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Effect of Guanidino Acetic Acid Consumption and Management Methods on the Reproductive Potential of Elderly Cockerel Broiler Breeders

Effect of Guanidino Acetic Acid Consumption and Management Methods on the Reproductive Potential of Elderly Cockerel Broiler Breeders

The procedures of this research were approved by the Animal Care and Welfare Committee of the Animal Science Research Institute of Iran. This study was extended out in a factorial 3 × 3 experiments using 486 broiler breeders (Ross 308) in 9 treatments with 6 replicates and 9 birds (8 hens and 1 cock) in each replicate. To become accustomed to standard conditions, the test began at 38 weeks of age. Records of experimental treatments were performed from weeks 41 to 62 (after peak production). The status of the breeding farm in terms of moisture content, temperature, weight control, management of feed intake, and other parameters was carried out by following the guide for raising broiler breeder of Ross 308 (2016). The experimental treatments consisted of three management methods (no method, spiking method, and intra-spiking method) and three levels of CreAmino (zero, 1200 mg/kg and 1600 mg/kg). The basal diet compound was presented in Table 1.
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The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Prebiotic and Probiotic on Performance, Humoral Immunity Responses and Egg Hatchability in Broiler Breeders

The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Prebiotic and Probiotic on Performance, Humoral Immunity Responses and Egg Hatchability in Broiler Breeders

The effects of prebiotic and probiotic on feed intake and feed conversion ratio during the 26-40 wks are shown in Table 3. The results showed that prebiotic and probiotic supplementations improved feed conversion ratio of broiler breeders numerically, however, the differences were not significant statistically (P>0.05). It has been claimed that the benefits of MOS is based on its specific properties such as modification of the intestinal flora, reduction in turnover rate of the intestinal mucosa and modulation of the immune system (Hajati et al., 2012).
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Pathobiology of Tennessee 2017 H7N9 low and high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in commercial broiler breeders and specific pathogen free layer chickens

Pathobiology of Tennessee 2017 H7N9 low and high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in commercial broiler breeders and specific pathogen free layer chickens

In March 2017, H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was detected in 2 broiler breeder farms in the state of Tennessee, USA. Subsequent surveillance detected the low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus precur‑ sor in multiple broiler breeder farms and backyard poultry in Tennessee and neighboring states. The pathogenesis of the H7N9 LPAI virus was investigated in commercial broiler breeders, the bird type mostly affected in this outbreak. Infectivity, transmissibility, and pathogenesis of the H7N9 HPAI and LPAI viruses were also studied in 4‑week‑old specific pathogen free (SPF) leghorn chickens. The mean bird infectious doses (BID 50 ) for the LPAI isolate was 5.6 log 10 mean egg infectious dose (EID 50 ) for broiler breeders and 4.3 log 10 EID 50 for SPF layer chickens, and no transmission to contact‑exposed birds was observed. In both bird types, virus shedding was almost exclusively from the oropharyn‑ geal route. These findings suggest sub‑optimal adaptation for sustained transmission with the H7N9 LPAI isolate, indicating that factors other than the birds genetic background may explain the epidemiology of the outbreak. The BID 50 for the HPAI isolate in SPF layer chickens was more than 2 logs lower (<2 log 10 EID 50 ) than the LPAI isolate. Also, the HPAI virus was shed by both the oropharyngeal and cloacal routes and transmitted to contacts. Greater suscepti‑ bility and easier transmission of the H7N9 HPAI virus are features of the HP phenotype that could favor the spread of HPAI over LPAI viruses during outbreaks.
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The Effect of Lightings Period on Eggs Production Precent and Hatchable Eggs Percent in Broiler-Breeders Flocks

