The present study demonstrated that the contamination of poultry and poultry products should be prevented during handling, slaughtering and processing to protect the public from infections and diseases. Present data also indicated that the viable count of microorganisms causing public hazards is also appropriate for analysis. Due to increasing density of poultry farms and infectious diseases in poultry caused by pathogenic bacteria, the healthy development of the poultry industry is facing serious threat. Therefore, application of hygienic measure- ments appears to be important to reduce the contamination of bacteria after processing of meat. The presence of E. coli and Salmonella demonstrates a po- tential health risk since the organisms are pathogenic and give warning signal for the possible occurrence of food borne intoxication. The need for microbial as- sessment of fresh meats for human consumption is emphasized and recom- mended to reduce possible hazard. Sensible use of antibiotics should be consi- dered in broiler production since many strains get resistant to common antibio- tics. The leaf extract of Azadirachta indica showed potent antibacterial activity against E. coli . It is recommended to isolate and separate the bioactive com- pounds responsible for this antibacterial activity and to apply such medicinal plants to minimize bacterial contamination in broiler meat.
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To the authors’ knowledge, no study has been published to date investigating the exact market structure and linkages between people involved in the broiler chicken meat system with focus on Nairobi. Such information is essential to allow better planning for this sector, identification of growth opportunities, market development challenges and to support national food safety policies and disease control programmes. Given the challenges the sector faces in terms of food borne diseases (Salmonella, Campylobacter) (Meakins et al. 2003; WHO and FAO 2009; Zhao et al. 2001), emerging disease issues such as avian influenza (Greger 2007), and the ongoing intense debates on antimicrobial use in the intensive livestock systems with chicken specifically being focussed (Landers et al. 2012; Marshall and Levy 2011; Van Boeckel et al. 2015), there is a need to assist broiler farmers in developing sustainable livelihood options and to identify food safety and health risks arising from these fast-evolving environments. It is therefore important to understand better the structure of this broiler meat system across income areas.
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The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of omega three enriched broiler meat was determined by using gas li- quid chromatography . Lipids from meat samples were extracted using a non-polar solvent, n-hexane (GC-grade). The fatty acids profile of extracted lipids were prepared and analyzed according to the AOCS (1998) Method No. Ce 1f-96. 50 μl oil sample was methyated in the presence of 4 mL KOH (1 M) at room temperature for one hour in order to produce fatty acids methyl esters. The resultant methyl esters were extracted with GC grade n-hexane for immediately analyzing by Gas Chromatograph (Agilent Technologies, 6890N) equipped with an auto sampler, flame-ionization de- tector (FID) and fused capillary column (Silica 30m × 0.25 film thickness) apparatus. Samples (1 μL) were injected with Nitrogen (3.5 mL/min) as a carrier gas onto the column, which was programmed for operating conditions such as column oven temperature 220°C for 7.5 minutes, split ratio (50%) with injector and detector temperatures (260°C). Peak areas and total fatty acids profile percentages were calculated for each sample by retention time using Agilent Chem. Station software. The standards of fatty acids methyl esters purchased from Sigma-Aldrich were also run under the same con- ditions for comparison with experimental samples. Product development
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The main objectives of the present research were to determination of Ochratoxin A in locally broiler meat sold in markets of Baghdad province by ELISA, effect of ozonated water treatment (0.5ppm/15 min.) on the level of Ochratoxin A in positive samples and finally determination of Ochratoxin A after ozonated water treatment. A total of 50 samples were collected randomly from various markets located in different locations of Baghdad province from each sector Al-Kirkh and Al-Rusafa during November 2017 to March 2018. All meat samples were positive for Ochratoxin A and the result showed that there were a significant differences (P d” 0.05) in the residual levels (ppm) of Ochratoxin A between Al-Kirkh and Al-Rusafa before and after ozonated water treatment. The highest Mean ± SE values were recorded in Al-Rusafa (0.648 ± 0.0020), followed by Al-Kirkh (0.636 ± 0.0025) before ozonated water treatment, while the highest Mean ± SE values after ozonated water treatment were recorded in Al-Rusafa (0.346 ± 0.0025), followed by Al-Kirkh (0.332 ± 0.0049). The lowest Mean ± SE values of Ochratoxin A before ozonated water treatment were recorded in Al-Rusafa (0.502 ± 0.0040), followed by Al-Kirkh (0.504 ± 0.0058), while the lowest Mean ± SE values of Ochratoxin A after ozonated water treatment were recorded in Al-Rusafa, followed by Al-Kirkh also at (0.264 ± 0.0040), and (0.266 ± 0.0025) respectively. This research indicated that the poultry meat treated with ozonated water has the advantages methods that it did not affect the colour and texture characteristics of the meat, can be used to eliminate or reduce Ochratoxin A residues at the same time, and can be used in any slaughter house without the need to modify the design of the buildings.
