ABSTRACT: Steel-Concrete-Steel (SCS) sandwich structures are composed of two steel face plates and one concrete core. SCS as slab has more advantages than reinforced concrete (RC) slab that their most important are impermeability and higher resistance against impact loads. SCS sandwich slabs are widely employed in civil engineering and onshore and offshore structures due to their better performance and advantages. Mechanical connectors are used for better performance of the slabs. In the present research, studbolt connectors are used together with nuts. The core is composed of ordinary concrete. Nine test samples of SCS slabs are made with studbolt connectors and are put under concentrated load at the center of the slab. The observed failure modes included concrete core crack, lower plate slip and upper plate buckling, and studbolt separation. To study load vs. displacement at the center and load vs. interlayer slip behavior, stud bolts diameter and concrete thickness were varied. The results of the tests were compared with the results of sandwich slabs with J-hook connectors and a better behavior was observed. One theoretical model was used to predict the bending strength of the slabs. The results of the theoretical model were consistent with test results.
IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THESE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS BE THOROUGHLY STUD- IED BEFORE USING THIS FIREARM TO ASSURE PROPER AND SAFE GUN HAN- DLING. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS OR FAILURE TO OBEY ANY SAFETY WARNING MAY RESULT IN INJURY TO YOURSELF OR OTHERS, OR CAUSE DAMAGE TO YOUR GUN. As a gun owner, you accept a set of demanding responsibilities. How seriously you take these respon- sibilities can be the difference between life and death. There is no excuse for careless or abusive handling of any firearm. At all times handle your rifle and any other firearm with intense respect for its power and potential danger.
Initially the strains of steel plates are in elastic range. If compression force is continuous increased to the inelastic range, the headed shear studs are subjected to take tension force by the separation between steel plates and concrete. In other word, the steel plates between the top and bottom studs push out to separate from concrete. At this moment, the buckling strength of steel plates and the tension force of studbolt can be expressed as follows:
To this end, the results of the tests on bi-steel samples performed by M.Xie et al.  are compared with those of the tests performed in the present study. In table 3, samples are presented whose geometric parameters are more similar to the samples in M.Xie et al. study. A huge difference in these samples is the higher strength of studbolt (865 Mpa) than bi-steel shear connectors, which is almost 1.5 times more than the ultimate strength of bi-steel shear connectors. This large difference did not ameliorate SCS behavior with studbolt shear connectors. However, as a result of weakness of concrete strength, it led to brittle failure and separation of concrete before stud bolts reach the ultimate strength.
mens with 90° and 120° thread angles had higher fracture strength than those with 60°. The t test results showed that values for any pair of thread angles were signifi cantly dif- ferent with a signifi cance level of 1%. Figure 9 shows the behavior of representative load–displacement curves of the plane model for different thread angles. For the 60° thread angle, the load increased to the maximum value linearly and then decreased rapidly. For the 90° and 120° thread angles, the load after reaching the load peak decreased gradually. Photographs of the fracture behavior of the plane models are shown in Fig. 10. For a 60° thread angle, a shear fracture occurred along the root of the threads on the bolt side, and no thread collapsed. The fi nal fracture behavior of the 90° thread angle was the same as that for 60°. However, the threads on the nut side were slightly collapsed in the direc- tion perpendicular to the grain. On the other hand, shear fracture of the threads with 120° thread angle did not occur,
theory and experimental data is not thought to be a result of the clearance between the bolts and the predrilled holes, but due to shortcoming of Saint Venant’s torsion theory. If the clearance does have any influence, such a difference should also exist in the case of the square bolt arrangement. 18,19
down until the bolt is locked down with the bolt lever (See Fig 4). Warning - do not close the bolt until are ready to fire, the safety on this air pistol is simply the bolt - if you have not closed the bolt the pellet will not be expelled from the barrel. Note - if you pull the trigger and the air has been compressed in the cylinder and the bolt is open (90 degrees from the firing plane)
A firearm must be free of rust, dirt, grease and firing residues to function safely and reliably. Periodic maintenance, which includes inspection of components to determine if they are in proper working order, is absolutely essential. Firing deposits particles of bullet lubricant and powder in the bore, chamber, bolt, receiver, magazine and other parts of the rifle. There is no fixed rule as to how frequently the cleaning should be carried out, but the alert gun owner soon learns that any firearm functions most reliably and accurately when it is free of accumulations of grease and other firing residues.
Further, individual parts were calculated and either checked using the conventional approach (pins, pulleys, bolted joints) or modelled using the I-DEAS and COSMOS/M programs. The finite element method was used to check indi- vidual parts of the tensioning unit suspension and the unit tensioning mechanism. The tensioning unit suspender whose design is identical with that of the cleaning unit and the nut & washer handling tool suspenders was selected considering the highest stress by the weight of the tensioning unit being 1.5t. This unit is the heaviest one of all stud tensioner work- ing units.
