Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment

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Implementation of Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment in construction: A South African metropolitan area study

Implementation of Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment in construction: A South African metropolitan area study

The institution of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) has had an impact on the economy in South Africa. Due to its extensive reliance on government procurement, BBBEE has had a substantial influence on the construction industry in terms of transformation imperatives. Although much has been achieved in the transformation of the sector, its empowerment initiatives are generally deemed to be less effective. This argument can be attributed to the impediments encountered by industry stakeholders, when implementing BBBEE. The central subject examined in this study pertains to the BBBEE implementation challenges in South African construction. In order to get to the depth of the identified issues in the reviewed literature, the qualitative method was employed for primary data collection. Eleven interviews were conducted with management representatives of major construction firms in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolis, through the use of a brief questionnaire and an interview protocol. The empirical findings that emanated from the study show that most of the respondents were aware of the challenges associated with BBBEE implementation in the construction sector. However, very few are presently addressing the difficulties. This lack of action frequently promotes the exploitation of BBBEE by concerned parties. This exploitation leads to unethical procurement practices in the form of ‘fronting’. Based on the literature reviewed and the data that were collected, it appears that deterrents must be addressed before the implementation of the BBBEE initiative can begin to yield the desired benefits for all concerned parties in South African construction.
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Diggin' Deep into Gold Fields: South Africa's Unrealized Black Economic Empowerment in the Shadows of Executive Discretion

Diggin' Deep into Gold Fields: South Africa's Unrealized Black Economic Empowerment in the Shadows of Executive Discretion

Part I of this Note will provide an overview of South Africa’s transition from Apartheid towards its new democratic government and political econ- omy, of which BEE has been a central component over the last twenty years. It will track the development of black empowerment philosophy to the present day and reveal overarching issues in its implementation. Fur- thermore, it will present a case study of corruptive practices in the mining industry in response to BEE principles, regulations, and African National Congress (ANC) executive misconduct. The case study investigates the attempt by Gold Fields Limited to comply with BEE standards, providing insight into the potential for corruption within the parameters of the min- ing industry, and what tactics companies utilize to circumvent stringent compliance restrictions that apply to domestic industries beyond mining. Part II will critique the developments of BEE legislative policies, most importantly the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act (B-BBEE Act) and its Codes, including their progeny and amendments. In Part III, this Note will examine recent judicial decisions in South Africa that— by seeking to limit ministerial discretion, mitigate crippling corruptive prac- tices within the country, and provide support to assert principles from international treaties within domestic South African institutions— have resulted in the liberal expansion of judiciary powers. Part IV delineates the four major international and regional conventions to which South Africa is a signatory to find instruments by which South Africa has agreed to limit corruption that can be given effect through constitutional provisions and judicial interpretations. This Note concludes by stipulating how South Africa can improve implementation of its BEE program by limiting corrup- tion within all three government branches.
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Business Impact of the Black Economic Empowerment in South Africa:  A Critical Review of Four Case Studies

Business Impact of the Black Economic Empowerment in South Africa: A Critical Review of Four Case Studies

The concept of BEE as formulated at the Mopani Lodge was followed by government initiatives such as the Reconstruction and Development Program of 1994 which sought to redress the economic inequalities of the apartheid era (Bundy, 2014, p. 37). For example, the first affirmative action laws were passed in 1996 which mandated certain targets, varying by sector, of black employment in management and other skilled professions, as well as the promotion of initiatives in support of black enterprises. It would only be with the BEE Commission created in 1999, however, when a thoroughly interventionist approach to black economic empowerment was assumed by the ANC government (Acemoglu, Gelb & Robinson, 2007, p. 4). Two years after its foundation, the BEE Commission issued a report from which the process of asset transfer from whites to blacks was placed within a legal framework, and also from which the nature of BEE was greatly expanded. Officially, BEE was now to be known as Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (B- BBEE) although in practice the policy is still widely referred to as just BEE. The broad-based version of BEE would encompass, according to the Commission, “elements of human resource development, employment equity, enterprise development, preferential procurement, as well as investment, ownership and control of enterprises and economic assets” (Fauconnier & Mathur-Helm, 2008, p. 7). Towards this end the Commission recommended that specific goals be achieved within the next 10 years; principally, that 25% of shares on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) be in black hands, and that 50% of government procurements be from enterprises that are black-owned. The Commission also set forth three BEE focus areas aimed at helping black South Africans enter the mainstream economy. The focus areas were (1) direct” empowerment via
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The perceptions of employment equity and black economic empowerment as predictors of union commitment