Meanwhile, for rice, this condition caused a decrease in production and an increase in consumption caused an increase in import. The end result of the increase in the price of broiler meat was a decrease in the net rice import. Results of the simulation demonstrated that there was a 1.348% increase in the net import of rice [Table 4]. This is because rice import is always done even though rice production increases. This policy is applied by the government with the purpose to ensure the domestic availability of rice. For broiler meat itself, the 10% increase in its price had an opposite effect on production and consumption. The increase in the price of broiler meat increased the production of broiler meat but decreased the consumption of broiler meat. To fulfill the equilibrium, this could be fulfilled by an increase in export and or a decrease in import which would ultimately cause the net import to decrease. The results of the simulation demonstrated that the increase in production and decrease in consumption causes an excess supply, reducing the net import of broiler meat by 1.706% [Table 4].
contrary, our results showed that type C of C. perfringens was the most prevalent type in broiler meat samples. The same results has been reported by Poursoltani et al. which detected all 180 isolates of C. perfringens from wing, neck, liver and gizzard of broiler chickens in Mashhad, as type C by multiplex PCR. 37
A total of 240 day-old Ross x Ross broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 20 pens and divided into four treatments (0%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25%). Treatments were assigned randomly and consisted of the incorporation tuna oil in commercial sorghum-soybean diets (Table 1). Starter or grower diets were calculated to meet the re- commendations of the National Research Council (NRC) [15,16]. The final concentration of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in the experimental diets are shown in Table 2. Feed and water were provided ad libitum until the end of the ex- periment (49 days of age).
Chemical composition of chicken meat has been o en diﬀ erent (Horniaková et al., 1999), particularly inﬂ uenced by nutrition, application of new trends in nutrition, breeding environment and a relatively large impact. However, Tab. IV shows us the results of the breast and thigh muscles chemical composition, where they found that the moisture content was higher in the experimental groups compared to the control groups and there were no signiﬁ cant diﬀ erences (P ≥ 0.05). Further, the present ﬁ ndings is supports (Seven et al., 2008) who was found that the moisture was higher in the experimental groups, also with (Čuboň et al., 2013; Haščík et al., 2013) tested bee pollen for broiler and found similar results. Protein and fat from the nutritional point of view constitute a signiﬁ cant part of broilers muscles (Duclos et al., 2007; Berri et al., 2008). Further, the broiler breast and thigh protein content have shown in the Tab. IV a er administration propolis in where that the protein content has been was decreased in all experimental groups compared to control group. The recent study has support (Haščík et al., 2013) who was evaluated the chemical composition of broiler muscles a er addition bee pollen into their feed mixture. Fat constitutes an energy reservoir of the broiler chickens also fat content vitamins which soluble in fat, daintiness (Ševčíková et al., 2006, 2008) as well as supplier of essential fatty acid which can be inﬂ uenced by nutrition (Zelenka et al., 2008), although dietary factors are suspected to be important determinants of (CHD) coronary heart disease (Gary et al., 1992). Our result shows the breast and thigh fat content in control was higher compared to experimental groups and in the breast there were signiﬁ cant diﬀ erences (P ≤ 0.05) between control group and (III, IV) groups. This result in agreement with (Čuboň III: Eﬀ ect of the propolis supplementation on the organ weights in broilers
