booster immunization with the same DNA (Table 1, group V). The gDE2t recombinant protein immunizations (group VII) elicited antibody responses that were five times higher than those induced by E2 DNA injections. Interestingly, when a booster immunization with gDE2t protein was performed after two rounds of E2 DNA injections, the antibody titer was dra- matically increased (approximately 29-fold), which was even higher than that of gDE2t protein immunizations alone (Table 1, groups IV and VII). The protein priming-DNA boosting regimen induces a lower level (approximately four- to fivefold) of antibodies than those induced by DNA priming-protein boosting (Table 1, groups IV and VI), which supports a previous report that the specific order of immunization is im- portant for the induction of optimal immune responses in prime-boost immunization strategies with different vaccine preparations (32). In addition, when a gDE2t booster immu- nization was performed in mice given a single E2 DNA injec- tion, the antibody titer was increased to three times higher than that induced by E2 DNA boosting, but it was still lower than that induced by two rounds of recombinant gDE2t protein immunizations alone (Table 1, group VIII). These experiments demonstrate that booster-immunization-amplified antibody re- sponses correlated with the type of priming regimen (DNA or protein) or upon the number of rounds of DNA priming that were administered. As expected, the effect of a gDE2t protein boosting was not observed in mice primed two times with control pTV2 DNA (Table 1, group II). Taken together, our data suggest that the enhancement of total IgG by a protein booster immunization is specific to antigen which is primed by DNA and not due to the nonspecific bystander activation of B cells by immunostimulatory effects of bacterial DNA (15).
Acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa) protect against severe pertussis in children. However, serum antibody responses decline quickly after immunization. Studies in animal models suggest that cell-mediated immunity also contributes to protection against Bordetella pertussis, and it has already been demonstrated that Pa induce T cells that secrete type-1 and type-2 cytokines in children. In this study we examined the persistence of the T cell response and the effect of booster immunization in 4±6-year- old children. Cell-mediated immunity to B. pertussis antigens was detected in a high proportion of children more than 42 months after their last immunization. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the majority of children secreted interferon-gamma (IFN-g) and a smaller proportion IL-5, in response to specific antigen stimulation in vitro. However, following booster immunization, significantly higher concentrations of IL-5, but not IFN-g , were produced by PBMC in response to B. pertussis antigens. Furthermore, plasma IL-4 and IL-5 concentrations were increased, whereas IFN-g concentrations were reduced following booster immunization. It has been suggested that childhood immunization with Th2-inducing vaccines may predispose some children to atopic disease. Although we found that pertussis toxin (PT)-specific IgE was significantly increased after booster immunization in both atopic and non-atopic children, the levels of IgE to common allergens and the prevalence of positive skin prick test were unaffected by the booster vaccination. Thus, despite the enhancement of type-2 responses to B. pertussis antigens, booster vaccination with Pa does not appear to be a risk factor for allergy.
antitetanus toxoid antibody in vitro when stimulated by pokeweed mitogen. The capacity for this in vitro antitetanus toxoid antibody response developed within 14 days after booster immunization, reached a peak between days 36--50, and disappeared by day 60. The inability of pokeweed mitogen to stimulate antitetanus toxoid antibody synthesis in vitro before booster immunization was not due to excess suppression by thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes but reflected insufficient numbers of functionally specific helper T lymphocytes and bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes. Antigen-specific T-lymphocyte suppression and decreased B-lymphocyte function were associated with the observed reduction of in vitro synthesis of antitetanus toxoid antibody from 20--60 days post-immunization. The in vitro kinetics of antitetanus toxoid antibody synthesis paralleled the synthesis of total IgG in that stimulation by pokeweed mitogen was required and that antibody secretion into the medium initiated by day 4 and increased through day 9.