The perceptions of employment equity and black economic empowerment as predictors of union commitment

With the aim of the Broad-based Black Economic Empowerment (BBEE) Act to transfer the ownership of assets into black hands (Innes, 2002), the same question as with the Employment Equity Act can be asked. Experience in practice has shown that individuals are not equally enthusiastic about the change and that this might also affect their commitment levels. This study will empirically test which biographical variables are significantly related to the perceptions of BEE (see Figure 1). The next section will provide some research evidence on the relationship bet ween biographical variables, EE and BEE.
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GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON SOCIAL SECURITY

GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON SOCIAL SECURITY

The ILO technical cooperation activities in the field of social security are based on its principles. Many States, like China, Latvia or Lebanon, take its provisions into account when drafting their own legislation, even if they have not yet ratified. The social security systems of nearly all European countries and many Latin American and Caribbean countries follow the pattern set out in Convention No. 102 40 and in the higher social security standards. The influence of these standards has also been felt in Japan and in the Republic of Korea as well as in Tunisia and Morocco. Furthermore, the Convention has influenced the development of formal social security systems in low-income countries: more than thirty African countries have set up pensions schemes modeled on it. Although these countries‟ formal social security systems cover only a small portion of the population, Convention No. 102 constitutes a development goal and is a reference used in documents setting long-term objectives with regard to the levels of protection and social security needed to be attained. 41
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Empowerment, intimate partner violence and skilled birth attendance among women in rural Uganda

Empowerment, intimate partner violence and skilled birth attendance among women in rural Uganda

Women’s empowerment is usually associated with bet- ter health outcomes. Women’ s empowerment includes household decision making, control over economic re- sources, and sexual empowerment. Inability to access health facilities and delays in making decisions to seek care with respect to place of delivery, has a bearing on skilled birth attendance [22]. Gender relations at house- hold level are instrumental in determining birth attend- ance. In patriarchal settings, male heads play a significant role in health care associated decision-making. Women’s autonomy, social standing and feelings of independence were positively associated with skilled birth attendance in Nigeria [23] and Uganda [24]. Several studies established that women’s empowerment was not only significantly as- sociated with modern contraception, but also skilled birth attendance [13, 25, 26]. In Busia-Uganda, involvement of other people such as a spouse in making decisions regard- ing place of delivery had a positive association with skilled birth attendance [27].
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Leadership and Democratic Governance in Nigeria

Leadership and Democratic Governance in Nigeria

Vision is one of the critical factors that separate transactional leaders from transformational ones, the political economy of Nigeria is intentionally skilled to serve political end at the expense of real development. Political considerations are often valued at the expense of survival of most corporations established by Nigerian government. For instance, during the second republic, Ajaokuta (then in Kwara State) was the only place where Steel Rolling Mill was to be originally located. Due to political consideration however “Steel Rolling Mills were eventually located in Oshogbo (West), Aladja (Mid-West), Jos (Middle – Belt) and Katsina (Core – North) without minding their economic viability” (Olaniyi, 1999:178). The economic wastage that resulted from this singular act can only be appreciated if one realise the fact that it took cancellation of debt in 2005 before the country could shroud off the debt burden incurred on those projects. The current regime of President Goodluck Jonathan has, like in Second Republic invested heavily in the aviation sector despite the level of hunger, poverty and illiteracy in the country.
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Community based Institutions and empowerment of women