between May 2007 and September 2008, our study shows that Campylobacter detection in breast meat samples appeared most successful after an enrichment step (Habib, Sampers et al. 2008; FSA 2009). All samples which tested positive by direct plating were in fact positive also after enrichment. On the other hand, samples that were negative by direct plating were found to be positive after enrichment. As reported by other authors, recovery of Campylobacter after selective enrichment broths appears to be higher compared to direct plating, when low numbers, injured and/or stressed bacteria and also low background flora are expected to be reported (Beuchat 1986; Corry, Post et al. 1995; Mason, Humphrey et al. 1999; Abulreesh, Paget et al. 2005). Evaluating the different enrichment steps, incubation in modified Exeter broth for 48 hours appeared to maximize Campylobacter recovery from the breast meat fillets. However, comparing the different broths and the various incubation times, no significant differences were observed. As well enrichment broths and incubation times appeared not to have any effect on Campylobacter species distribution (Williams, Sait et al. 2012). The lower number of positive samples detected by direct plating may also be due to the fact that the majority of the samples had Campylobacter counts below our detection limits of 100 cfu/g, highlighting an inability of the enumeration method used to count low bacteria numbers. However, since this pathogen has a low infectious dose for humans (Robinson 1981; Black, Levine et al. 1988; Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food 2005), corrective actions need to be taken to improve the safety of the final product independently of the bacterial count observed.
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For poultry to reach their genetic potential in performance, there is a need for farmers to use best practice management and husbandry (Case et al., 2010; Ross, 2015). Good nutrition, lighting, and temperatures are key factors in achieving high growth rates and meat yield, but management factors such as stocking density, socialization, litter quality, gate score, and foot- pad dermatitis (FPD) must also be looked at in regard to welfare. As genetic selection for rapid growth and higher body weight continues, considerations associated with animal welfare are becoming increasingly important, as instances of this genetic selection has lead to health problems (Glatz and Rodda, 2013).
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In this study, APEC infection resulted in relatively higher pH values and lower WHC and moisture content of breast muscle. Similarly, Istiqomah et al. (2013) reported the increased pH values and decreased moisture content and WHC of breast meat with APEC infection. It seemed that the high pH values caused by APEC infection was associated with the depletion of muscle glycogen (Istiqomah et al., 2013) and thus ultimately decreased WHC and water content in meat. Note that higher glycogen level in muscle is attributed to the higher moisture content as glycogen binds to water (Kerth, 2013). Studies have documented the capacity of antibiotic zinc bacitracin and probiotics (Lactobacillus spp. and Aspergillus probiotics) in elevating the WHC and moisture content of broiler meat (Contreras-Castillo et al., 2008; Saleh, 2014). Conversely, the administration of either antibiotic zinc bacitracin or probiotic Bacillus could not alleviate the water loss from APEC infected broiler meat in the current work. The lack impacts of antibiotics oxytetracycline and neomycin as well as probiotic Bacillus subtilis (DSM 17299) on the water content and drip loss of broiler meats have also been recently reported by Abdulla et al. (2017). In this regard, different types of antibiotics, species of probiotic microorganisms and the particular condition during the chicken trial may result in divergent findings. In general, the values of WHC were relatively low across the breast muscle samples in the current study. The relatively high temperature during the study period (32±2ºC) may decrease the overall WHC values of broiler meats as recently documented by Xing et al. (2019). Indeed, the WHC values in the present study were actually higher than that of formerly revealed by Istiqomah et al. (2013), i.e., 30.11 to 36.24%.