Virus neutralization titers in serum. Selected sera were tested for CRPV neutralization as described in Materials and Methods. Sera from rabbits obtained immediately prior to virus challenge were chosen so that neutralization titers could be compared with the degree of protection. Serial dilutions of sera were mixed with aliquots of infectious virus (10 22 dilution of stock virus that was used for the challenges) and incubated at 37 8 C for 30 min. The virus-serum mixtures were then placed on scarified sites on the back of rabbits (each dilution point was tested in triplicate), and papilloma growth was measured weekly beginning on day 21. Papilloma size was plotted against serum dilution for one representative time point (day 42); the results are shown in Fig. 5. Neutralization titers were defined as the concentration of sera required to reduce papilloma size by 50% compared with the size at control sites that received no rabbit sera. Negative control sera included sera from rabbits immunized with HPV-11 L1 VLPs 1 week after the final booster and 12 months later (Fig. 5). The data demonstrated that high levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies (neutralization titer, 2,600 to 45,000) were present in sera from CRPV and CRPV L1 VLP immune animals 1 week after the final booster immunization but were reduced in sera from rabbits (neutral- ization titer, 92 to 1,200) taken 12 months after the last immu- nization (see Table 1).
of the assay. Another possible explanation is that gene gun delivery of plasmid DNA to the abdominal epidermis resulted in the presence of antigen in the spleen but not the draining lymph nodes, and therefore responses were exclusively mounted in the spleen (Fig. 1A). The localization of B cells after booster immunization can serve as a functional marker for the presence of booster antigen (3, 4, 18, 24). Therefore, mice that had been immunized once with pJW4303/H1 were given boosters via gene gun in the same abdominal skin site. Boosters were given $ 3 months after primary immunization, when serum antibody responses to the primary immunization had reached plateau levels. The ELISPOT assay was then used to test for ASC localization in lymph nodes. These included pools of axial, cervical, inguinal, mediastinal, mesenteric, and popliteal lymph nodes.
During the second booster immunization (protein alone) of macaques with the modified ⌬V2 gp140 immunogen, we ob- served that although an increase in the potency of neutralizing antibody responses was recorded in the case of the homolo- gous and parental viruses (Fig. 6), a parallel increase against heterologous primary HIV-1 isolates was not recorded (Table 2). Thus, multiple immunizations with the purified modified ⌬V2 gp140 protein may preferentially increase the titer of antibodies recognizing epitopes that are unique to the SF162 and ⌬V2 envelopes. Whether this is related to the fact that the FIG. 7. Presence of anti-V3 loop antibodies in sera collected from macaques immunized with the modified ⌬V2 gp140 immunogen. The development of anti-V3 loop antibodies was determined by ELISA using the V3 loop peptide derived from the SF162/SF162⌬V2 envelope. (A) We first examined whether the captured V3 loop peptide interacts with specific anti-V3 loop MAbs recognizing linear (447D) and conformational (391-95D) V3 loop epitopes. (B) We next determined the titer of anti-V3 loop antibodies present in sera collected 2 and 4 weeks following the 1 st and 2 nd boosts from the two vaccinated animals. As a comparison, we also include the titers of total antienvelope antibodies present in the same
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LC (IgK) isotypes. The annotated reads were aligned to the human Ig germline genes (IMGT annotation ) and clustered using MiXCR  to determine the number of unique paired CDR3 clones (requiring ≥ 2 reads per pair) including correction of PCR errors. From the pre-immunization sample, we identified a total of 2200 and 4841 HC-LC pairs for IgM and IgG, respectively (Additional file 2: Data files S1 and S2). The post-Td immunization sample resulted in 4031 and 2872 HC-LC pairs for IgM and IgG, re- spectively (Additional file 2: Data files S3 and S4). Among these, we identified 212 (IgM) and 125 (IgG) HC-CDR3 clonotypes that were present in both the pre- and post-Td immunization samples. Of these, 50. 0% (IgM) and 60.0% (IgG) of the HC-CDR3s found in pre- and post-Td booster immunization data shared the same LC-CDR3 sequences, demonstrating the application of this technology to identify and track pre-existing B cells, possibly from the antigen-specific memory B cell compartment  (Additional file 2: Data files S5 and S6). The ARH-77 spike-in HC-LC pairing demonstrated pref- erential pairing of the known HC with the correct corre- sponding LC (Additional file 1: Figure S4). Of the IgM and IgG isotypes pre- and post-Td immunization, the top ten pairs constituted 57% and 49% (for IgM isotype) and 61% and 76% (for IgG isotype) of the total aligned reads, respectively, indicating a clonotype distribution that is skewed towards the most frequent HC-LC pairs.
