Bovine Enamel

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Design of a randomized controlled double-blind crossover clinical trial to assess the effects of saliva substitutes on bovine enamel and dentin in situ

Design of a randomized controlled double-blind crossover clinical trial to assess the effects of saliva substitutes on bovine enamel and dentin in situ

relevant information in a relatively short period of time without causing irreversible tissue changes in the pane- lists’ dentition. Generally, clinical caries trials are limited to investigations by a dental explorer, and to using radiographs to identify and validate demineralizations at sites usually not visible directly. Thus, the caries process is determined at a relatively late stage and patients are exposed to X-rays resulting in an increasing radiation exposure. In contrast, the in situ model presented here offers the integration of transversal microradiography (TMR) as a basic science analytical technique. TMR offers high sensitivity and ensures waiving radiation exposure for panelists [47]. Generally, various experimen- tal methods are available for analyzing subsurface lesions of bovine enamel and dentin specimens. These include transversal microradiography [48], polarized microscopy [49], microhardness testing [50,51], electric caries monitoring [52], transversal wavelength-independent microradiography [53], optical coherence tomography [54], and scanning electron microscopy [55,56]. With the exception of transversal microradiography (TMR), all mentioned technologies reveal some shortcomings with regard to accuracy when specimens are analyzed accord- ing to the mentioned parameters mineral loss and lesion depth. In contrast, TMR allows a direct measurement of the longitudinal mineral distribution as a profile in a subsurface lesion and has long been established and recognized as a gold standard for analyzing mineral content changes over time [57]. Consequently, TMR is considered a surrogate outcome measure that is directly impacted by the intervention. Thus, microradiographic outcome was selected as a surrogate endpoint in the present study.
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The erosive potential of some alcopops using bovine enamel: an in vitro study.

The erosive potential of some alcopops using bovine enamel: an in vitro study.

Alcoholic soft drinks have become increasingly popular and have high concentrations of citric acid and alcohol so might have the potential to cause dental erosion. This study aimed to investigate the erosive potential of alcopops on bovine enamel in vitro. Methods: Six bovine upper incisors were prepared and sectioned to give six slabs per tooth, 4x4mm each. Each slab was covered with nail varnish, leaving an exposed window (2x2mm). Samples were immersed in 20ml of each of the test solutions for 20min, 1h, and 24h under gentle agitation (100 rpm). Enamel surface loss was determined using Quantitative Laser
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Amount of Calcium Elution and Eroded  Lesion Depth in Bovine Enamel Derived from Single Short Time Immersion in Carbonated Soft Drink in Vitro

Amount of Calcium Elution and Eroded Lesion Depth in Bovine Enamel Derived from Single Short Time Immersion in Carbonated Soft Drink in Vitro

As reported in previous studies, eroded enamel is extraordinarily sensitive to mechanical impacts such as tooth brushing performed immediately after demineralization [25] [26]. Attin et al. [27] reported in their in vitro study on the time to improve the abrasion resistance of previously eroded bovine enamel that abrasion resistance of eroded enamel in in vitro conditions continuously increases with remineralization time. In the previous study, a one-hour interval of remineralization between a meal and tooth brushing was recommended under in vitro conditions; however, the authors declared that in an every-day situation it is not feasible to allow such a long in- terval to elapse before tooth brushing. Certainly, under in vitro conditions, enamel specimens were exposed to only acid. In contrast, under in vivo conditions, saliva is continuously secreted during food/drink intake resulting in buffering acid existing in the oral cavity with possible repair of eroded enamel surfaces. Moreover, it has to be taken into consideration that there are biofilms on the enamel surfaces in a real oral cavity. If a person does not brush his/her teeth for an hour after meal, bacterial-derived acid production occurs resulting in caries lesion. Plaque pH falls dramatically below the critical pH within a few minutes after sucrose intake [28]. Opposing the studies which argued that eroded enamel was sensitive to mechanical stress or that the interval between food/ drink intake and tooth brushing was favorable, Ganss et al. concluded that a waiting period between acid expo- sure and tooth brushing had only a minor effect on the prevention of toothbrush abrasion of acid-softened ena- mel surface and that topical fluoride treatment could represent an effective therapeutic approach in their in situ study [29]. The present study also indicated that a single intake of carbonated soft drink for 12 minutes induced 0.21 µm of erosion depth which could be repaired by saliva, supporting the previous study.
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The erosive potential of some alcopops using bovine enamel: an in vitro study.