The Effect of Lightings Period on Eggs Production Precent and Hatchable Eggs Percent in Broiler-Breeders Flocks

transporing Broiler breeders from slowing lightings program show that the all eggs producted 24 numbers were less than normal position, and The hatchable eggs had 21 numbers decrease to weeks 64 too. Sharps et al (1992) reported that with decreasing Layig hens, as derease the LH hormones density in pelasma and pituitary and decreasing sensitive to GnRH decreased the hens lay. In other place Morris et al (1995), about new mixed race that can layed more than 330 eggs in a 12 months period, Its seem pale we can improve the application of production eggs with lightings program. In fact the results of experiment of thease lightings perogerams showed that thease lightings programs cannot effect on numbers of eggs producted and numbers of hatchable eggs producted. In observations of Lewis (1996) annual production of eggs in broiler breeder that keeped under fixed photoperiod until hatch time, or after arrived to maturity had only one level photoperiod increased, for every hours increased lighting in per day (to 10 hours), 4 numbers increased, so yhe numbers of hatchable eggs had increased too. Robinson and Renema (1999), in their experiments showed that the top intensity of lighting maybe decreasing the hatchable eggs percent in a specials period. In observation of gous and cherry (2004), pullets of broiler breeders in age more than 21 weeks transport to the length day, the daly result associated to age will compensated by effect of lightings simulation on havier body weight. Lewis and Gous (2006) in their researches show that the broiler breeders acording body weight based Breeders companies recommendations, didn’t should simulated befor at least 19 weeks. Robinson et al (2006) in an experiment changed lightings period 8 hours lighting- 16 hours silence to 14 hours lighting- 10 hours silence that did in age 120-160 days, resulted that very soon lightings simulated can decrease the age of maturity so much. Lewis et al (2009) reported that increase or decrease the length of lighting like naturals position (between 10 to 14 hours) and keeping broiler breeder from young age under 14 hours lightind didn’t have any influence on their age in fifty percent eggs production time, Despie the birds that received 14 hours lighting per day, finally to age 60 weeks ratio the birds that received natural lighting producted 6 to 10 less eggs.
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Evaluation of a Commercially Available Probiotic and Organic Acid Blend Product on Production Parameters and Economics in Broiler Breeders

Evaluation of a Commercially Available Probiotic and Organic Acid Blend Product on Production Parameters and Economics in Broiler Breeders

Probiotics and organic acids have gained attention as options in poultry industry. Our laboratory has been working in the selection of lactic acid bacteria, mainly from the genus Lactobacillus, as potential probiotic candidates. Previous data indicates that these selected probiotic bacteria are able to reduce Salmonella infection and improve performance in broiler and turkey under experimental and commercial trials in the USA. The selected probiotic organisms were used in field trials to evaluate their efficacy in commercial conditions. Probiotic supplementation to broiler breeders has been shown to stimulate the release of reproductive and metabolic hormones and improve digestion and absorption of nutrients [49]. Previous results published in our laboratory have shown that the administration of selected probiotic candidate bacteria in combination with OA may reduce environmental Salmonella in turkey houses prior to live haul, and that this practice could help to reduce the risk of Salmonella cross contamination in the processing plant and reduced weight lost during transportation to the processing plant [14,17-20]. In the present study, the use of an OA blend followed by the administration of a probiotic for ten consecutive weeks, from week 25 to week 35, on growth performance parameters are summarized in table 2. No significant differences (P>0.05) on body weight and uniformity in females and males were observed between treated or control groups in any of the three trials (Table 2). Table 3 shows the results of the broiler breeder production parameters evaluated with or without supplementation of organic acids and probiotic. A significant reduction (P<0.05) in the percentage of deformed eggs, and weekly-cumulative mortality were observed in all three trials in the birds that received every week (25 to 35 weeks) the blend of OA and probiotic when compared with control non treated birds (Table 3). The results of the evaluation of the CBR of organic acids and probiotic in broiler breeder production parameters are summarized in the table 4. During the first trial in 2013, there was a CBR of only $0.75 USD, represented by 474 extra chicks, hatched in favor of the treated group when compared with control non-treated group. However, in the following trials in 2014 and 2015, birds that received once a week during 10 consecutive weeks, the blend of OA followed by the probiotic, had 5,465 and 5,629 extra hatched chicks when compared with control birds. This difference in the number of hatched chicks resulted in a CBF of $4.41 and $4.40 respectively in favor of the treated breeders (Table 4). In conclusion, the CBR of all three
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EFFECTS OF FLOOR AND NEST EGGS ON HATCHABILITY AND CHICK QUALITY PARAMETERS IN BROILER BREEDERS

