Abstract - In recent years, the secondary metabolites (Phytochemicals) have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. The sample for the study constitutes Dictyota dichotoma from brownseaweed. It was collected from Hurghada, Red sea coast of Egypt. Four different extracts of Dictyota dichotoma were subjected to phytochemical analysis of secondary metabolites both qualitatively and quantitatively by preliminary phytochemical screening tests of ten different chemical compounds (alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, coumarins, quinones and glycosides). The result of phytochemical screening of Dictyota dichotoma showed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, coumarins, quinones and glycosides and the absence of saponins. Among the four different extracts, ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of maximum number (9) of compounds. Next to that, Methanol extracts showed seven compounds. Hexane extracts showed six compounds and acetone extracts showed only four compounds. The estimation of total phenolics, tannins and flavonoids were observed in different extracts of Dictyota dichotoma. The quantitative phytochemical analyses revealed that secondary metabolites such as phenolics (2.14 ± 0.15 mg GAE/g dry wt) and flavonoids (1.72 ± 0.05 mg RUE/g dry wt) showed high amounts in methanol extract, while tannins (2.12 ± 0.45 mg CAE /g dry wt) showed high amounts in ethyl acetate extract.
Collection of Seaweeds: Stoechospermum marginatum were collected from the coast of Ramanathapuram district in Tamil Nadu, India Fig. 1. The seaweeds were manually collected, the debris were removed and it was washed with tap water and again washed with distilled water and shade dried for 3 days at room temperature and using electric blender it was finely powdered. Extraction of Seaweeds: 50 gm of the dried Brownseaweed were extracted in 500 ml of Chloroform, Methanol, Hexane and Aqueous (1: 10 ratio) for 2 days in separate conical flasks. The solvents were filtered using a muslin cloth. The solvents were allowed to evaporate to obtain the concentrated residue. The dry weight of the extracts was measured separately. The residues were stored in the tight screw cap bottle and used for further studies.
In vitro cytotoxicity assay for fucoidan fractions. The cytotoxicities of the fucoidan fractions on P388 murine leukaemia cells in vitro were investigated using the MTT method. Fractions SPC60, SPC70, and SPH70 displayed moderate cytotoxic activities with the inhibitory rates of 11.09 ± 1.27, 13.86 ± 1.67, and 10.72 ± 0.83% at a concentration of 200 µg/ml, respectively. While SPH60 showed weak activity with an inhibitory rate less than 10%. It has been reported that the bioactivities of brownseaweed polysaccharides are closely related to their structural parameters, such as degree of sulphation, molecular weights, sulphation positions, monosaccharides, and glycosidic branching. Also, the sulphate content of fucoidan is one of the most important factors for its biological effects (Ye et al. 2008). Therefore, the mechanism for polysaccharide extraction and the relationships between structures and activities need to be further studied for the polysaccharides from S. pallidum.
Rosenvingea intricata (J.Ag.) Boergesen is brownseaweed belonging to Phaeophyceae member showed much consideration in the present study for anti-diabetic activity. Rosenvingea intricata (J.Ag.) Boergesen was collected from Idinthakarai, Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, India. The collected plant samples were rinsed with marine water to remove debris and epiphytes. The entire epiphytes were removed using soft brush. The plants were brought to the laboratory. In the laboratory, the plants were once again washed in freshwater and stored in refrigerator for further analysis. 
Bioguided fractionation of extracts of the brownseaweed Bifurcaria bifurcata through antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity activity has positive results. These results obtained in this work showed that the seaweed Bifurcaria bifurcata has great potential and could be the subject of several pharmaceutical and biological applications and this by the chemical study of important fractions of seaweed usually ethereal fraction, which have been shown capable of providing biologically active compounds.
This paper studied the biosorption of vanadium ions by the brownseaweed Sargassum filipendula. Results obtained indicated that acidic pH values are more favorable to biosorption and that the uptake capacity of the biomass gradually increased with the increase of solid/liquid ration. Additionally it was observed that a rapid equilibrium was reached between solid and liquid fractions, around 20 minutes and that the kinetic behavior could be better explained by a second order reaction. Equilibrium data obtained showed that the results could be fit to Langmuir model, indicating that a monolayer of vanadium was probably formed on the surface of the seaweed. These results opens the possibility of using biosorption as a bioremediation technique for large-scale purposes with the use of fixed-bed reactors.