Community based Institutions and empowerment of women

The concept of empowerment is deep rooted in the programme. The approaches adopted have been found effective in materializing the plan of action at grass root level and has resulted in achievement of tangible results. The process of communatization and extent of facilitation provided in the programme has paved a way to various means of empowerment like organization women as CBOs, making them credit worthy, paving for them the way to capital, engaging them in income generating activities, eventually better say and negotiating capacity in their family and community. The basic but important aspect of federating the women into groups and other allied activities though is being done by SHGs/VOs. However the higher community institutions like Cluster Lever Federations and Block Level federations shall have in coming years a lot of impact on the lives of poor women. The CLF/BLF should facilitate 1) Multiple livelihoods, 2) Marketing opportunities 3) Convergence with other programmes like MGNREGA, IAY, etc to expedite the income generation of poor people. Simultaneously through awareness and sensitization of the poor women on 1) Health and Hygiene 2) Nutrition and 3) Education shall bring a desired empowerment of women in true sense. The Programme has not only provided financial services to the poor but also acted as a launch pad for livelihood intervention as well as empowerment. There is a long way to go towards empowerment of women; however a successful beginning has been made in this direction.
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Conceptual Model for Agro-Based Entrepreneur’s ICT Engagement, Usage, and Economic Empowerment

Conceptual Model for Agro-Based Entrepreneur’s ICT Engagement, Usage, and Economic Empowerment

The usage of ICTs by the underserved communities(i.e., poor, less educated, rural dwellers) could have profound implications for specific dimensions of inclusive growth like empowerment in such communities (Baron and Gomez,2013). Majority of the B40s are micro-entrepreneurs, who are engaged in micro and small enterprises focused on agro-business, low-end activities in manufacturing, wholesale and retail, and transportation. These businesses are constrained by lack of managerial and technical skills, finance and markets, economies of scale and bargaining power, and access to technology and innovation. All of which could be mitigated through the innovative use of ICT. ICT offers a broad spectrum of people the platform to creatively expand their income or productive outcome. Following this trend, one of the most cited barriers to individual usage of ICTs is ability, which reflects the skill proficiency or educational level. Moreover, the low income and social status of the poor have also hindered their abilities to afford and effectively use digital technology(Hayrol et al.,2009; Hasan et al.,2009). Accordingly, the major barriers to inclusive usage of digital technology have started to receive adequate attention.Nevertheless, there is limited knowledge on how these influence individual inclusiveness. Specifically, despite the expanding access and usage of ICTs, the implication of user ’ s
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A STUDY OF EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN FROM FOUR PROFESSIONS

A STUDY OF EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN FROM FOUR PROFESSIONS

Data Collection: The Women Empowerment Inventory (WEI) was designed to measure the empowerment of professional women at five levels as suggested by World Bank. The researcher gave the scale value from 1 to 5. She converted the developed inventory (WEI) into the Google formand then emailed the link to the selected sample of professional women. Data analysis - Data was analyzed, descriptive and inferential usingANOVA and Tukey‟s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test.

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Probiotic Yoghourt for Health, Nutrition and Women's Empowerment in Kenya:  A Community-Based Approach

Probiotic Yoghourt for Health, Nutrition and Women's Empowerment in Kenya: A Community-Based Approach

As a result, the pandemic leaves behind a large pool of destitute orphans, sometimes under the care of ill relatives, or elderly and less productive grandparents (Drimie, 2002). The consequences are heightened poverty levels, low school completion rates, rising cases of child labour, depression, high levels of morbidity and mortality, and increasing crime rates, among other problems. HIV is also associated with low rates of investment due to a high dependency ratio. The number of dependents overwhelms the few active individuals often leading to very low or zero savings for the purpose of investment for continued productivity (Odundo & Owino, 2004, Drimie, 2002). For example, poverty is perpetuated by the high cost of taking care of the medical and nutritional needs of the infected, funeral expenses, and the reduced number of hours spent in economic activities to take care of the ill, lack of will, and hopelessness. Further, poverty and orphanhood work to reduce the rates of school enrolment and completion, many children resort to child labour in order to support their families. These orphans are then deprived of the opportunity for development - moral, intellectual, physical and spiritual as they are mistreated, often lured into sexual activities at an early age, or enslaved by their adopters and exploited for financial gains (PREPFAR, 2006; USAID, 2004; UNICEF, 2004; Drimie, 2002).
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INTERNET AND WOMEN SELF-EMPOWERMENT: OPPORTUNITIES, STRATEGIES, AND CHALLENGES