EFFECTS OF FLOOR AND NEST EGGS ON HATCHABILITY AND CHICK QUALITY PARAMETERS IN BROILER BREEDERS

The quantitative and qualitative parameters of eggs and day old chicks are determined by broiler breeders. Floor and nest eggs are used by commercial hatcheries for incubation. This study was carried out to evaluate the hatchability and chick quality parameters between floor and nest eggs in broiler breeders. The experiment was conducted at the hatchery in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with two treatments. Five replicates were maintained for each treatment and each replicate consisted of 90 eggs. Nine hundred eggs from MX male x Cobb 500 female (35-40 weeks of age) were collected from the breeder farm. Eggs were incubated at Petersime commercial multi-stage (MS) incubator. Egg quality parameters; initial egg weight and shape index were measured just before the setter period. Egg weight reduction was calculated during incubation period. Live chicks and hatch residues were collected separately at the end of incubation period. Chick quality parameters such as chick weight, chick length and pasgar score were measured. Breakout test was conducted with hatch residues. Data was statistically analyzed using two sample t-test in SAS. Results revealed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) on hatchability between two types of eggs. Nest eggs reported the highest hatchability (90.0%) compared to floor eggs. Initial egg weight, egg shape index, moisture loss, hatch of fertile, chick weight, chick length, chick yield and pasgar score did not show any significant difference (P>0.05) between two types of eggs. Breakout analysis showed that higher embryo mortality and contamination occurred in floor eggs compared to nest
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Combination of a Lactobacillus Based Probiotic and Organic Acids Decrease Egg to Chick Weight Loss and Reduce Salmonella spp  Counts in the Litter of Commercial Broiler Breeders

Combination of a Lactobacillus Based Probiotic and Organic Acids Decrease Egg to Chick Weight Loss and Reduce Salmonella spp Counts in the Litter of Commercial Broiler Breeders

The effects of supplementing a blend of organic acids (OA) and a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based-probiotic on egg to chick weight loss (%) and Salmo- nella spp. recovery counts in the litter of commercial broiler breeders were examined in three independent trials during the years 2013, 2014 and 2015. In each trial, ten thousand birds were divided into two groups of 5000 birds (4500 females and 500 males in each group): Control non-treated group, re- ceiving regular water or treated group, receiving OA and probiotic in the drinking water from 25 to 35 weeks of age. During the ten weeks of evalua- tion, one thousand fertile eggs or hatched chickens in each trial respectively, were evaluated to obtained, hatching set weight, transferred egg weight, and hatching chick weight, to estimate the difference between egg to chick weight loss (%). Besides, in trial 2 (2014) and trial 3 (2015), litter samples were col- lected to evaluate Salmonella spp. counts. The supplementation of OA and probiotic during ten consecutive weeks significantly decreased the egg to chick weight loss (%) when compared with the control non-treated groups in all three trials evaluated. Interestingly, at the end of the trials 2 and 3, no counts of Salmonella spp. in the litter were detected. In contrast, control-non treated groups resulted in 4.30 and 4.24 Log 10 of Salmonella spp. in trials two
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Interaction between oviposition time, age, and environmental temperature and egg quality traits in laying hens and broiler breeders

Interaction between oviposition time, age, and environmental temperature and egg quality traits in laying hens and broiler breeders