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This paper proposes Q-statistic to evaluate the performance of an FS algorithm with a classifier. This is a hybrid measure of the prediction accuracy of the classifier and the stability of the selected features. Then the paper proposes Booster on the selection of feature subset from a given FS algorithm.The basic idea of Booster is to obtain several data sets from original data set by resampling on sample space. Then FS algorithm is applied to these resampled data sets to obtain different feature subsets. The union of these selected subsets will be the feature subset obtained by the Booster of FS algorithm. Experiments were conducted using spam email. The authors found that the proposed genetic algorithm for FS is improved the performance of the text. The FS technique is a type of optimization problem, which is used to obtain a new subset of features. Cat swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm has been proposed to improve optimization problems. However, CSO is restricted to long execution times. The authors modify it to improve the FS technique in the text classification. Experiment Results showed that the proposed modified CSO overcomes tradition al version and got more ace uprate results in FS technique.
RESULTS. Data were obtained for 1247 child passengers transported by 1191 drivers; 333 of the children were 0 to 3 years of age, and 914 were 4 to 8 years of age (the primary age group targeted by the enhanced law). Significant improvement in appropriate booster seat use was seen for 4- to 8-year-old passengers after imple- mentation (39%), compared with use before implementation (29%). There was no improvement in the rate of appropriate restraint use for younger children ( ⬍ 4 years of age) after implementation. Black passengers 4 to 8 years of age were twice as likely as white child passengers to be unrestrained, before and after implemen- tation. Seventy-nine percent of drivers reported awareness of the new restraint law after implementation; the majority of drivers obtained information from television advertisements.
Almost half of those who registered interest for the brief intervention were non-contactable (n = 2462, 49.6 %). A further 840 participants (43.4 %) were non-contactable after the brief intervention to assess their eligibility for the RCT, despite attempts by the trial team to maintain contact during the brief intervention phase (e.g., text or phone call reminders to engage with the intervention). This pattern of recruitment loss remained consistent throughout the trial and represents a key reason why the Booster Study substantially under-recruited. It was sug- gested by the PCT and GP representatives on the re- search team that one of the key reasons that potential participants might be non-contactable is the highly transi- ent nature of the populations in target areas. Several areas were known to have many newly arrived immigrants who subsequently moved to settle in other locations. In addition to this, residents of lower socio-economic areas are more likely to be in short-term rented accommoda- tions. This could also explain the relatively high number of invitation letters that were ‘returned to sender’.
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This retrospective observational study was conducted with the approval of the Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta Institutional Review Board. The initial subject cohort consisted of all infants admitted to the NICU at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston (a level 4, nonbirthing referral hospital) between January 1, 2008, and August 1, 2014, and who received any immunizations while inpatients. Only those infants who were born at <32 weeks’ estimated gestational age and had data available for 72 hours before and 72 hours after immunization were included. Infants who were excluded were patients who were no longer located in the NICU at the time of immunization due to transfer to another floor or transfer to another hospital or who had been discharged from the NICU within 72 hours after immunization ( n = 9) and those who underwent surgery within 72 hours after immunization ( n = 3). In cases in whom vaccines were given over multiple days, data for each immunization were abstracted individually. If separate immunizations were given within 72 hours of one another, the 72-hour period of observation began after the first immunization was given. BPD was defined as an oxygen requirement at 36 weeks’ corrected gestational age (cGA). 27
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Firstly, I would like to thank to my supervisor, Mr Shamsul Bahari b Azraai, Lecturer of Mechanical Engineering Faculty in Utem (Thermal – Fluid), for giving me the opportunity doing my PSM under his supervision. I also would like to thank to him for teaching me more in mechanical engineering subjects especially works for my topic which is Automotive Air Conditioner Booster. He also guided me and given advised based on his experience during my progress of this project. I have learned many new things from him.
