In May 2014, flooding occurred because of precipitation that continuously fell for 4 days over the Sava River and its lower reach tributaries in the territories of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), and Serbia. The floods caused 23 fa- talities, while more than 100 000 people were displaced from their homes, and many landslides and debris flows affected the area. All told, the flood event affected more than 50 % of BiH territory. The total estimated losses and damages, based on the recovery needs assessment, were almost EUR 2 billion (BiH, EU, UN, WB, 2014).
The importance of avoiding the emergence of ethno-religious tensions and stressing the principle of ‘brotherhood and unity’ were also confirmed at the beginning of the SFRJ dissolution process when the Parliamentary Assembly of the SRBiH amended the Constitution in July 1990, with delegates of all nationalities involved, in order to introduce democratic principles and pluralism into the political system. Article LX of the Constitutional Amendment, states that “the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a democratic sovereign State of equal citizens, the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Muslims, Serbs and Croats and the members of other peoples and nationalities living there” (Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina je demokratska suverena drzava ravnopravnih gradana, naroda Bosne i Hercegovine - Muslimana, Srba i Hrvata i pripadnika drugih naroda i narodnosti, koji u njoj zive). 29 In addition, only one language was recognized as the official language, that is Serbo-Croatian, both in roman and Cyrillic letters, 30 and proportional ethnic representation was granted to the three main ethnic groups and the other smaller nationalities. 31
Sonja Biserko argues that Bosnia and Herzegovina is still very fragile, because ethnic conflicts persist and there is a lack of political will to implement necessary reforms, so consolidation of the new state structures and the transition to a market economy is slow (Berg, 2011). The main difference with the countries of Central Europe is not only a time delay or degree of democratic consolidation, but the consequences of war and lack of consensus within its own regional context. When the topics such as border issues, state and territorial sovereignty or national minorities will create a major political agenda, the chances for democratic consolidation and accession to the EU will remain slim. Although the European Commission in its progress reports notes that progress has been made in the technical requirements, but war-related conditions remain problematic. David Chandler argues that the international community in the form of the High Representative prevented and disrupted normal democratic development. He claims that Bosnia had never undergone the transition to democracy. Nevertheless, he does not consider BIH as authoritarian state, but as "competitive oligarchy with a political-economic- crime connection, which are based on cronyism, corruption and fear, despite the machinery of electoral democracy" (Basseuner, 2009).
I believe that the primary reason why Bosnia-Herzegovina continues to struggle, both economically and socially, is the failure of the Dayton Accords. Even though Dayton stopped the immediate violence with a temporary solution, it actually set BiH up to fail in the future. It put in place a dysfunctional system of three presidents (one from each ethno-religious group), established a corrupt police force and judicial system, and provided no accountability for perpetrators. From my interviews, I learned that the hatred, distrust, and desire for revenge still remain, and are huge indicators of future conflict. If the global community understands the current situation, as well as Bosnia-Herzegovina’s tumultuous history, I hope that they will be more likely to help avoid another war.
The biggest interest amongst the bank clients is for currency forwards. The research shows a low supply of derivatives (34.48%), but also a weak demand because the results indicate that bank which is the largest provider of derivatives in the financial market of Bosnia and Herzegovina, concluded only ten contracts related to the derivative of the average value of around 750.000,00 KM or EUR 383,600.00. It is important to notice that the dominant users of derivatives are non-financial firms involved in production and distribution of oil and oil derivatives, furniture production companies, trading companies (especially trading businesses that import from China), gas trading and supplying companies, and IT companies. Interest rate swap (IRS) is the most used derivatives by the businesses in B&H. It means the exchange of one interest rate for the second stream without simultaneous exchange of principal.
An effort was made to survey all the three ethnic groups in Bosnia Herzegovina. The data for the study were collected by the first author in the mainly Serb populated towns of Banja Luka (population 143.079) and Trebinje (30.979), the mainly Moslem populated towns of Tuzla (83.770), Zenica (96.027) and Konjic (13.729) and the Croat and Moslem populated city of Mostar (126.643). In rural areas the survey was undertaken in the mainly Serb populated community of Nevesinje (4.068), mainly Croat, Neum (1.651), Grude (3.598) and Stolac (5.530) and the mainly Moslem Tesanj (5.621) and Jablanica (4.457).