Haugh unit score, which is an important char- acteristics of internal egg quality, was unaffected (Tables 2 and 3) by production type but decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001) with age, which agrees with Silversides and Scott (2001), Suk and Park (2001), Ledvinka et al. (2012), among many oth- ers. The effect of oviposition time on Haugh unit score was not significant which corresponds with Pavlovski et al. (2000), Tůmová and Ebeid (2005), and Tůmová et al. (2007, 2008). Haugh unit score was significantly (P ≤ 0.024) reduced at the higher temperature whereas Franco-Jimenez et al. (2007) found the opposite. However, the highest Haugh unit scores were detected in young laying hens in the afternoon at 28°C and the lowest in old broiler breeders at 11:30, also at the higher temperature. This indicates that a combination of factors plays a more important role rather than any single factor. This is underlined by the significant three-way in- teraction (P ≤ 0.013) between age, oviposition time, and temperature where the highest score (84.3) was in the afternoon eggs of young layers and the low- est of old broiler breeders (55.2), in both at higher temperature. Significant interactions have been reported previously between age and genotype by van den Brand et al. (2004), between oviposition time, genotype, and housing by Layendecker et al. (2001), Singh et al. (2009), and Tůmová et al. (2009), between housing and genotype (Tůmová et al., 2011), and between age and housing (Ledvinka et al., 2012).
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Effect of Dietary Phosphorus and Potassium in Broiler Breeders during Onset of Lay and Effect of Dietary Limestone Particle Size, Potassium and Phytase in Broilers.

Effect of Dietary Phosphorus and Potassium in Broiler Breeders during Onset of Lay and Effect of Dietary Limestone Particle Size, Potassium and Phytase in Broilers.

The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of short-term supplementation of two levels of K to two levels of AvP in broiler breeder diets during onset of lay to peak egg production on percentage FM, reproductive performance, and egg quality variables. The study measured the cloacal output of LP and feces over a 24 h period once a week from 22 to 30 wk of age, which took into account the discontinuous nature of feces discharge by chickens to ensure complete collection (Skadhauge and Dawson, 1980). Skadhauge (1981) reported that the water content of the urine-feces mass was in the range between 78 to 88% in domestic fowls. In the present study the FM that was measured weekly in the broiler breeders was found to be within a range between 82% to 90%, which was somewhat consistent with the literature (Skadhauge and Dawson, 1980; Skadhauge, 1981). Earlier information (North, 1978) has indicated that FM can be variable and, that FM can vary significantly with age, where feces from older birds have higher water content than feces from younger birds. Older birds’ FM ranged between 75-80% (North, 1978). In the present study, the week-wise linear relationship between LP and FM data showed an increase with age (Figure 2). The variation in FM explained by LP increased as the hens progressed in age and laying cycle as evidenced by the improved R 2 value. Age of birds causing variability in the FM
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Correlation between footpad lesions and systemic bacterial infections in broiler breeders

Correlation between footpad lesions and systemic bacterial infections in broiler breeders

Feet from dead broiler breeders from four Danish breeder flocks (A-D) was collected in a previous study as described in detail by Poulsen et al. [12]. Briefly, the flocks were followed throughout a full production cycle (20–60  weeks of age) and up to 10 random dead-on- farm birds weekly were collected and stored at −20  °C until post-mortem examination. All the collected birds (n = 997) underwent full post-mortem examination and the cause of mortality was determined [11]. Bacteriologi- cal examination was performed if observed macroscopic pathology in the bird was found to be suggestive of a bac- terial infection (e.g. salpingitis, peritonitis, arthritis, sep- ticaemia, amyloidosis, endocarditis and pododermatitis) [11].
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Bioavailability and Immunity Response in Broiler Breeders on Organically Complexed Zinc Supplementation

Bioavailability and Immunity Response in Broiler Breeders on Organically Complexed Zinc Supplementation