Analysis of our data could drive us to a perception that BSWE might revise balances between pro-inflammatory and anti inflammatory cytokines. In rats exposed to gamma irradiation and received several doses of BSWE, a significant amelioration of TNF- α and NO concentrations were observed (Figure 1(a) & Figure 1(b)). The modulatory action of BSWE on the concentrations of TNF- α could be exerted via the intervention of pathways participate in the induction of TNF- α , and NO production. Mhadhebi et al.  stated that, seaweeds are an excellent source of bioactive compounds polyphenols polysaccharides mero ter- penoids and terpenoids which demonstrated a broad range of biological activi- ties such as anti-inflammatory. Fung et al.  reported that fucoxanthin, a brownseaweed pigment (xanthophylls) found in most brown seaweeds has a molecule structurally similar to beta-carotene and vitamin A. Fucoxanthin is able to suppress the inflammatory response as assessed by NOS and COX-2 in- duction as well as cytokine and nitric oxide secretion . Further, recent re- ports revealed seaweeds to be a rich source of antioxidant compounds . The fucoxanthin inimitable structure carotenoids molecule could be responsible for the antioxidant activity of BSWE identified in our work by amelioration of SOD, CAT activities and GSH concentration as well as decreases in MDA (Figure 2(a)). It could be mention that adjustment of cellular redox tone might lead to ending pathways of TNF-stimulation and NO production related cascades. Moreover, Low molecular weight Fucoidan and fucoxanthin both appeared to reduce the level of pro-inflammatory mediators, including IL-1 β and TNF- α via the inhibition of NF-κB activation. It seems that LMF, HS-Fucox, and LMF + HS − Fucox were trying to balance the immune disorder under LPS-induced in- flammation . Also, fucoidan downregulates the expression of pro-inflam- matory genes involved in the synthesis of NO, PGE2, TNF- α and IL-1 β by sup- pressing NF-κB activity .
The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of brownseaweed Padina tetrastromatica against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli,). The antibacterial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method.The petroleum ether extract showed the better result than acetone, chloroform, ethanol,aqueous extracts. The strong antibacterial activity was noted in petroleum ether extracts against S. aureus (26.6±0.47 mm) and the minimum inhibition (7.6± 0.47 mm) was recorded against P. aeruginosa. P. vulgaris was found to be more resistant bacteria to the extracts of Padina tetrastromatica. Contrary to this, P. aeruginosa was susceptible to the extracts of Padina tetrastromatica. The overall antibacterial activity assessed from the above results indicates the presence of active constituents in the extracts and the seaweed can be used in pharmaceutical industry.
In our earlier reports, P. boergesenii Allender & Kraft (Dictyotaceae), brownseaweed lavishly growing in Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of Tamilnadu, India was found to have on blood glucose, insulin, carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, glucose-6- phosphatase and fructose- 1, 6-diphosphatase and lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats.  Antioxidant effect.  Recently we have reported on the synthesis and characterization and antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. boergesenii.  And potent α- glucosidase inhibitory activity of green synthesized gold nanoparticles  and it has also been reported for hepatoprotective activity.  Chemo preventive affects  and herbivory effects. 
ABSTRACT: Marine macroalgae Sargassum is commonly referred to as brown seaweeds. Commercially and continuously the pharmaceuticals industries are rapidly growing because always demand for new drug discovery is encouraged. Since, brown seaweeds have ample source of bioactive compounds of primary or secondary metabolites. These potential bioactive compounds interest to improve the pharmaceuticals industry. This present study was investigated to explore the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the organic solvents of the brownseaweed Sargassum. Phytochemical analysis of Brown seaweeds of Sargassum longifollium with six different organic solvents was analyzed. All the solvents like Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), Benzene, Acetic acid, hexane, Di Ethyl ether, and Chloroform has the extraction of phytochemical constituents. Among the six solvents, Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) extract showed a maximum number of phytochemical constituents and antibacterial and antifungal activity when compared to other five solvent extracts. FTIR identified the responsible functional groups in the solvent extract. These results statements be a necessary (or) recommended that the species of brown seaweeds (Sargassum longifolium) having a potential capacity as a source of antimicrobial compounds, which makes them interesting for screening for natural and highly bioactive secondary metabolites products it may lead to the development of new pharmaceutical agents.