The erosive potential of some alcopops using bovine enamel: an in vitro study.

Structural differences between bovine and human enamel play a major role in the spread of erosive lesions. Bovine enamel is more porous than its counterpart in human teeth, hence, less resistant to acid diffusion and lesions tend to progress rapidly. 24 Solubility rates increase as temperature rises, and thawed or even room temperature drinks were found more erosive than ice-cold drinks. 25 This study was conducted at room temperature, which although not controlled did not fluctuate greatly. Removing the smear layer, through polishing and

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The erosive potential of some alcopops using bovine enamel: an in vitro study.

The erosive potential of some alcopops using bovine enamel: an in vitro study.

Alcoholic soft drinks have become increasingly popular and have high concentrations of citric acid and alcohol so might have the potential to cause dental erosion. This study aimed to investigate the erosive potential of alcopops on bovine enamel in vitro. Methods: Six bovine upper incisors were prepared and sectioned to give six slabs per tooth, 4x4mm each. Each slab was covered with nail varnish, leaving an exposed window (2x2mm). Samples were immersed in 20ml of each of the test solutions for 20min, 1h, and 24h under gentle agitation (100 rpm). Enamel surface loss was determined using Quantitative Laser
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Evaluation of the Effect of Propolis Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Properties and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Composite Bonded to Bovine Enamel

Evaluation of the Effect of Propolis Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Properties and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Composite Bonded to Bovine Enamel

enamel surface preparation techniques, various adhesive systems, and bracket-related factors such as area and design of the bracket base [5,6]. Recent studies have shown that 50% to 75% of patients, experience demineralization of dental surfaces during fixed orthodontic treatment [7,8]. An increase in Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus count has been reported in the oral cavity after the placement of fixed orthodontic appliances [9]. Fixed orthodontic treatment makes oral hygiene maintenance difficult and increases plaque accumulation around brackets and bands, leading to an increased risk of dental caries and formation of white spot lesions (WSLs) [10-12]. In addition, enamel etching weakens the structure of the enamel by decalcification and increases the risk of decays [13]. WSLs result from bacterial activity. S. mutans has been associated with decay and plays a major role in the onset of decays [14].
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Effect of Addition of Curcumin Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Property and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Composite to Bovine Enamel

Effect of Addition of Curcumin Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Property and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Composite to Bovine Enamel

The SBS test results: The highest and the lowest mean SBS belonged to the control (26.09±9.55MPa) and 10% curcNP (15.40±6.76MPa) groups, respectively. Table 1 presents the mean SBS in the four groups. According to one-way ANOVA, a significant difference existed in SBS among the four groups (P=0.008). Considering the equality of variances, Tukey’s HSD test was applied for pairwise comparison of the groups (Table 2), which revealed that SBS in the control group was significantly higher than that in 10% curcNP group (P=0.006). Despite lower bond strength in 1% (P=0.753) and 5% (P=0.157) curcNP groups than the control group, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Figure 4 shows the mean SBS of bracket to enamel in the four groups with 95% confidence interval. Table 3 shows the frequency of ARI scores in the four groups. As seen in Table 3, the four groups were not significantly different in terms of ARI scores (P>0.05).
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The effect of post brushing mouthrinses on salivary fluoride retention and The effect of varying fluoride concentration on remineralisation of bovine enamel in vitro

The effect of post brushing mouthrinses on salivary fluoride retention and The effect of varying fluoride concentration on remineralisation of bovine enamel in vitro