INTERNET AND WOMEN SELF-EMPOWERMENT: OPPORTUNITIES, STRATEGIES, AND CHALLENGES

The emergence of the Internet as a medium of mass communication has brought a great competition to the world of conventional media, like radio, television, newspaper and magazine among others (Ezeh, 2015). It has affected access to information and media use. The Internet is seen as a freedom device because of its unrestricted content nature. It is “unquestioned public and economic good to which all citizens have the right to access” (Livingstone, 2005; p.14); and control does not exist in the content presentation at the moment, as applicable to the conventional media, with censorship establishments in various garbs. Women can now have a voice in the content of the media and can now help in structuring media content that will address their issues. The underlying assumption is that if women have information that will help them understand their conditions, know their rights and learned skills traditionally denied to them by the society and the traditional media, empowerment would follow (Medel- Anonuevo and Bochynek, 1995).
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Historiography of Women Empowerment in India

Historiography of Women Empowerment in India

As many feminists have noted, there are no magic bullets for gender equality. Social change has multiple causes and is not necessarily linear. Even institutional changes can be reversed. Despite increase in numbers, women are still underrepresented in upper levels of decision- making positions. This is particularly true for rural, indigenous, and minority women in most countries. Women’s participation in parliament also does not mean that women are able to negotiate the power hierarchies. In summary, some important patterns in women’s empowerment are: (1) there have been positive changes in some key indicators of women’s empowerment particularly in enrolment at the primary education level and to some extent in secondary and tertiary levels and increased participation in national parliaments and in the labor force, though the latter is declining in the current crisis. To a lesser extent there has also been a decline in maternal mortality and fertility and increase in contraceptive use. However, the changes vary across regions with South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa showing the greatest gaps and within countries urban and rural poor, ethnic minorities, and older and disabled women fare worse on all indicators.
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Vermitechnology Based Tribal Women Empowerment for
Economic Development in Himachal Pradesh

Vermitechnology Based Tribal Women Empowerment for Economic Development in Himachal Pradesh

A novel technique of converting decomposable organic wastes into valuable manure (compost) through earthworm activity is a faster and beneficial process. The earthworms are used as the natural bioreactors for making decomposition of the waste materials. Keeping in view the vast availability of organic wastes in Himachal Pradesh, a project was undertaken in tribal areas of the state to train women for dissemination of the technology and their economic upliftment. The study was conducted in two districts of Himachal Pradesh viz. Kinnaur and Lahaul & Spiti. From these two districts 68 villages were randomly selected (27 in Kinnaur and 41 in Lahaul and Spiti) and 858 farm families (371 in Kinnaur and 487 in Lahaul & Spiti) were approached through a pre-tested interview schedule. The independent variables selected for the study were educational status, annual income of the family, size of land holding, cattle population, organic waste, crop husbandry information, manures and pesticides used. The population engaged in agriculture was 86.5, 80.5 and 50.2% in Kinnaur, Lahaul and Spiti, respectively. Due to the cultivation of cash crops such as apple, pea, potato, rajmash etc. income of the tribal families was satisfactory especially in Kinnaur. However, in Lahaul and Spiti 85.5 and 100% farm families fall under low income group.
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Volume1, Issue1August 2011

Volume1, Issue1August 2011

Information and communication technologies have made significant contributions to our social, economic, and political structures. It has also contributed to education. Massification, internationalization, access, and constraints of distance in education have been addressed using the Internet to foster interactions and collaboration among learners and instructors, and to deliver content in an increasingly globalized world This paper argues that the growth of the Internet is important for teaching and learning in that it facilitates education in ways that were previously challenging Web 2.0 is often described as the technology that would transform teaching and learning in the 21st century. Tools that students can use synchronously or asynchronously and also allow for collaboration, connection can all be found on the internet. Web 2.0 tools play an important role in teaching. Students and teachers are stand as the two elements in education system. In general, web 2.0 potential advantages for education subsume the facilitation of collaboration, peer participation, promotion of an independent and autonomous manner of learning and teaching and serves as a connection between formal and informal methods of education delivery Web 2.0 allows access to open educational material and software The new Web 2.0 culture encourages students to reuse and remix resources as well as create new knowledge. Students take an active role in learning, rather than passively receiving information from instructors. Web 2.0 has the potential to create more interactive and powerful learning environments in which learners become knowledge creators, in this paper Strategies and tips for teaching with web 2.0 technologies new technologies can help us improve our teaching and learning only when they are used with clear goals and proper methods. Effective use of new technologies requires innovation in teaching methods. Today’s students, many of whom are so called “digital natives”are making increasing use of Web 2.0 technologies in their daily lives.
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State Role Model in Regulating Market in Indonesia on Islamic Perspective

