The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is an American lagomorph. In 1966, it was introduced to Italy, where it is currently widespread. Its ecological niche is similar to those of native rabbits and hares and increasing overlap in distribution brings these species into ever closer contact. Therefore, cottontails are at risk of infection with the two lagoviruses endemically present in Italy: Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus (RHDV) and European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus (EBHSV). To verify the susceptibility of Sylvilagus to these viruses, we analyzed 471 sera and 108 individuals from cottontail populations in 9 provinces of north-central Italy from 1999 to 2012. In total, 15 – 20% of the cottontails tested seropositive for EBHSV; most titres were low, but some were as high as 1/1280. All the cottontails virologically tested for RHDV and EBHSV were negative with the exception of one individual found dead with hares during a natural EBHS outbreak in December 2009. The cottontail and the hares showed typical EBHS lesions, and the EBHSV strain identified was the same in both species (99.9% identity). To experimentally confirm the diagnosis, we performed two trials in which we infected cottontails with both EBHSV and RHDV. One out of four cottontails infected with EBHSV died of an EBHS-like disease, and the three surviving animals developed high EBHSV antibody titres. In contrast, neither mortality nor seroconversion was detected after infection with RHDV. Taken together, these results suggest that Sylvilagus is susceptible to EBHSV infection, which occasionally evolves to EBHS-like disease; the eastern cottontail could therefore be considered a “ spill over ” or “ dead end ” host for EBHSV unless further evidence is found to confirm that it plays an active role in the epidemiology of EBHSV.
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Tularemia in F. tularensis-inoculated hares induced an almost four-fold elevation of lactate dehydrogenase of statistical significance on days 4 and 6 (cf. Figure 6). It is known that lactate dehydrogenase may be used to fol- low the progress of liver disease because it changes quickly. In an experimental study on the responses of BALB/c mice and common voles to tularaemia, lactate dehydrogenase started to rise earlier than aspartate ami- notransferase and alanine aminotransferase and was considered an important indicator of acute hepatocellu- lar damage in tularemia . In the European brown hare, however, statistically significant increases in both aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were demonstrated at an earlier stage, i.e., from day 2 post-infection (cf. Figures 7 and 8). The elevation of aspartate aminotransferase levels in tularemic hares was
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The study aimed at defining reference values for electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic parameters as well as macroscopic dimensions of the heart and microscopic dimensions of cardiomyocytes in the European brown hare. The studies were conducted on 30 adult, clinically healthy hares of either sex caught in Poland. ECG and echocardiography were performed supravitally on anaesthetized hares. After euthanasia, gross and microscopic myocardial and cardiomyocyte dimensions were determined. Heart rate amounted to 140 ± 37.5 beats/min, the leading rhythm involved the sinus rhythm. P wave time was 26 ± 5 ms, PQ time was 80 ms, QRS time was 29 ± 3.5 ms, and ST was 97.5 ± 7 ms. Echocardiography determined a left ventricular wall end-diastolic diameter of 8.6 ± 2.0 mm and an intraventricular septum end-diastolic diameter of 5.75 ± 1.0 mm. The thickness of the interventricular septum corresponded to that of the free wall of the left ventricle, a finding consistent with physiological hypertrophy. Preliminary reference values were established for echocardiography. The findings were similar to those obtained at necropsy. The ECG and echocardiographic studies represent the first supravital examination of cardiac function in the hare. The obtained results illustrate adaptation of hare's myocardium to its mode of life. The cardiac findings resemble the athlete's heart syndrome described in humans. The findings may prove useful in further studies on the physiology of the cardio-vascular system in the hare.