Two corollaries descend from this fourth transition, to peace, for the forms it assumes in Bosnia and Herzegovina: the transition to shared rule, and the transition to self rule. Even the transition to peace, in fact, did not develop in the same way in all the post-Yugoslav states. Slovenia and Montenegro remained relatively shielded from the fighting, Croatia managed to regain control over all its territory through military action, and Serbia was forced to accept the loss of control over Kosovo through the same forceful means. In the other cases – Bosnia- Herzegovina and the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia 336 – the conflict came to an end through external intervention and a forced compromise among the warring parties. In Macedonia, the low-level conflict that opposed the Skopje government to local Albanian guerrilla in 2001 did not last long and a full-blown war was prevented by early international intervention and mediation. The ensuing Ohrid Agreement guaranteed the integration of Albanians within the Macedonian decision-making structures through integrative and consociational measures. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the other hand, the conflict had lasted for more than three years and had known the siege of Sarajevo and the genocide of Srebrenica, before the fallout from Croatia’s military advances and resolute NATO air support managed to push Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia (the latter ones in the name of their warring proxies) to sign up to the Dayton Agreement. The war in Bosnia was not solved through the clear military victory of one side, allowing a new political system to establish itself through a ‘victor’s peace’, as it had been the case in 1940s Germany, Japan, Italy or Austria (but also in 1930s Spain). Rather, the Bosnian conflict is a paradigmatic example of ‘new war’, a category blurring the border between civil and international-conventional wars. 337 The end of the conflict through externally-imposed power sharing – based on federalism and consociationalism, and replacing ethnic autonomy – engendered a fifth transition, to shared rule.
Social media have been intensively used as a tool for the realization of marketing objectives of higher education institutions. Higher education institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, following the regional trends, started to apply social media as a part of their marketing activities. This paper examines the role and importance of social media in the marketing of higher education institutions, and analyzes the results of research in the application of social media in the marketing of higher education institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Secondary data collected between May and July 2014 from web sites and social pages of 9 state and 23 private institutions of higher education in Bosnia and Herzegovina were used as the sources of information required for this study. Particular emphasis is placed on comparative analysis of the ways in which public and private higher education institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina apply social media to realize their marketing goals. It was established that social media are primarily used as a tool to recruit new students, and that there is a difference between the manner in which state and private institutions of higher education use social media.
There has been major increase in the number of pa- tients accepted for RRT in the Bosnia and Herze- govina largely due to rising acceptance rates in the elderly, and to lesion extend in patients with co- morbidity, as indicated by the rising acceptance of patients with diabetes and endemic nephropathy. Similar trends in the most European Countries have been recorded recently. Despite the fact that diabetes was one of the most common causes of re- nal failure in new patients in most European coun- tries and US, in Bosnia and Herzegovina of incident patients start RRT with diagnosis of Glo- merulonephritis and Pyelonephritis. Hypertension is responsible for . of cases of ESRD, and is lower
These indicators clearly show that economy is ineffective in energy using to reach an adequate GDP, which is manifested through the ratio between energy costs, and a GDP, as well as high energy intensity. This proves that Bosnia and Herzegovina is an underdeveloped country, with an ineffective system of primary energy conversion and energy consumption in general. New energy sources would contribute to a faster and stronger economic development. However, that makes sense only with parallel measures for increased technical and social energy usage efficiency.
Fiscal federalism in Bosnia and Herzegovina is characterized by multi-level asymmetric architecture of government sector and a high degree of fiscal decen- tralization. Reform of indirect taxation has resulted in centralization of the major part of the revenues in B&H and induced a high degree of fiscal interdependence of governments. In the absence of national economic and fiscal goals and fiscal coordination required during the global economic crisis, strong autonomous acti- vities of the Entities and District have been expressed. Uncoordinated and diver- gent responses to the crisis in addition to distorting the achieved degree of tax harmonization within B&H has led to a widening fiscal deficit and the rapid growth of borrowing at all levels of government. The aim of this paper is to pro- pose a new model of fiscal coordination in B&H that would mitigate the negative effects of fiscal decentralization on macroeconomic management. The key hypo- thesis is that, in given political constraints, only a concept of fiscal federalism that includes comprehensive, institutionalized and obligatory fiscal coordination can ensure a coherent response to the crisis.