State Role Model in Regulating Market in Indonesia on Islamic Perspective

The role of the state in this case is to open access in economic activity to the community at large. State role can give the widest possible opportunity to make access to economic creativity. All things that can shut down access to the economy such as access to markets with monopolistic practice activities that are to be removed by the government. One form of motivation to people to make productive economic activities, such as seeking alternative sources of funding for empowering traditional market, traders and managers to improve the competence of traditional markets, prioritize opportunities for traditional traders who have been there to acquire business premises in the traditional market renovated or relocated as well as evaluate market management traditional. Making of market infrastructure is one of the important role the state of the market. Provision of infrastructure is one of the priorities at the time of Abbasid market management. Ahmad Farras Oran & Ghaida Khaznehkatb explain the provision of infrastructure in the Abbasid period:
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EFFECT OF EMPLOYMENT ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN URBAN BANGLADESH: AN INVESTIGATION ON KHULNA CITY 

EFFECT OF EMPLOYMENT ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN URBAN BANGLADESH: AN INVESTIGATION ON KHULNA CITY 

There is also an interesting finding regarding the relationship between different level of contribution to family and empowerment dimensions. Among the employed women, those who contribute more than half of family income possess .021 unit more controlling power than those who contribute nothing. Some respondent contribute to all family income and some other a part of total family income. But surprisingly this contribution is not making any difference in other dimensions of empowerment than those who are not contributing even though she is employed. Among considered demographic variables there are mixed roles of variables in different models of empowerment. So, it became hard to generalize any conclusion. The research provides very interesting finding that higher service category, higher contribution to family income, education of the respondents etc. are not empowering the women in many cases but these factors typically empower. One of the main reasons of said result is influence of family. So, it could be inferred that family tradition, respect to parents, respect to seniors and male dominancy exert influence in the every decision making process. A number of fundamental changes must occur for employment to be more empowering for women.
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The role of women groups in women economic empowerment: a study of selected women groups in Magutu division, Nyeri County, Kenya.

The role of women groups in women economic empowerment: a study of selected women groups in Magutu division, Nyeri County, Kenya.

collateral since the group members are able to guarantee each other loans. Without access to credit rural women often lack the capacity to deal with risk and the costs associated with innovation such as establishing or growing a rural enterprise or improving their productivity. Other constraints to women’s access to financial services include policy and legal barriers as well as cultural norms that prevent women from keeping bank accounts or entering into contracts without approval of their husbands or other men (Food and Agricultural Organization, 2011). Approaches to this problem have included group collateral through associations. Through membership of women groups, women can access credit which they can use to start up an income-generating activity. These associations can help strengthen their links to markets and diversify their economic activities (World Bank; FAO; IFAD Report, 2009). Therefore, group formation becomes a strategy for the women to get more resources to fulfil their strategic and practical needs as well as market their produce (Classens, 1993). Consequently this enables them increase their income.
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Cascading Crises and the World of Work: Implications for Women’s Economic Empowerment and Decent Work

Cascading Crises and the World of Work: Implications for Women’s Economic Empowerment and Decent Work

The most recent financial crisis in the global north started in the US in 2007, spread rapidly to North America and Europe and then unevenly around the world. The crisis cascaded from finance to the ‘real’ economy of economic output and employment, then to the fiscal (government deficits), becoming a political crisis with potential to cascade into violence and into a democratic crisis in some parts of the European Union (EU). Each stage of this crisis has been gendered. The cascading of the crisis and the depth of its effects might have been mitigated by different gendered practices, especially those concerning its governance. Through its detrimental consequences on the real economy and on fiscal balance, the financial crisis had significant adverse consequences on women’s position in work and employment and on capacity for care-work. Hence the regulation of finance, without which crises will recur, is a feminist issue 22 .
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EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN INDIA

EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN INDIA

Higher education definitely raises women’s status whether she contribute in the income of the family or not. She can be at par with men. Majority of the women in our country are un educated that is why they are suppressed .It is the duty of school teachers to tell them that becoming a wife is not their ultimate goal. Their standing up on their feet and being something is important. What should be the role of Universities and Colleges in empowerment?

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