participants (made up of college students, those attending a lecture on body image, psychotherapy clients with a low body image, and members of a weight loss group) to complete the Fat Phobia Scale. The participants were largely educated, interested in body image, women and had a professional job. Their studies suggest that respondents who were average or underweight, younger (less than 55 years), female, had more than just a high school education and non-medical professionals were more likely to have fat phobic attitudes.
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THE DYNAMIC BODY IMAGE AND THE MOVING BODY: A THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

THE DYNAMIC BODY IMAGE AND THE MOVING BODY: A THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

Schilder (1935/1978) on the other hand, was interested in body experience in the context of everyday life as well as illness. He identified the psychological feeling of constancy and stability associated with the body image and understood the failure of this experience through both neuroscientific and psychoanalytic ideas. In comparison, fifty years of structural-functional models of research have produced numerous hypothetical constructs that, as suggested in Chapter one, have implied to some authors that body image is a “sponge phrase” (Thompson, et al. 1999, p. 7) and “almost useless” (p. 10). Fisher (1990) presented an even more extreme view when proposing almost ten years earlier that “there is no such entity as The Body Image” (p. 18). In spite of this, the ideas described by Krueger (2002) presented in Chapter one, imply that a psychodynamic interpretation of the body image does have face validity. However, it is unclear under what assumptions the body image serves as a criterion in mainstream psychological research given the remarks of Thompson et al. (1999) and Fisher (1990) above. It is the opinion here that the assumptions of the logical positivism have created confusion in psychology about what body image is and have left researchers in the discipline largely silent on how body image is psychologically constructed. This in some respect reflects what Ussher (2000) identified with the hypothetico-deductive model. In her comments she noted that psychological researchers tend to ignore theory and interdisciplinary or philosophical ideas because logical positivist research methods prioritized by the discipline do not supply the conceptual tools needed to ascertain the significance of concepts reliant upon antecedent influences. It is thus pertinent to note that the failure of the structural-functional research in psychology to recognize the activity of apperception in Schilder’s theory stems from the failure to consider the indeterminacy of processes in body image construction and further the very dynamic characterizing those processes.
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Parent, Peer and Media Effect on the Perception of Body Image in Preadolescent Girls and Boys

Parent, Peer and Media Effect on the Perception of Body Image in Preadolescent Girls and Boys

This study surveyed girls and boys ages 12 to 14 years who live in Rize. Participants were chosen from Mehmet Akif Ersoy middle school. A total of 70 participant forms and 70 parent permission slips were collected during the four-week surveying period. Each participant was asked to fill out the Parents, Peers, and Media Influences on Body Image Survey. This survey was adapted from The Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire developed by McCabe and Ricciardelli in 2001.At the beginning of the surveying process students turned in their parental consent forms and were asked if they would still like to participate in the survey. After it was made clear that completing the survey was the student’s own decision and completely voluntary, child assent forms were passed out to participating students. Participants were instructed on how to complete assent forms and once completed, forms were collected. Students who chose to participate in the study were properly instructed on how to take the survey and their confidentiality guaranteed while doing so. Since there were four different weeks during the summer, the survey was administered four times. The Director obtained signed permission slips from parents at the beginning of each week Surveys were conducted once parental and participant consent forms were obtained each week. Participants were informed of the study purpose and requirements before filling out the surveys Each participant could choose whether she wanted to continue to participate in the study.
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Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

Young Chinese, Indian and European females living in Canada are more concerned about their weight. Indians have more positive body image in comparison to the Chi- nese, and negative body image as compared to European students (Kennedy, Temple- ton, Gandhi, & Gorzalka, 2004). University students in Delhi are of the opinion that there is a high correlation between negative body image and maladjustment. However, they also feel that self-esteem acts as a moderator between negative body image and maladjustment (Kapadia, 2009). In a comparative study on Indian and Caucasian students it was found that both the groups feel that for improving the body image necessary remedies are dieting, self induced vomiting and use of laxative and water tablets (Button, Reveley, & Palmer, 1998). In another cross culture study on Indian, Tibetan, French and American students no correlation was found between socio eco- nomics status, media and body image (Rubin, Gluck, Knoll, Lorence, & Geliebter, 2008).
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Influence Of Media On Body Image