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There was minimal injury (4% or less) with glyphosate + imazethapyr alone or in com- bination with Crop Booster or RR Soy Booster at 1 WAT (data not shown). All injury ratings were zero by 4 WAT (data not shown). Weed control with glyphosate + ima- zethapyr and glyphosate + imazethapyr + Crop Booster ranged from 96% to 100% (Table 6) and with glyphosate + imazethapyr and glyphosate + imazethapyr + RR Soy Booster ranged from 85% to 100% (Table 7). The addition of Crop Booster and RR Soy Booster to glyphosate + imazethapyr did not cause any significant differences on the control of weed species evaluated except for control of common ragweed which was in- creased slightly at 4 WAT with the addition of RR Soy Booster (Table 6, Table 7).
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The objective of this study is to show the efficacy of honey as booster for the activity of antibiotics in wound healing for mothers who has done cesear section (CS) during delivery. The study was prospective study for five months. The research was conducted for mother with sepsis after 7 days from the day CS has done. There were two groups one control group who took only antibiotic (Metrondazole + ceftriaxone + dressing with normal saline) and the other group (metrondazole + ceftriaxone + honey dressing). The symptom observed during the follow up on the wound are pus, smell, pain, hotness, wound length, swelling and tenderness. The follow up was for 12 days. The average time for disappearance of each symptoms of the wound was calculated.. As a result, the average time for disapearing of the symptoms in patients under honey dressing are with much fewer days than patients without honey dressing Keywords: honey, ceserean section, pus, smell, pain,swelling, hotness, tendernes
Control measures were initiated immediately by the department of health services in the district of Malappuram and Kozhikode and other affected districts. Cases admitted in our institution were treated in a dedicated isolation ward with antitoxin, crystalline Penicillin and supportive care. Cases were kept in isolation for a minimum period of two weeks and discharged only after two consecutive throat swabs taken 24 hours apart were negative. Close contacts of the confirmed cases were immunized with diphtheria containing vaccine (Td or DPT) according to age and immunization status. Prophylaxis with Erythromycin was initiated for family contacts and close contacts of cases. Active measures to identify unimmunized/partially immunized children were initiated and school-based vaccination campaigns conducted to increase the immunization coverage in the age group 5 to 15 years. Epidemiology
ABSTRACT Pneumococcal diseases remain a substantial cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. The development of potentially serotype- transcending vaccines has been extensively studied; ideally, such a vaccine should in- clude antigens that are able to induce protection against colonization (likely medi- ated by interleukin-17A [IL-17A]) and invasive disease (likely mediated by antibody). The use of strong adjuvants or alternative delivery systems that are able to improve the immunological response of recombinant proteins has been proposed but poses potential safety and practical concerns in children. We have previously constructed a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain expressing a pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA)-PdT fusion protein (rBCG PspA-PdT) that was able to induce an ef- fective immune response and protection against sepsis in a prime-boost strategy. Here, we constructed two new rBCG strains expressing the pneumococcal proteins SP 0148 and SP 2108, which confer IL-17A-dependent protection against pneumo- coccal colonization in mouse models. Immunization of mice with rBCG 0148 or rBCG 2108 in a prime-boost strategy induced IL-17A and gamma interferon (IFN- ␥ ) pro- duction. The combination of these rBCG strains with rBCG PspA-PdT (rBCG Mix), fol- lowed by a booster dose of the combined recombinant proteins (rMix) induced an IL-17A response against SP 0148 and SP 2108 and a humoral response characterized by increased levels of IgG2c against PspA and functional antibodies against pneu- molysin. Furthermore, immunization with the rBCG Mix prime/rMix booster (rBCG Mix/ rMix) provides protection against pneumococcal colonization and sepsis. These results suggest the use of combined rBCG strains as a potentially serotype-transcending pneu- mococcal vaccine in a prime-boost strategy, which could provide protection against pneumococcal colonization and sepsis.