This study was undertaken to examine the immune response of F. indicus after treatment with hot-water extracts of S. glaucescense, a common brownseaweed which is distributed around the coastal area of Bushehr province in south of Iran. The shrimp were immersed in seawater containing hot- water extracts. Several immune parameters were examined following treatment with hot-water extracts of S. glaucescense, including total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), total plasma protein (TPP), phagocytic activity (PA), bacterial clearance efficiency (BCE) and bactericidal efficiency (BE).
Abstract: Experiments have been conducted on vegetable plant to take a look at the capacity of brownseaweed of Sargassum johnstonii as a biofertilizer. The effect on growth parameter of germination, root length, shoot length, seedling length, seed vigour index (SVI) and seed stamina index (SSI) of Trigonella foenum-graecum, Corinderum sativumand Spinacia oleracea seeds. In a different concentration seed were treated of seaweed extract of Sargassum johnstonii such as 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% and untreated seed used as a control.The biochemical parameter as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b & total chlorophyll, carotenoid, carbohydrate, and protein were also found in the plant material. The highest seed vigour index (SVI) and seed stamina index (SSI) was obtained when treated with 6% concentration in Trigonella foenum-graecuma, Corinderum sativum and 8% concentration in Spinacia oleracea seeds respectively.
α-Amylase inhibitory activity was observed in all tested samples (Table 3). Similar to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, α- amylase inhibitory activity increased with an increase in total phenolic content (r =−0.88) although the specificity of the inhibitory effect was not evaluated in this study. The α-amylase inhibitory activity of S. aquifolium appears to be much lower than α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Teixeira and others (2007) have reported the potential of acetone extract of brownseaweed (Spatoglossum schroederi) for α-amylase inhibition (IC 50 580 μg/mL).
The results in Figure 2 showed that the extract of brownseaweed (Sargassum sp.) at a dose of 100 mg/Kg BW reduce the formation of panus at rheumatoid arthritis joint. At the foot of healthy rats (A), it shows that the histology of the foot joints are in good condition and perfect and the joint surface looks flat and organizes properly. Whereas, in rats treated with brownseaweed (C), the joints had been repaired and the results are the normal rats. In untreated rheumatoid arthritis rats (B), the joint surfaces are not perfect and uneven, where the joint surface looks flat and irregular. Joint damage is caused by the formation of panus thereby increasing the production of free radicals. This of free radical compounds can trigger the formation of antibodies, by modifying the protein aggregates that can activate phagocytic cells and cause inflammation. Formation of antibodies against autoantigens or antigens from infectious gene (referred to rheumatoid factor) can lead to the formation of immune complexes which in turn can lead to the complexes activation and phagocytic .