Influence Of Media On Body Image

Media images affect males and females, and there is a significant difference between influences [32]. There are gender differences such that women exhibit greater actual v/s desired body weight discrepancy, body size dissatisfaction, and internalization of cultural appearance ideals [33] Russello S. investigated the impact of media exposure on self-esteem and body satisfaction in Men and Women (18 to 29 years). Results revealed that men were more satisfied with their bodies than women, and they internalized ideals less. Self-esteem and social comparison levels were similar for both men and women. In addition, exposure to physical- ideal advertisements did not appear to effect body satisfaction, self-esteem, or internalization. Also, the level of internalization increased as the level of social comparison increased [34].
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Body Image and Meta Worry as Mediators of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Body Image and Meta Worry as Mediators of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Types of schemas that characterize BDD: General threat (beliefs about probability and consequences of threats relevant to BDD), Personal vulnerability (beliefs about helplessness, inadequacy, lack of personal resources to cope), Intolerance of uncertainty (beliefs about the frequency, consequence, avoidance, and unacceptability of uncertain or ambiguous negative events). Beliefs about the uncontrollability and negative consequences of wor- ry lead to Type II worry, or meta-worry, in which the individual becomes focused on trying to suppress or con- trol worry and or the individual becomes focused on trying to mirror check, groom, or camouflage because of the associated rise in anxiety. Expanding theoretical conceptualizations of BDD to include the potential contri- bution of body image may also enhance understanding as to why this disorder manifests. It is clear from the li- terature that there exists a strong link between negative cognition and metacognition and BDD. While regulating negative cognition and metacognition explains one function of BDD, it does not seem to fully explain this dis- order. Negative body image and metaworry has been proposed as potential mechanisms for understanding why BDD may occur in the context of negative cognition and metacognition, but research has yet to empirically eva- luate the potential mediating effects of body image and meta-worry. The purpose of the current study was to test the theoretical notion that body image and meta-worry are mediators between negative cognition and metacog- nition and BDD (see Figure 1).
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Body Image in Australian Adolescents: Exploring Functional and Aesthetic Body Image Across the Sporting Context

Body Image in Australian Adolescents: Exploring Functional and Aesthetic Body Image Across the Sporting Context

activities. Overall, girls reported more experiences of physical competence and body objectification during sports compared to activities. Bodily experiences differed between aesthetic and non-aesthetic sport types; however, this difference varied when between- person and within-person analyses were conducted. Experiences of body objectification were positively related to aesthetic body values. Satisfaction in both the functional and aesthetic body was positively predicted by girls’ experiences of physical competence.

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AN EFFICIENT AND RELIABLE COMMUNICATION IN WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORK WITH THE CONCERN OF ENERGY HARVESTING

AN EFFICIENT AND RELIABLE COMMUNICATION IN WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORK WITH THE CONCERN OF ENERGY HARVESTING

proposed in [3]. The system consists of body sensors together with a more powerful device (body hub) that is equipped with VITRUVIUS software platform. This hub is capable of storing data and running services and applications; it controls the BASN and acts as a single access point. In our reference design, we use a smart phone. We regard VITRUVIUS as a platform on which (concurrent) BASN applications developed by third parties are dynamically installed and configured and to which sensors developed by third parties can be connected. The platform is self-contained and can connect to back end systems for the purpose of app installation, data storage and analysis, monitoring and control in back end applications. A modular and layered architecture of the platform is proposed that provides a loose coupling between the applications and the detailed characteristics (e.g. the communication protocol, sensor value representation) of the sensors. Loose coupling can be achieved by separating the architecture into layers, each of them compounding certain concerns. We have applied three functional layers: data and sensor concerns, service concerns and application concerns, as follows. The Sensor abstraction layer (SAL) is an interface between the sensors and the other modules in upper layers of the body hub. This layer allows the system to easily adapt and handle new sensors and their configurations. The layer contains sensor drivers that drive and configure a sensor (e.g. enable/disable sensors or set the sampling rate) to obtain data according to a request from the service or the application. The Service layer contains the downloaded services and the basic services of the platform. A central database is used for the purposes of data storage and sharing among system components. A service is a program that operates only on the data space defined by the user of which the local BASN storage (e.g. a database) is part of. A service typically operates in the background without a user interface. For example, a service derives heart rates from raw ECG signals, or it controls a sensor to obtain data. The Application layer contains the downloaded applications and the GUIs. An application combines the results of services to achieve its functionality. Several applications can share the same service. An application interfaces with the outside world, at least through a user interface but possibly also by communication with other parties (e.g. back ends) than the body hub. For example, an application that facilitates the user to monitor his daily health
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Becoming ourselves

Becoming ourselves

divergence in their approaches to the theme of self and body, and their interest in revealing the mechanism by which the self is constituted and transformed. Foucault aimed to elucidate the way in which cultural codes are imprinted on the individual’s body and how social structures, institutions, and regimes act upon the self. These can be modes of comportment, mood, attention, or perception which mediate between culture and knowledge, and the individual’s bodily actions and habits. Feldenkrais, however, dealt with the materiality of the human body, emphasizing movement and all related aspects, such as the nervous system, the structuration and geometry of the skeleton, the kinesthetic sense, the relationships between different parts of the body, and the principles of physical science and laws of motion. These two ostensibly different paths are complementary, and their synergy offers us a unique somatic-cultural perspective of the self and its transformation.
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Future directions for positive body image research