Female broiler breeder birds of synthetic dam line, maintained under All India Coordinated Research Net- work Project on “Poultry Breeding” were selected for the study. A total of two hundred and sixty four broiler breeder hens of 32 weeks of age were distributed ran- domly in four dietary treatments with three replicate per treatment. The hens were selected on the basis of their body weight and egg production. The hens were main- tained in individual layer cages. Experimental diets were offered @ 150 g/bird/day throughout the experimental period. The hens were provided 24 hours free access to clean drinking water. The experiment continued for a period of sixteen weeks i.e. 32 to 48 weeks of age of the hens. A basal diet was prepared to meet the nutrient re- quirement of broiler breeders [12]. The ingredient com- position and proximate composition of the basal diet is given in Table 1. The basal diet was analyzed for proxi- mate composition as per [13].
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Supplementation of Sodium Selenite and Methionine on Concentration of Selenium in Egg and Serum, Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Immune Response of Iranian Native Broiler Breeders

Supplementation of Sodium Selenite and Methionine on Concentration of Selenium in Egg and Serum, Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Immune Response of Iranian Native Broiler Breeders

Effects of sodium selenite (SS) in offspring of broiler breeders has been reported, but the comparison between SS and different level of methionine on offspring has received limited, so this study was conducted to investigate sodium selenite and methionine effects on concentration of selenium in egg and serum of Iranian native broiler breeders. An experiment was conducted in 3 × 3 factorial experiment with three levels of sodium selenite (0.0, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/kg of diet) and three levels of methionine (0.23, 0.31 and 0.33 % of diet) to investigate reproductive performance and immune status of broiler breeders (64-74 wks). The higher methionine levels increased the egg weight until the dose of 0.31% of diet (P < 0.05). In this experiment, 0.5 mg/kg SS with 0.31 % methionine in the diet was found to increase egg weight (P < 0.05). The highest salable chicks were obtained by supplementing 0.3 mg/kg SS (P= 0.07). Increasing the level of methionine from 0.23 to 0.33% without SS and also, supplementation SS at 0.3 mg/kg with 0.33 % methionine exhibited higher serum selenium, although, no effect of methionine levels was observed on concentration of selenium in serum and transfer rate. Concentration of selenium in eggs and serum were significantly affected by interaction of SS and methionine levels in diet. An increment in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) level tended to increase with SS (0.5 mg/kg) and methionine (0.33%) interaction (P=0.06). The results showed that increasing the level of methionine increases the immune response against influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that higher level of methionine at 0.31% could improve egg weight and Influenza and ND titers, SS at dose of 0.5 could increase concentration of selenium in serum, whereas increasing of SS levels significantly raised embryonic mortality. Corresponding author
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Effects of Phyzyme XP and Avizyme 1502 on the Performance of Broiler Breeders and their Progeny.

Effects of Phyzyme XP and Avizyme 1502 on the Performance of Broiler Breeders and their Progeny.

Phosphorus (P) has been found to be the second most abundant mineral in the body, not only for humans but for all domestic animals. Its abundance and ubiquitous presence in the entire body has become just one example of what the term “essential” could mean, especially as this mineral has been reported to influence metabolic, structural, and reproductive functions. For decades scientist have worked to establish minimum dietary requirements for domestic animals in order to promote optimum health and growth that later will be converted to profits for animal producers. The ninth and most recent edition (1994) of the Nutrient Requirements of Poultry from the NRC established that the minimum requirement of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) was 0.45% and 0.35% for broilers from 0-3 wk and 3-6 wk, respectively. For broiler breeders, 0.45% NPP diets during the rearing phase was recommended. Intensive selection in domestic avian species during the last decade (Rauw et al., 1998) has required advancements in nutrition and physiology to evolve as rapidly as those in genetics and genomics (Burt, 2002). This situation has made industry and academia constantly reevaluate the nutritional requirements necessary to support genetically induced improvements in performance, while taking in consideration animal welfare and the environment.
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Effect of Using Enzyme Complex on Productivity and Hatchability of Broiler Breeders Fed a Corn-Soybean Meal Diet

Effect of Using Enzyme Complex on Productivity and Hatchability of Broiler Breeders Fed a Corn-Soybean Meal Diet