A total of 80 bovine incisors were prepared and demineralised giving a total of 160 samples. Only 85 showed sufficiently uniform demineralised lesions to proceed to baseline TMR. Due to the error with the diamond plate and anvils, several sample sections were extensively damaged and extremely thin with the result that values from the TMR were not possible. An extra slice was taken from each sample without sufficient data from the first baseline round of TMR in an effort to improve the baseline data for each sample and increase the number of samples with sufficient data to proceed with the study. Again many sections were damaged in the process but following this 66 samples were available with baseline data and the sample with the least data available from TMR was excluded, giving 65 samples and 13 in each of the experimental groups. The post remineralisation phase of TMR was not affected by the above
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Effect of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF Pastes on the Surface Hardness of Initial Dental Erosion Lesions: An In Situ Study

Effect of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF Pastes on the Surface Hardness of Initial Dental Erosion Lesions: An In Situ Study

To analyze the effect of intra-oral application of Cpp-aCp and Cpp-aCpf pastes on the surface hardness of initial dental erosion lesions. Material and Method: Bovine enamel specimens were randomly assigned into 6 volunteers in 3 treatment groups: GI: Cpp-aCp paste, GII: Cpp- aCpf paste and GIII (Control): placebo paste without Cpp-aCp and without fluoride. Enamel specimens were selected by surface hardness (SHi), in vitro eroded by immersion in hydrochloric acid for 30 seconds (SHdes) and randomized between treatment groups and volunteers, who used the palatal intraoral device for 2 hours, applied the treatment on the specimens and used the palatal intraoral device for an additional 3 hours in 3 crossed phases, interspersed with a 7-day washout period. Subsequently, the surface hardness (SHre) was measured to estimate the re-hardening potential of the softened enamel promoted by treatments. Data were analyzed using the t-test and one-way aNOVa, adopting 5% significance level. Results: Mean final and post-erosion hardness values were statistically significant for pastes tested (p<0.05), which presented re-hardening effect of the softened enamel, but with no difference between them and placebo (p>0.05). Conclusion: Cpp-aCp and Cpp-aCpf pastes did not demonstrate higher efficacy in re-hardening the eroded enamel compared to placebo paste.
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<p>Is buffalo enamel a suitable substrate for bond strength tests?</p>

<p>Is buffalo enamel a suitable substrate for bond strength tests?</p>

Although the most accepted acid etching pattern with suit- able adhesion is type I Silverstone, the analysis of AEP in this study showed dissolution of the peripheral region of the enamel rods with preservation of the nuclei, that is, a type II Silverstone pattern in all experimental groups (Figure 3). Etched buffalo enamel showed the dissociation of inorganic components characterized by irregularities (Figure 3) that promoted the penetration of the adhesive system, allowing substrate hybridization and supporting adhesion. This pattern has previously been observed in bovine enamel subjected to acid etching. 11,12
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Investigation on the Gradient Nanomechanical Behavior of Dental Fluorosis Enamel

Investigation on the Gradient Nanomechanical Behavior of Dental Fluorosis Enamel

fluorosis [6, 7]. Matching of the mechanical behavior of the restorative material to that of the opposing tooth en- amel is especially important to prevent excessive wear of the natural tooth enamel or the applied material itself [8–11]. Ceramics are widely used as restorative mate- rials because of their high biocompatibility and similar esthetics to the natural tooth enamel [47]. However, ceramics present high wear resistance, which causes excessive wear of the opposing natural tooth enamel [47, 48]. Materials with low wear resistance, such as PICN and composite resin block, have been developed as alternatives to ceramics [48, 49]. PICN exhibits a wear resistance similar to that of the outer layer of the normal tooth enamel. Thus, when the opposing tooth is a normal tooth, PICN is the proper material for restor- ation. However, the opposing tooth in dental fluorosis re- quiring restoration likely presents mild dental fluorosis. In this case, materials with nanotribological properties simi- lar to those of the mild dental fluorosis enamel are neces- sary to restore dental fluorosis. Conventional composite resins, such as Z350, reveal a wear resistance lower than that of the outer layer of mild dental fluorosis; such a characteristic may lead to increased wear of the restorative materials. Composite resin block, such as LUV, is fabri- cated under high temperatures and high pressures and possesses mechanical properties superior to those of the conventional composite resins [50]. In the present study,
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CRYPTIC CYSTIC PRESENTATION: A CASE REPORT