Contact no 1: Contact between the base of the bolt head and the upper surface of the upper flange (part 1). The interaction between the base of the bolt head and the first part to join (in fig. 2, part 1 at the top) has been modelled by means of the definition of a "tied" contact type  between two surfaces, one acting as the slave surface and the other as the master surface: whereas the slave surface comprises the lower external element faces at the bottom of the bolt head, the master surface comprises the upper external element faces surrounding the drill hole at part 1.
5. Lightly oil your gun at the points described under “Oiling the Action” found earlier in this manual. Ordinary good judgment will, of course, indicate that the metal of the gun should receive a light film of oil any time the rifle has been exposed to weather or handling. This is very important and must be done with every gun. Remember, the polished, fine- ly fitted surfaces of the receiver and action mecha- nisms must always have a thin film of oil. Make sure that the surfaces of the breech bolt and bolt slide are especially clean and lightly oiled with a high quality gun oil. Use solvent and a toothbrush or other suitable brush to clean around the extractor, ejector and other small breech bolt components. With the Model 63 an aerosol-type oil can help greatly in “spraying away” residues on the breech bolt. When satisfied, wipe clean and lightly oil. 6. INSPECT THE BARREL AND CHAMBER. TO MAKE CERTAIN THAT NO PATCHES HAVE BEEN INADVERTENTLY LEFT IN THEM. Remove any that remain.
The study on the proposed inverted stud configuration show that a beam size of W12x53 is sufficient considering the composite action between the steel and concrete for the same loading conditions. Table II shows beam size summary for both the scenarios.
To assemble the bolt assembly, insert firing pin, firing pin spring and locking piece into the bolt head. Insert all parts in the bolt head carrier in such a manner that the lug on the locking piece is guiding through the recess in the bore of the bold head carrier.
For this reason, on-going research at the University of Nottingham and other institutions (Gardner and Goldsworthy 1999; Gardner and Goldsworthy 2005; Yao, Goldsworthy et al. 2008; Elghazouli, Málaga-Chuquitaype et al. 2009; Wang, Han et al. 2009; Wang and Spencer Jr 2013) is aiming to devise and validate a bolted connection model for application in moment transmitting connections to tubular profiles. The research work at the University of Nottingham has identified a moment transmitting configuration (Fig. 2), which makes use of modified Hollo-bolts – by extending its shank and attaching headed anchors, see Fig. 3 – hereafter termed Extended Hollo- bolts (EHBs). The proposed joint configuration is established in two stages: the endplate connections are first constructed, and then concrete is applied to the tube; noting that the clearance bolt holes allow for the EHB to be inserted as a whole prior to tightening. The concrete infill and the headed anchors are applied for two principal structural purposes: 1) to stiffen the otherwise flexible tube walls, and 2) to increase the stiffness and strength of the blind-bolt system. The latter is achieved via the development of mechanical anchorage that prevents premature bolt pull-out.
1) Stage 1—Bolt/Nut Alignment: At the beginning of the tightening process, the female and male threads of the bolt and the nut meet at their starting point (Fig. 2, top left panel). In this stage, the requirement for the controller is to provide a slow start to avoid possible damages to the threads of the bolt and nut in case a jamming situation arises and to apply the required torque levels within a specific low range of their relative angular position. Since the bolt has a round shape, misalignment situations may arise and cause damage (Fig. 3), therefore, in such a situation, the assembly should be promptly stopped and the bolt replaced. This also may happen in another error scenarios such as if a wrong bolt is used, e.g., with a thread type different from that of the nut. Therefore, the aim of this stage is to move the nut into a specified angle and to assure a proper alignment between the nut and bolt avoiding all of the aforementioned errors.
Ten identical AN4-6 3/8-24 TPI bolt was tested using the dry method. Most crack on the bolt cannot be identified visually by using the dry method. The result is shown in Table 3. From the table, dry method showed just a few signs of crack detection on some of the bolts. This method has been conducted as per ASTM E1444. Table 3 showed that the dry method is less sensitive than wet method although dry method has a portability advantage.
Grip the rifle with the left hand by its fore-end, place the buttplate against your body and grip the bolt handle with the other hand. Open the bolt by raising the bolt handle and pulling it to the rear to its stop. Then push the bolt vigorously to its forward position again and by rotating the bolt handle in a downward direction close the bolt action. This procedure inserts the cartridge into the cartridge chamber and cocks the striker mechanism. The rifle is now ready to fire. If you do not intend to fire immediately ensure the firearm safety as described further in the section Safety and its Operation.
The deflection of the tunnel ceiling in the middle of the area that is subjected to the load will also be collected from the model. The influence of the high tensile principal stresses along the edges of the rock bolts have been estimated by using the “influence length” of the stress distribution. This has been estimated as the multiple of the rock bolt length that has been subjected to more than 80 % of the maximum tensile stress. An example is shown in Figure, where the influence length is 1.2.