A total number of 5520 female and 480 male breeders (Arbor Acres plus) at 42wks of age were used in a 10-week-trial to investigate the effect of an enzyme complex on the quality and quantity of egg production as well as hatchability of broiler breeders fed a corn- soybean meal diet. There were two dietary treatment groups: a control group fed on a corn-soybean based diet, and the multi-enzyme group that received the same diet plus an enzyme complex including xylanase, amylase, protease, phytase, ß-glucanase, hemicellulase, and pectinase. Results showed that egg production rate and egg mass were numerically increased as a result of enzyme supplementation and differences between the treatment groups were significant at week 46 (P<0.05). Hatchability was not influenced by supplementing multi- enzyme mixture in the diet. The proportion of cracked and broken eggs was signed (P<0.05) improved after using multi-enzyme supplementation in the diet of breeders. In conclusion, egg production and egg mass were increased as a result of multi-enzyme preparation. Significant improvements achieved in egg shell quality led to a greater number of eggs for hatching, though hatchability itself, was not improved by multi-enzyme supplementation.
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Broiler Breeder Reproductive Performance and Broiler Progeny Live Performance as Affected By Incubation Conditions and Supplemental Trace Mineral Source in the Diets of Broiler Breeders and Their Progeny

Broiler Breeder Reproductive Performance and Broiler Progeny Live Performance as Affected By Incubation Conditions and Supplemental Trace Mineral Source in the Diets of Broiler Breeders and Their Progeny

(Natureform, I-10). The FRESH eggs were centered on either side of the drum pivot in the incubator with the STORED eggs on either side. On E18, STORED and FRESH eggs were transferred into separate, pre-heated hatchers. The FRESH hatcher (Natureform, H-10) contained 2 trollies. Each trolley contained 12 hatching baskets, one for each broiler breeder pen. Each tray of eggs was transferred into a separate hatching basket and randomly placed on the appropriate trolley in the hatcher, where they remained until time of pull. When approximately half of the chicks had hatched, hatching baskets were individually removed from the trollies and the hatched chicks were counted and separated into 2 labeled chick boxes, representing a single broiler breeder pen. This process was repeated for all hatching baskets. The chicks hatched from each FRESH pair were then feather-sexed, with females placed into one chick box, and males into another. Early hatching males were set aside for use in a secondary experiment (Broiler Experiment 4). Females were set aside and not used. Once the remaining chicks had hatched (late hatching chicks), the above process of sexing and separation was repeated. After all chicks had been feather-sexed and separated, the boxes containing late hatching males were grouped according to broiler breeder dietary TM source and broiler TM source assignment and resulted in 6 treatment combinations, each containing chicks from 2 different broiler breeder pens fed the same TM source.
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Effects of Refined Functional Carbohydrates on the Incidence of Salmonella in Broiler Breeder Hens and Their Progeny.

Effects of Refined Functional Carbohydrates on the Incidence of Salmonella in Broiler Breeder Hens and Their Progeny.

Manuscript III investigated dosimetry combinations of 0, 50, 100, and 200 g/MT RFCs fed to broiler breeders during growing and laying and the effects on live performance, production, and Salmonella incidence. Salmonella were isolated on breeder pen slats and litter surfaces and male and female cloacas at the end of production (~64 wk). There were no observable effects of RFCs reducing incidence of Salmonella in this experiment, and this was attributed to high-moisture pen environments due to a fogger system that was wetting some feed. Manuscript IV further investigated RFCs effects on Salmonella proliferation when fed to broilers and carry over live performance effects from feeding breeder parents RFCs. A novel litter sampling method was developed at a broiler age of 35 d where a pre-enriched sterile sock was aseptically applied to a paint roller brush, which then made contact with the entire surface of each individual pen. Control-fed broiler litter pens were found to be 14.6% positive for Salmonella and RFCs fed pens were found to be 0% positive. Broilers within four pens from each of litter positive and negative pens had their cecas sampled for
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Age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