CRYPTIC CYSTIC PRESENTATION: A CASE REPORT

Dentigerous cyst is the second most common odontogenic cyst, caused by alteration of reduced enamel epithelium. It shows a male predominance and is reported predominantly associated with unerupted third molars. The most common clinical feature is painless swelling. Radiographic examination reveals a unilocular radiolucent lesion in association with the crown of an unerupted tooth. Treatment of dentigerous cyst often includes enucleation of the cyst. Presentation of dentigerous cyst with pain only is unusual as in our case. Presented here is a case report of 31-years-old male patient who complained of pain in the left lower back tooth region. A detailed clinical, radiographic and histopathological analysis aided in the diagnosis of infected dentigerous cyst.
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Microbiological and microhardness evaluation of artificial enamel fissures worn intraorally by humans

Microbiological and microhardness evaluation of artificial enamel fissures worn intraorally by humans

The computerized SPSS statistical program was used to conduct the following analyses: i microbial concentrations on bovine bovine inserts versus those on human human inserts enamel inser[r]

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Evaluation of changes in enamel thickness after orthodontic treatment depending on the force applied to remove orthodontic brackets: OCT analysis and universal testing machine

Evaluation of changes in enamel thickness after orthodontic treatment depending on the force applied to remove orthodontic brackets: OCT analysis and universal testing machine

but probably lower concentration. The mode of etching and priming of the 2 bonding systems is different. In our research, the effect of the enamel etching method on its thickness after the completed treatment was evaluated. The studies evaluated the entire tissue subjected to etch- ing, measuring the thickness of the cross-section from the inside to the outer border of the tissue, so it was pos- sible to measure all the layers obtained with OCT im- aging, which after their combination reflected the entire enamel cross-section. The mean enamel thickness after the completed treatment when using the classical etch- ing method was 101.00 μm and in the VII generation sys- tem group – 81.74 μm. However, the differences found were not statistically significant. The results show that enamel thickness after the treatment and its possible dam- age does not depend in any way on the bonding system type. The other authors’ studies suggest a smaller effect of the self-etching system on the enamel, and our experi- ment leads to the conclusion that the effect of both systems on enamel is similar. The difference in results in this re- spect is due to the fact that the methodology of compared studies differs. Our own research focused on the quantita- tive evaluation of enamel, whereas previously presented experiments of other authors such as Retief, 24 Arakawa
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The effect of different surface treatments of demineralised enamel on microleakage under metal orthodontic brackets

The effect of different surface treatments of demineralised enamel on microleakage under metal orthodontic brackets

In groups 2 to 4, microleakage occurred predominantly at the enamel-adhesive than at the adhesive-bracket interface, implying that in hypomineralised enamel, microleakage may cause more cases of enamel demineralisation than bracket detachment, a phenomenon that is certainly un- desirable. The gingival side generally exhibited higher microleakage value compared with that observed on the oc- clusal side for both the enamel-adhesive and adhesive- bracket interfaces, but the difference was not statistically significant for any of the study groups. Several studies [6,18,19,22] have reported statistically greater microleakage in the gingival rather than the occlusal margins, ascribing this difference to either the surface curvature anatomy which may result in relatively thicker adhesive at the gin- gival side [6,19] or to a curing method that applies light purely from the occlusal side [18,22]. To counteract the effect of light direction on microleakage, we applied light from four sides of the bracket.
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Comparison of Enamel Morphologic Characteristics after Conditioning with Various Combinations of Acid Etchant and Er:YAG Laser in Bonding and Rebonding Procedures: A SEM Analysis

Comparison of Enamel Morphologic Characteristics after Conditioning with Various Combinations of Acid Etchant and Er:YAG Laser in Bonding and Rebonding Procedures: A SEM Analysis