New Zealand to test the reliability of the two methods. The sites varied considerably in hare pellet density and also varied in altitude and rainfall, but the initial cleared count was extremely tightly correlated with the subsequent pellet accumulation rate (r = 0.987) suggesting there is minimal bias from differential decay rates in uncleared plot counts. Our results show that the simpler and less time-consuming uncleared-plot method is an adequate index of hare density across a range of hare densities and climates and is not unduly biased by differential decay rates. This should simplify the work of land managers interested in assessing relative abundance. At one site (the area round Manson Hut on the Kaweka Range) where the plots were followed for a year in a variety of habitat types, there were strong seasonal changes in hare abundance (peaking in summer and declining through winter), and strong habitat preferences for exotic grasslands and grassland–herbfield mixes, while pure herbfield, and particularly rocky scree and southern beech forest were not favoured. We estimated that based on published defecation rates of hares, population densities at our six sites varied from 0.03 to 3.93 hares per hectare and that they consumed between 1.4 and 188 kg ha –1 of biomass annually.
regional populations there is a growing concern. In Ger- many the European brown hare is listed as “endangered” . Much research has been performed in regard to habi- tat preferences and abundance [e.g. 1, 6]. Nevertheless, it is not clear why the numbers are declining. Probably the most important threat for this species is the intensi- fication of agriculture . As Milanov  showed, crop harvesting operation is a source of mortality if leverets are using the crops for cover. If available the European brown hare prefers weeds and wild grasses, but in areas of agricultural intensification these foods are reduced and crop species are increasingly used as a food source . Another serious threat for this species is predation, especially by foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which can increase
RHDV2 exhibits a broader host range than classi- cal RHDV by infecting not only rabbits but also differ- ent hare species (Lepus capensis mediterraneus, Lepus corsicanus, Lepus europaeus, Lepus timidus) [23–27]. RHDV2-infected hares show very similar clinical signs to those induced by European brown hare syndrome (EBHS): hyperaemic trachea sometimes containing unco- agulated blood, hepatitis necrosis, splenomegaly and congestion of the other organs and tissues [23, 25, 26]. EBHS was first described in 1980  and is caused by another lagovirus called EBHSV, which is known to infect and cause disease in several hares species (L. europaeus, L. timidus and L. corsicanus). In the European hare (L. europaeus), some cases of hares showing lesions similar to EBHS (EBHS-like disease) caused by RHDV2 were reported in Italy in 2012, in Spain in 2014 and in Australia in 2016 [24, 26]. To date it is unclear whether RHDV2 may cause outbreaks in hare populations. Indeed, Velarde et al.  described sporadic cases in Italy (one hare) and Spain (two hares) and the data recorded in Australia do not indicate whether the five positive hares correspond to outbreaks or to spillover events .
Costa with dark brown spinules as well as dark brown hairs except for basal portion with patch of yellowish hairs. Subcosta bare and basal portion of radius bare. Halter yellowish-brown except outer surface ochreous, basal stem darkened and apex white. Abdomen: basal scale dark brown with fringe of light to medium brown hairs. Dorsal surface of abdomen dark brown except segment 2 light brown (though posterior one-fourth of dorsal surface brown), covered with dark brown short to long hairs; segments 2–7 each with shiny dorsolateral or lateral patches; ventral surface of segment 2 yellow, those of segments 3 and 4 yellow except sternites medium brown, and those of other segments medium to dark brown. Genitalia: coxite in ventral view (Fig. 1D) nearly rectangle, 1.2 times as long as its greatest width. Style in ventral view (Fig. 1D) bent inward, slightly tapered from base toward middle, then nearly parallel-sided, rounded apically and with apical spine; style in medial view (Fig. 1E) longer than coxite (1.4 times as long as coxite), somewhat flattened dorso-ventrally, with short basal protuberance directed dorso-medially; style in ventrolateral view (Fig. 1F) with short basal protuberance having several spines near anterior margin. Ventral plate in ventral view (Fig. 1G) with body transverse, 0.66 times as long as wide, slightly narrowed posteriorly, without anterior margin produced anteromedially, and posterior margin convex medially, without microsetae on ventral surface; basal arms small, directed forward, convergent apically; ventral plate in lateral view (Fig. 1H) moderately produced ventrally; ventral plate in end view (Fig. 1I) concave ventrally, densely covered with microsetae on lateral surface. Median sclerite (Fig. 1H) thin, plate-like, wide. Paramere (Fig. 1J) of moderate size, with three distinct long and stout hooks and several smaller ones. Aedeagal membrane moderately setose, slightly sclerotized at base but dorsal plate not well-defined. Ventral surface of abdominal segment 10 without distinct hairs near posterior margin. Cercus in lateral view (Fig. 1K) small, rounded, with 9–11 hairs.