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MenBvac is an outer membrane vesicle vaccine against systemic meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. In this placebo-controlled double-blind study including 374 healthy adolescents, the safety and immunogenicity of a schedule of three primary doses 6 weeks apart followed by a fourth dose a year later were evaluated. Antibody responses to the vaccine strain and heterologous strains (non-vaccine-type strains) and the persistence of these antibodies were measured by the serum bactericidal assay (SBA) and enzyme-linked immu- nosorbent assay up to 1 year after the last dose. The proportion of subjects with SBA titers of > 4 against the vaccine strain increased from 3% prevaccination to 65% after the third dose. Ten months later, this proportion had declined to 28%. The fourth dose induced a booster response demonstrated by 93% of subjects achieving a titer of > 4. One year after the booster dose, 64% still showed SBA titers of > 4. Cross-reacting antibodies were induced against all heterologous strains tested, although the magnitude of SBA titers differed widely between the different strains. All four doses of MenBvac were safe. Both MenBvac and the placebo had reactogenicity profiles of mild to moderate local and systemic reactions. Pain, the most common reaction, was reported with similar frequencies in both groups. No serious adverse events occurred in the MenBvac group. This study confirmed the good immunogenicity of the primary course of MenBvac and demonstrated prolonged persistence and increased cross-reactivity of functional antibodies elicited by a booster dose.
Group A and group C meningoccal polysaccharide vaccines were evaluated in infants. No significant local or systemic reactions were observed with 908 doses of vaccine given to 396 infants between 3 and 12 mo of age. The antibody response varied with the age of the infant, vaccine dose, molecular weight of vaccine, prior immunization with vaccine, and prior exposure to naturally occurring cross-reactive antigens. Only 7% of 3-mo-old infants had detectable antibody responses to primary immunization with 5-200 mug of A vaccine, presumably because of suppressive effects of high concentrations of maternal anti-A. More than 90% of 7- and 12-mo-old infants responded to A vaccine, achieving geometric mean anti-A concentrations of 0.38 and 0.98 mug/ml, respectively. The dose-response curve was flat between 10 and 200 mug of A vaccine. Geometric mean anti-A concentrations of 2.51 and 4.00 mug/ml were induced in 7- and 12-mo-old infants by booster injections of A vaccine. Approximately 90% of 3-mo-old infants had detectable antibody responses to primary immunization with C vaccine. The 100-mug dose appeared to be optimal, resulting in geometric mean anti-C concentrations of 0.49, 1.55, and 2.64 mug/ml in 3-, 7-, and 12- mo-old infants, respectively. Significant booster responses were not observed with C vaccine. Indeed, except for the 10-mug dose, booster injections of C vaccine in 7- and 12- mo-old infants resulted in lower […]
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The subjects were observed closely for immediate adverse re- actions for at least 15 minutes after immunization. Parents com- pleted a diary card soliciting local (pain on digital pressure, red- ness, and swelling) and systemic reactions (fatigue, headache, and fever) from days 0 to 14 after immunization. The diary cards had space to record unsolicited adverse events that occurred up to 30 days after immunization. For redness and swelling (measured systematically using a study gauge), the intensity was defined as severe when it was $50 mm in diameter. An axillary temperature (measured daily using an electronic thermometer) $ 39.1°C was defined as severe fever. For other adverse events, the intensity was defined as severe when it prevented normal daily activities and needed medical advise. All solicited local reactions were consid- ered related to immunization. The relationship between other adverse events and immunization was evaluated by the investi- gator according to the criteria of the study protocol. The outcome of all adverse events was recorded.
numbers of cases in older children, so VE estimates were not likely to be systematically biased. A limitation of this study was the lack of gender and socioeconomic data for cases and controls, which may have been con- founders in the analysis, although the large numbers of controls used should have minimized this effect. Our study is the ﬁ rst to examine trends in VE between 2 and 4 years of age after 3 primary doses of acellular vaccine. Waning immunity is a likely explanation for the progressive decline in estimated VE we found from 12 months of age in the absence of a booster dose. A num- ber of lines of evidence support this explanation. First, although magni ﬁ ed by increased testing, the 10-fold in- crease in the incidence of noti ﬁ ed pertussis infection in the 2- to 4-year age group in the current epidemic com- pared with the previous 3-year period is striking. 10 Second, it is consistent with