were observed on the enamel surface, which indicate that Er:YAG laser is inappropriate for enamel conditioning. Subsurface fissures beyond normal resin penetration depth after Er:YAG laser ablation were also reported by Dunn et al [14]. In 2015, Sawan et al found that Er:YAG laser-ablated surfaces showed higher number of craters [15]. In contrast, Keller and Hibst observed encouraging results after using Er:YAG laser, with only minimal damage of the surrounding tissue [16]. Considering the increasing number of orthodontic patients, and need for bracket repositioning in some cases, or inadvertent bracket debonding during treatment, standardization of rebonding procedures such as secondary enamel conditioning is necessary to maximize the efficiency of treatment and reduce costs. Considering the potential disadvantages of acid- etch technique and proposed benefits of Er:YAG laser as an alternative modality in bonding and rebonding, it seems logical to compare different enamel conditioners for bonding and rebonding in terms of shear bond strength, remnant adhesives, mode of bonding failure and enamel characteristics. In this study, by using SEM, the enamel morphology after irradiation with Er:YAG laser was evaluated and compared to that after the use of conventional acid-etch method. We also determined that whether the method of primary and secondary enamel preparation (by acid etchant and Er:YAG laser) affects enamel characteristics in rebonding.
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An Overview of Enamel Matrix Proteins

An Overview of Enamel Matrix Proteins

In ameloblastin-null mice, the dental epithelium differentiates from the matrix surface at the secre- tory stage and loses cell polarity. Mutant ameloblasts resume proliferation and accumulate to form multiple cell layers, producing abnormal, unstructured, and calcified matrix. Ameloblastin binds specifically to ameloblasts and inhibits cell proliferation of mutant ameloblasts. In mutant teeth, ameloblasts regain some early phenotypes of undifferentiated dental epithelial cells, and the abnormalities occur when the cells detach. The results indicated that ameloblastin was a key adhe- sion molecule for enamel formation and suggested that ameloblastin played an important role by binding to and maintaining the differentiated phenotype of secretory ameloblasts. 23,24 In another similar study on mutant
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HYPOPLASTIC ENAMEL ASSOCIATED WITH THE NEPHROTIC SYNDROME

HYPOPLASTIC ENAMEL ASSOCIATED WITH THE NEPHROTIC SYNDROME

HYPOPLASTIC ENAMEL ASSOCIATED WITH THE NEPHROTIC SYNDROME. Services[r]

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Combinatorial localized dissolution analysis : application to acid induced dissolution of dental enamel and the effect of surface treatments

Combinatorial localized dissolution analysis : application to acid induced dissolution of dental enamel and the effect of surface treatments

This method has proven to be particularly powerful for the investigation of dental enamel surfaces, which may show some inter- sample variability. With this approach herein, a single sample can be subjected to multiple treatments in different locations and their relative efficacy assessed, removing inter-sample effects. A particularly powerful aspect of the technique is that dissolution can be monitored for very short times, which is very beneficial as surface treatments often provide only a thin, transient coating, as shown herein. We expect that this approach could have myriad applications in the future for examining surface coatings and treatments. Although not exploited in this study, it should also be pointed out that dissolution can be monitored via the ion- conductance current during meniscus contact 59 which further enhances the capabilities of this technique.
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Fetal bovine serum: geographic origin and regulatory relevance of viral contamination

Fetal bovine serum: geographic origin and regulatory relevance of viral contamination

The article aims to clarify an existing misunderstanding by the users of fetal bovine serum (FBS), who assume that cer- tain countries, like Australia and New Zealand, have fewer cattle disease viruses and pose less risk for the presence of viruses, than do the other FBS producing countries. The article reviews the 2013 information from the World Organi- zation for Animal Health (OIE), regarding the presence and absence of the 14 viruses of concern for FBS in the cattle populations of the 30 major FBS producing countries of the world. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and European Union (EU) regulations have identified 8 adventitious viruses and 6 additional viruses of importation concern that need to be tested for or eliminated in FBS, viruses that can cross the placental barrier from the donor cow to the fetus. A comparison is made regarding the number of viruses of concern reported presently in each of the FBS producing countries. The results of the comparison reveal that four Scandinavian countries report the fewest number of viruses of concern for FBS (six in total), while Australia and the USA are among the countries reporting the highest numbers of viruses of concern for FBS (ten in total). FBS from Australia and the USA has thus no advantage over the other FBS producing countries, regarding the number of viruses needed to be tested for and eliminated. Keywords: Adventitious viruses, Animal health status, European Medical Agency (EMEA), Fetal bovine serum (FBS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Viruses of importation concern, World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
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