Future directions for positive body image research

women through adulthood (Tiggemann, 2011). There is evidence to suggest that women become less invested in their appearance and report lower levels of body surveillance as they age (e.g., Augustus-Horvath & Tylka, 2009; Tiggemann & Lacey, 2009), so perhaps the reduced importance of appearance by means of age-related changes that move women’s bodies away from appearance-ideals do not translate into body dissatisfaction. There are a number of developmental factors that impact women’s attitudes towards, experiences of, and conceptualization of their bodies. Factors like pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause all draw attention to the functionality of the body and may foster an appreciation of aspects beyond the appearance of the body. Women may develop an increased armoury of experiences that challenge dominant ideals of attractiveness, for example romantic partners’ preference for bodies that do not adhere to cultural ideals (Tiggemann, 2011), and this could foster an appreciation of diversity in beauty. Clearly, there is huge variability in women’s life experiences and their responses to these experiences. Women have a complex and contradictory relationships with their bodies as they age, for example they are critical of ageism and appearance discrimination, yet at the same time still value appearance and feel the need to conform to appearance standards (Hurd, 2000; Hurd Clarke & Griffin, 2008).
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Body Image and Dieting Behavior in Cystic Fibrosis

Body Image and Dieting Behavior in Cystic Fibrosis

The finding that an important minority of children with CF selected an ideal body size smaller than their own or were content to stay the same size has clinical implications. These children may not be motivated to eat the high-energy diet recommended. Clinicians need to be aware of the possibility that medical tar- gets for growth for individuals may not be in con- cordance with their desires and determining the child’s point of view may be helpful in identifying an appropriate intervention for the individual. The find- ing that body dissatisfaction is an independent pre- dictor of nutritional status in controls and in girls with CF suggests that children’s own concepts of their body size is important. Encouraging positive body esteem and self-esteem and focusing attention away from weight gain and more toward achieving optimum growth may be a useful strategy for clini- cians working with this population.
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BODY-IMAGE IN ADOLESCENTS: A PSYCHIATRIC CONCEPT FOR THE PEDIATRICIAN

BODY-IMAGE IN ADOLESCENTS: A PSYCHIATRIC CONCEPT FOR THE PEDIATRICIAN

image. Tile structure of ilis body-image. was determined by his evaluation of his[r]

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Males eating disorders: importance of body image distortion

Males eating disorders: importance of body image distortion

The selected subjects for this work were hosted at the Convitto Unificato INP- DAP of Spoleto (PG, Italy), in May 2006 (n = 54). The sample was investigated using four self-reported questionnaires: a socio-demographic record purposely prepared by the authors, the EDI-2 (Eat- ing Disorders Inventory; Garner et al., 2000), the BUT (Body Uneasiness Test; Cuzzolaro et al., 2000), and the AHRB (Adolescent Health Risk Behaviours; McCabe and Ricciardelli, 2006). Positive results on the “Drive for Thinness” (IM) subscale and on the “Bulimia” (BU) subscales of the EDI-2 would indicate a risk condition for eating disorders. Ac- cordingly, the sample was divided into four main groups: IM or BU positive sub- jects, IM positive subjects, BU positive subjects, IM and BU negative subjects. The subjects resulting negative at both of the subscales represented our control group, the other ones were compared to it individually. We used the Anova to detect differences between people at risk for ED and those not at risk. Results
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Body image in paediatric burns: a review

Body image in paediatric burns: a review

Primary socialisation begins early in childhood, and a sense of recognition of self is said to develop by the age of two [20]. Once aware of their body appearance, children manipulate parents to receive praise and acceptance [21]. This need for approval widens upon starting school, devel- oping a need for social acceptance [21]. Cash accordingly postulates that body image is a learned behaviour [22]. Smolak suggests that pre-school children largely focus on appearance in the context of the toys they use [20]. Play- ing with Barbie dolls, hair and clothing instils cultural values and introduces perceptions of body ideal and pres- entation. The desire of little children to be bigger indicates that as children grow and socialize, they develop compari- sons with other children, particularly concerning appear- ance [20]. Shape, particularly muscle and weight become increasingly prominent considerations by the age of 6 [20]. Indeed, Smolak reported that 40–50% of junior school children aged 6–12 years old demonstrated dissat- isfaction with some element of their body size or shape [20]. Adolescence marks the transition from childhood to adulthood and carries with it associated physical and so- cial changes [23]. Factors such as gender, fashion, peer group relations, educational and familial influences and evolving socialization blend with physical changes such as hair growth, acne, breast development and menstruation to situate even non-burned children into unfamiliar terri- tory with vulnerable body images.
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