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About 50% of the anticancer drugs are been obtained from the natural sources such as medicinal plants, herbs and spices. The active compounds such as alkaloids, phenols and tannins have shown to posess this activity. Anti-cytotoxicity testing of the silver nanoparticles obtained from the brown seaweed extract showed 84% anti-cytotoxic activity. Hence the brown could be used in the treatment of the diseases as it is less cytotoxic. This contributes to future pharmaceutical industry to obtain the active compound present in the brown seaweed and prepare silver nanoparticles which aids in targeted drug delivery of the active compound which can be produced in large scale and used to treat diseases.
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We have established long-term historical trends in Irish hare game bags and demonstrated the prevalence and influence of some factors governing interannual and multiannual population growth. From localities throughout Ireland, 124 years are represented within Irish game bag records and long-term trends are clear (Fig. 4). Prior to 1914, hare game bags fluctuated markedly but there was no overall trend. Thereafter, the annual hare index declined markedly reflecting a major decline in the number of hares shot. Although the sample of estates is small, the consistency of coverage and shooting effort between the stable and declining phases of the game bag indices suggest that the trend observed after 1914 represents a real change in the hare population of Ireland. If the abundance of hares differed between game estates and the wider countryside the results presented here may be biased. Nevertheless, game bag indices have often been used as a proxy for hare abundance and are generally accepted to reflect real changes in hare density over time (Strandgaard & Asferg, 1980; Tapper & Parsons, 1984; Tapper, 1987; Langbein et al. 1999; Smith et al. 2005). The observed decline in the numbers of hares shot in Ireland is consistent with declines in game bags across Great Britain (Fig. 2) and elsewhere in Europe (Bröekhuizen, 1982; Tapper & Parsons 1984; Pielowski, 1990; Tapper, 1992; Mitchell-Jones et al., 1999; Smith et al., 2005).
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seta, covering all processes, cephalic spines, lateral and posterior margins of pronotum, and intermixed sparsely with cuticular outgrowths on hemelytral lobes and abdominal tergites. Differential diagnosis. This species is similar to I. innamincka sp. nov., but differs from it by the following character states: 1) slightly smaller body; 2) longer recurved terminal setae on minor setiferous tubercles; 3) denser covering of woolly setae on dorsum, which are longer and more curled; 4) lighter brown abdominal venter, with elongate scale-like setae; and 5) more elongate labium, reaching the abdomen. This species is also similar to I. silveirae sp. nov., but can be distinguished from it by the possession of minor setiferous tubercles (cf. major setiferous tubercles of I. silveirae sp. nov.), a slightly more elevated collum, and being more stramineous or cream in colouration (cf. lighter brown colour of I. silveirae sp. nov.). Etymology. This species is named after the Aboriginal people of the region of central Aus- tralia, on whose traditional lands it was collected, the Arrernte (UH-rrahn-da) people. Noun in apposition.
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Description of male. Body dark reddish brown; head entirely black, antennae dark brown; pronotum and elytra reddish brown to brown with paler sides; legs yellowish brown, femora and tibiae with dark brown basal parts; ultimate abdominal tergite dark brown; forceps dark brown to reddish brown at apex. Cuticle punctured, dull, pubescent; tegmina rugose. Length without forceps 7.3 mm, length of forceps 1.3 mm.