Age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

In 2014–2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age‑related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) (Tk/MN/15) virus in commercial 5‑week‑ old broilers, 8‑week‑old broilers, and >30‑week‑old broiler breeders. The mean bird lethal dose (BLD 50 ) was 5.0 log 10 mean egg infectious dose (EID 50 ) for all age groups. The mean death time (MDT) was statistically not different among the three age groups, ranging between 3.2 and 4.8 days. All broilers that became infected shed high levels of virus with transmission to contacts and demonstrated severe pathology. Mortality and virus shedding results indicated that age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI virus. Previously, the Tk/ MN/15 virus had a BLD 50 of 3.6 log 10 EID 50 and MDT of 2 days in White Leghorn chickens and a BLD 50 of 5.0 log 10 EID 50 and MDT of 5.9 days in turkeys, suggesting that the broiler breed is less susceptible to Midwestern H5N2 virus than the layer breed but similarly susceptible to turkeys. Therefore, genetic resistance of broilers to infection may have accounted only partially for the lack of affected broiler farms in the Midwestern outbreaks, with other contributing factors such as fewer outside to on farm exposure to contacts, type of production management system or enhanced biosecurity.
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Financial Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency of Broiler Farming in a Selected Area of Bangladesh

Financial Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency of Broiler Farming in a Selected Area of Bangladesh

In this section, the costs, returns and profitability of raising broiler birds were estimated and to focus on the main factors affecting return of broilers production. In estimating cost of rearing broiler birds, total costs per farm per year were considered. Variable costs were determined for day old chick, feed, veterinary expenses, hired labor, litter costs, electricity cost and transportation cost. On the other hand, fixed cost included housing cost, tools and equipment, family labor, and interest on operating capital etc. On the return side, gross margin, net return, returns per taka invested on total cost were estimated.
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Do warning calls boost survival of signal recipients? Evidence from a field experiment in a group-living bird species

Do warning calls boost survival of signal recipients? Evidence from a field experiment in a group-living bird species

I assessed the kinship of non-breeders in a group by following reproduction (n = 21 individuals) or by observing the behavioural interaction of breeders and non-breeders on feeders (n = 7 individuals). In most groups, nests were found by following breeding adults that had been radio- tagged. All nestlings in successful nests were ringed with a metal ring and three colour rings, allowing recognition of individuals as retained offspring if they remained with their parents after independence. In groups where reproduction was not followed, I assessed the aggressive interactions between breeders and unringed non-breeders on feeders following a standard protocol [26]. Breeders are rarely aggressive towards retained offspring, while they frequently displace or chase away unrelated non-breeders from the feeder [9,26]. Assessing relatedness using this behavioural proxy has been shown to be reliable when compared with individuals of known relatedness [26].
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Emerging trends of antibiotic resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter spp. in commercially produced turkey flocks.

Emerging trends of antibiotic resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter spp. in commercially produced turkey flocks.

Increasing cloud coverage increases the risk of a flock carrying Campylobacter The average cloud coverage, measured in oktas, or the fraction of the total celestial dome covered by clouds or other obscuring phenomena, for the three and five weeks prior to sampling was found to be highly associated with the probability of a flock carrying Campylobacter (p<0.001). The results from the three week average cloud coverage indicate that for each okta increase in cloud coverage results in nearly four times the odds of a flock being positive (OR= 3.0, 95% CI 1.87 – 9.94). Cloud coverage is particularly interesting as studies done in broilers have produced mixed results regarding the effect of sunshine on Campylobacter prevalence (Hansson et al., 2007; Sommer et al., 2016; Wallace et al., 1997). The results of one study found that the number of hours of sunshine was positively correlated with the carriage rate in broiler ceca likely reflect the increased length of days during the summer months (Wallace et al., 1997). In the case of our results, lower cloud coverage may allow the sun to dry the ground decreasing possible environmental niches for Campylobacter.
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