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Even though meat from slow-growing genotypes is reputed to have superior texture (Fanatico et al., 2006), some studies have found the tenderness of broiler meat to decrease with age (Berri, 2000). In the present study we found that meat was less tender and juicy, and harder in the traditional broiler hybrid JA757 when it was slaughtered at 110 d of age. In contrast, the meat from the New Hampshire became more tender and juicy and less hard with age. Similar results have been obtained in another study with two different dual- purpose breeds (Horsted et al., 2005). Meat tenderness may be influenced by various factors (Berri, 2000; Yang and Jiang, 2005), and it can be speculated whether the differences in growth pattern may influence the development in meat texture. However, in the study by Horsted et al. (2005), males and females did not have the same growth pattern, but both sexes showed the same development in meat tenderness. Therefore the different development in meat texture is more likely to be related to other genetic differences, such as body composition, e.g. reduced abdominal fat (Ricard et al., 1983; Chambers et al., 1989), locomotor activity (Lei and Van Beek, 1997) and pre-slaughter stresses (Debut et al., 2003, 2004), and different breast meat yield and post-mortem metabolism (Berri, 2000). Likewise the muscle structure might be different in terms of more and larger muscle fibres in fast growing breeds
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4.2. Effect of soya flour substitution by Leucaena leucocephala leaves on the daily feedconsumption The effect on the interaction of treatment and dose on the consumption was significant by the fact that the consumption index increased with the substitution rate. The feed consumptions recorded in the course of the experience corroborate the result of (Riise et al. ;2004).Such feedconsumption increases were observed on the subjects treated with Leucaena leaf powder ( Mutayola et al.;2003) on young chickens. Contrary to this result, (Bello,2010) obtained a consumption decrease by incorporating the M.oleifera leaves at 16 to 24% in the ration the broilers in Senegal. The similar results were also obtained by (Ter Meulen et al.;1989) on the broiler meat receiving Leucaena leaf powder at 20 and 30% of inclusion and the seeds at the incorporation rate of 3, 6, 9, and 12%. This may be explained by the effects of the antinutritional factors such as the mimosina which seems to inhibit the appetite of animals; this is contrary to the present result for (Bello,2010) and (Ter Meulen et al .;1989) didn’t include in their ration the ferricsulphate.
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The current study reveals occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in frozen broiler meat. There are several other reports describing Campylobacter spp. contamination in frozen retail poultry meats and/or by-products in the world in spite of their sanitary conditions . Such reports, from both developed and developing countries, reveal that poultry meat is the food vehicle most frequently contaminated with Campylobacter spp. . These findings, along with the findings in this study are suggestive of high prevalence of Campylobacter at flocks level as previously reported by Stern et al.  and Arsenault et al.  who observed a positive correlation between the contamination of carcasses and the high positivity rates for Campylobacter of flocks at the farm level. The ability of Campylobacter spp. to survive refrigeration and freezing has a huge implication to food safety and public health given that ingestion of only 500C. Jejuni cells has resulted into illness in human experimental infections [30,31].
In recent decades, the availability of sulphur in soil has become a limiting factor compromising plant growth and consequently affecting animal and human feeding. Moringa oleifera L. is known as one of the most useful multipurpose plants. It can be effectively utilized as food supplement and help in the management of nutrient shortage and sulphur metabolism stimulation because of its nutrient and sulphur content. The present experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Moringa leaf powder supplementation on growth performance, biochemical profile and sulphur metabolism stimulation of broiler chicken. A total of fifty-six broiler chicks of 21-day old (Cobb500) were purchased and randomly divided into four groups with two replicates containing seven birds each. Broiler starters were fed with the same starter diet; while at growth stage, four types of diet were formulated: F0 (Moringa 0%), F1 (Moringa 2%), F2 (Moringa 4%) and F3 (Moringa 8%). Chicks were fed twice a day and water was given ad libitum with the experimental diets till completion of the experiment. Collected data were analysed using ANOVA and were statistically significant if p<0.05. Significantly higher body weight was recorded in birds fed with F1 whereas feed conversion ratio was not significantly affected. No significant differences were observed in ash and carbohydrate content of broiler meat due to feed supplementation. The experimental diets did not considerably affect broiler chicken serum parameters, indicating no harmful or deleterious effect. Likening result to control, the consumption of Moringa leaf powder by birds significantly increased the synthesis of protein up to 30% and 38% respectively in the serum and breast meat, glutathione as well as the glutathione S-transferase activity. It may thus be concluded that, the inclusion of Moringa leaf powder in broiler chicken diet increases growth performances and metabolism stimulation through the synthesis of some sulphur compounds.