2* Parameres more or less straight (Fig. 27). Sternite 8 ( ) without tooth-shaped structure at anterior corners of pterygia (Fig. 25). Posterior margin of tergite 8 ( ) more or less straight (Fig. 26). Head brown to reddish-brown, labrum light brown. Antennomeres 1–3 brown, rest of antennae blackish-brown. Pronotum brown to reddish-brown, scutellum reddish-brown. Elytra brown, suture, lateral margin and apex with a more or less extended blackish-brown coloration. (Fig. 23). Body slender, 2.14–2.33 (2.26) times as long as wide. Body length 4.40–5.20 mm. Tadzhikistan. ............................................................. ................................................... E. orientalis Iablokoff-Khnzorian, 1973 ( unknown) 3 Parameroids of penis very distinctly detached (Fig. 43), 0.23 mm long, behind lateral
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articulating emotional responses) whose acceptance can be justified at the critical level. These two levels define not two social castes, but two roles between which each of us learns to alternate as appropriate. The complication is actually inevitable within consequentialism, which has to separate the question how one should act from the question how one should think about how to act – for ways of thinking have consequences no less than ways of acting (and thinking that one should act in a certain way entails no success in so acting, nor even any attempt). A utilitarian assessment of practical principles has to consider not only their observance utility (OU), which is what good will come of enacting them, but also their acceptance utility (AU), which is (roughly) what good will come of intending to enact them. (Note that intending to act in a certain way is itself a mental act. There is no ground here to shift to a different form of utilitarianism, ‘rule’ rather than ‘act’, or ‘indirect’ rather than ‘direct’; rather, so far we are simply extending act– utilitarianism to a wider range of acts, mental as well as physical.) A broad generalization that Hare favoured is that the highest OU is likely to attach to highly specific principles, though a higher AU may attach to some fairly general ones. This comes of human ignorance and self– deception. A principle, say, permitting adultery when a marriage is breaking up anyway might have a higher OU than one simply forbidding adultery; but, if there are potential Don Juan’s around with a talent for false rationalization, its AU may be lower.
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A simpler and less time-consuming method of monitoring vegetation uses indicator species, and this has been suggested for monitoring thar impact in New Zealand (Miller 1995). Indicator species must be carefully chosen; an ideal indicator species should be common enough to find and measure, be impacted on by the target herbivore and not by others, and show measurable changes over the range of pest densities under study (J. Parkes pers. comm.). Common species such as tussocks can provide a general indication of community condition but do not necessarily reflect impacts on less common plants. However, rare plants do not usually meet the criteria listed above (D. Given pers. comm.). Possible indicator species for hare impacts include the Aciphyllas, which are primarily grazed by hares (J. Parkes pers. comm.) although also by rabbits (Reddiex 1998).
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This article provides data for the study conducted by the above group of researchers in the monitoring of tularemia in the wild rabbit populations in the western part of Macedonia (FYROM). This study was conducted in 2014-2017. The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) plays an important role as reservoirs of Francisella tularensis infection. Samples are taken from different villages of Macedonia such as: Debresh, Nerove, Allbance, Presille, Bellushine, Haracine, Tearce . etc. In order to study the prevalence of Francisella tularensis infection we designed a longitudinal study in hares based on both agglutination test and histopathological results. During the two years, 280 blood samples were collected from the wild rabbit
We introduced HARE, a supervised system for highlighting relevant information and interactive exploration of model outcomes. We demonstrated its utility in experiments with clinical records an- notated for narrative descriptions of mobility sta- tus. We also provided qualitative analytic tools for understanding the outcomes of different an- notation models. In future work, we plan to extend these analytic tools to provide rationales for individual token-level decisions. Additionally, given the clear importance of contextual informa- tion in token-level annotations, the static transition probabilities used in our Viterbi smoothing tech- nique are likely to degrade its effect on the out- put. Adding support for dynamic, contextualized estimations of transition probabilities will provide more fine-grained modeling of relevance, as well as more powerful options for post-processing.
The powder was subjected to methanolic extraction yielding an orangish brown coloured liquid whos extractive value was 18.5 %. It contained phenol as much as 3.8 ± 0.14 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg. Total flavonoid content was determined by using quercetin as standard. The extract contained flavonoid as 2.5 ± 0.35 µg quercetin equivalent/mg. Very negligible amount of β-carotene and lycopene were found such as 0.234 ± 0.05 µg/mg and 0.181 ± 0.05 µg/mg of the extract respectively. All of these mycochemical constituents which help various systems of organisms to work properly, were present in much more quantity in C. indica than that of Pleurotus ostreatus . Ascorbic acid content was 3.61± 0.43 µg/mg of extract. It was much higher than earlier reports for that of Ganoderma lucidum (2.77mg/ml) , Macrocybe crassa (1.81 mg/ml)  and Grifola frondosa (0.37 mg/ml) .