number of cases of abstract constitutional review falling within jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The same problem occurs in the Constitutional Court of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (along with the problem of a limited number of matters falling within jurisdiction of this Court in reviewing the constitutional validity of legislation in Federation of Bos- nia and Herzegovina (Milićević, 2013)): there is a very small number of subjects that usually have no interest in initiating proceedings to review the constitutio- nality of laws or regulations, since they were, in some way, involved, in some stage of the adoption of these acts. It is the innermost circle of holders of leading positions in the federal and cantonal executive branch or the subjects of the fed- eral or cantonal legislative body which passes laws. The circle of authorised enti- ties initiating proceedings before the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herze- govina and the Constitutional Court of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzego- vina should be expanded to include the ones that exist in the constitutions of many other countries. In addition to the subjects cited in the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994), it would be necessary to give authorisation to institute pro- ceedings before the two constitutional courts to the municipal and city councils and municipal mayors and mayors, when they consider that certain regulations are not in accordance with the Constitution or the law in terms of violation of the constitutional position of the municipality/city. Other organisations and communities should have this right when they believe that a general legal act is endangering their constitutional rights. In addition, the two constitutional courts should be given the authority to initiate proceedings regarding the con- stitutionality of laws or the constitutionality and legality of other regulations and general acts ex officio when they, in their practice, determine that a provision of a general legal act should be assessed in the prescribed procedure.
Bez obzira na pravilo da se “svaka zemlja kreće korak po korak ka članstvu u EU kako bude ispunjavala svoje obaveze,” 7 Proces stabilizacije i pridruživanja (SAP) se može posmatrati kao regionalni plan. 8 SAP potiče regionalizaciju kako bi se spriječilo da manje razvijene zemlje nazaduju, dok podržava uslovljenost zasnovanu na pojedinačnim zaslugama. 9 Ukoliko je zemlja napredna, poput Hrvatske, naravno da neće biti usporavana zbog drugih. Ipak, ukoliko zemlja zaostaje kao Bosna ili je blokirana kao FYRM zbog problema oko imena s Grčkom, loše je za cijeli proces. Imajući to na umu, sadašnji bosanski zastoj štetan je za cijeli proces SAP, i negativno će se odraziti na čitav region. I dok veliki dio odgovornosti za trenutni ćorsokak leži na bosanskim liderima, “nezgrapnim strukturama” i negativnoj dinamici stvorenoj Daytonskim mirovnim sporazumom, EU je kriva što nije otvorila prohodan put za Bosnu. Ukratko, Bosna ne može aplicirati za članstvo u EU sve dok postoji OHR, ali je EU ta koja nema snage da se dotakne pitanja zatvaranja OHR-a sa svojim meñunarodnim partnerima, jer se neke od zemalja članica EU protive zatvaranju. Pogledajmo kako se EU uspjela dovesti u takav položaj.
In the period from 1948 to 2016, a strong emigration took place from the territory of the present-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and around 1.67 million inhabitants moved out. Emigration has not diminished over time, it is still ongoing, which is of particular importance from the point of view of demographic consequences, as it occurs in conditions of reduced birth, depopulation and aging of the population. Emigration at the beginning of the 20th century occurred in very high fertility circumstances, partly alleviating the outflow of human capital. Nevertheless, immigration played an important role in this, replacing the structure of the total evicted contingent. In fact, immigration has delayed the Bosnian-Herzegovinian "demographic breakdown" for hal century. The loss that was caused by the historical external migration has absorbed 47.3% of the average population, or 52% of total natural change (increase). Only few countries have had such population loss in external migration. Emigration or negative migration balance is the main factor (stronger than war losses and epidemics) of demographic losses, as well as slow growth in the number of BiH population in the 21st century. In the hypothetical '' closed population '' (ie without external migration), BiH would have at least 4.5 million inhabitants in 2013, or 30% more than the listed number. External migration with the spatial selectivity of its input and output flows also affected the differentiated regional demographic development of BiH. Long