A total of 8400 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 10 dietary treatments in such a way as to ensure similar mean body weights across treatments. There were six replicates per treatment (140 chicks per pen). Chickens were kept in the windowless house with full climatic control, on deep litter from wood shavings. Each pen was equipped with manually ﬁ lled tube feeders and nipple drinkers. The stocking density was 17 broilers per square meter. Heating and lighting programmes were in accordance with Ross Broiler Management Manual (2009). On days 10, 24 and 35, the chickens were weighed individually. At the same time, feed consumption
In a study to evaluate the quality of broiler meat with green tea extract (0.10 and 0.20 g per kg), both the redness and yellowness indices were increased by the extract supplementation. These discrepancies may be due to the different plants of above mentioned researches and those used in our experiment. In our study, turmeric and cinnamon powders elevated the water-holding capacity and pH. Generally, pH value is a direct reflection of muscle acid content and affects the shear force, drip loss and color in meat. Muscle pH variation is also related to glycogen content of the muscle. It has been accepted that higher catecholamine secretion in response to an acute stressor prior to slaughter, increases glycogen breakdown and the rate of post-slaughter pH decline that causes the pale, soft and exudative meat. 39 It has been reported that heat stress
An experiment with broiler chickens was conducted to compare the relative bioavailability of liquid methionine hydroxy analogue free acid (MHA-FA) with that of DL-methionine (DLM) during fattening to 35 days of age. Ross 308 male chicks were allotted to 9 treatments, each consisting of six replicates of 140 birds/pen. Four graded levels (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.28 %) of MHA-FA or DLM products (weight/ weight comparison) were added to a maize-wheat-soyabean meal basal diet deﬁ cient in sulphur amino acids. The criteria of response were body weight, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and breast meat yield. Signiﬁ cant responses to graded levels of both methionine sources were observed in all response criteria. Using a multi-exponential model describing the dose-response relationships, the bioavailability estimates of MHA-FA relative to DLM on a weight-to-weight basis were 68, 70, 54 and 59 % for body weight, feed conversion, carcass yield and breast meat yield, respectively. If MHA-FA was compared with DLM on equimolar basis its bioavailability was 77.7, 79.0, 59.3 and 64.6 for body weight, feed conversion, carcass yield and breast meat yield, respectively. The bioavailability of MHA-FA for carcass yield and breast meat yield was signiﬁ cantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of DLM on a weight-to-weight and on equimolar basis.
Over the past several years there has been an increasing consumer demand for poultry meat produced from birds that are raised on antibiotic-free diets (Castanon, 2007; Casewell et al., 2003). This has been difficult for turkey producers due to the length of time it takes to raise the birds to market age, and the amount of disease and immune challenges that a turkey tom will be exposed to in 5 months (20 weeks) of production (Tabler, 2004). Most turkey producers include an antibiotic feed additive during the growing and finishing phases of production to reduce the adverse effects of enteric pathogens and intestinal microbial challenge. This enteric stress can leave the bird more susceptible to bacterial infections. Inflammation or other enteric stress can cause a reduction in feed intake and a decrease in nutrient absorption efficiency, resulting in a lack of potential growth, or a depression in growth rate (Patterson and Burkholder, 2003).
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quality she found that the increasing lipid levels was increased. Holcman et al. (2003) who study the chemical composition of chicken meat from free range and extensive indoor rearing, they found on free range that the protein (16.8%) and fat (13.1%) was the antithesis of our results but the water content was support our results, in the other hand indoor system results in protein (20.4%) and fat (7.0%) contents was an agreement with our results. Berzaghi et al. (2005) who were studied the Near- infrared reﬂectance spectroscopy as a method to predict chemical composition of breast meat and discriminate between diﬀ erent n-3 feeding sources, they were found on their results that the water content was higher in control group than experimental groups this results didn’t support our results.