attributable, in part, to differences in dietary and environ- mental exposures associated with affluent and modern lifestyles that promote estrogenic stimulation and hor- mone imbalances [3-5]. Although the mechanisms are not fully understood, epidemiological and experimental data suggest that exposure to estrogens, through endog- enous production and exogenous exposures resulting in an imbalance in the estrogen/progesterone ratio, may be the most critical determinants in disease risk [6-8]. In estrogen-sensitive tissues, estrogen triggers cell prolifera- tion, and through prolonged stimulation, hyperplasia  and possibly neoplasia can occur. Reproductive factors associated with increased exposure to menstruation resulting in persistent and sustained estrogenic stimula- tion, such as shorter menstrual cycles, reduced parity, early menarche, and late menopause, are known to increase risk of endometriosis and estrogen-dependent cancers [10,11], while post-menopausal obesity, hor- mone replacement therapy and alcohol consumption may be associated with increased breast cancer risk [12- 14]. Therefore, limiting exposure to estrogens and reduc- ing the overall number of menstrual cycles in one's life- time through dietary and lifestyle changes may be the simplest means to reduce disease risk. In particular, the identification of dietary compounds that have estrogen- reducing effects holds great promise in developing chem- opreventive strategies to abrogate risk of these diseases. Studies show that Japanese women have longer menstrual cycle lengths (greater than the 28 day average) and lower circulating estrogen levels compared to Western popula- tions [15-17], which until now has been at least partly attributed to the increased intake of soy protein among Asian populations [18-20]. Another less explored compo- nent but main staple of the Japanese diet is seaweed, which accounts for approximately 10–25% of their food intake [21,22]. Other reported estimated daily intakes are as high as 3–13 g/day . A major source of dietary sea- weed among Japanese populations is the edible brown kelp, wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and kombu (Lami- naria japonica). These species and the Atlantic brown kelp, bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus), have been shown to exert powerful anti-hypertensive activity related to angi- otensin-I-converting enzyme inhibition , to possess antibacterial and antioxidant properties related to their high polyphenolic content , and to prevent dioxin absorption and accelerate dioxin excretion in rats . Other chemopreventive properties such as antiviral activ- ity [27,28], immunostimulatory effects , anti-prolifer- ative effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene- induced rat mammary tumors [30,31], and anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in xenograft mouse models , have been associated with the high level of sulfated polysaccharides, also known as fucoidans, found in brownseaweed.
attractive, dyeing and color the textile like carpets, rugs and clothes and leather materials by using roots, stems, barks, leaves and flower of various plants (Yusuf et al. 2017). Searching of colors or hues from indigenous sources has always gathered our interest due to their non-toxicity, renewability and biodegradability. Usually, the hues or colors of natural dyes and pigments have been found in red, yellow, orange, peach, green, blue and black and some types it can be classified on the basis of chemical constituents (Dyer, 1976; Ferreira et al. 2004; Samanta and Konar, 2011; Shams-Nateri et al. 2014). The natural colors are environmentally friendly and can be used on all types of natural fibers as well as on synthetic fibers (Elnagar et al. 2014). Due to the huge demand of colorants, a great deal of dyes has been synthesized for different industries i.e. food, textile, leather, electronics, plastic, beverages etc. Natural dyes can develop very rare and soft shades on different matrices as compared to synthetic dyes. However, the use of synthetic dyes may release some toxic chemicals into the environment during their processing, production or in finished products (Shahid et al. 2013). A large number of plants, animals and insects have been used for the extraction of color (Borges et al. 2012; Guinot et al. 2006; Sarkar and Seal, 2003) and their diversified use in textile dyeing (Samanta and Agarwal, 2009), functional finishing (Gupta et al. 2005), food coloration (Delgado-Vargas et al. 2000), cosmetics (Dweck, 2002), dye-sensitized solar cells (Hao et al. 2006), histological staining (Tousson and Al-Behbehani, 2011), as pH indicators (Mishra et al. 2012) and several other applications (Zheng et al. 2011) and disciplines (Kuswandi et al. 2012). Arabian sea are famous for the collection of various Seaweeds and Algae for research analysis (Ali et al. 2004). Researchers have isolated many known and new chemical constituents from various algae which exhibited cytotoxic, antibacterial and antiviral activities (Ali et al. 2003). Seaweeds are widely used as food products, fertilizers, fodder, pharmaceutical and in phytochemical investigations (Kilinç et al. 2013). The brownseaweed Stoechospermum marginatum (C. Agardh) Kützing is belongs to phylum Phaeophycota of class Dictyotaceae. Chemical constituents of S. marginatum contain spatane derivates which has both antimicrobial and anti- cancer activity (Chinnababu et al. 2015) (Figure 1).
Interestingly, Padina sp. (Phaeophyceae) has been reports with little iAs accumulation (Slejkovec et al., 2006; Duncan et al., 2013). These phenomenon is indicates that not all seaweed would accumulate As as inorganic form and also clarified that Padina sp. had a special ability to detoxified iAs. Padina minor Yamada is one of the common brownseaweed in Asia and distributed along the South coastline of Taiwan. Thus, P. minor could be the best option to develop as subject since its population in Taiwan and the reports on Padina sp.
A sun-dried seaweed extract (Tasco; Acadian Seaplants Ltd., Dartmouth, NS, Canada) containing a mixture of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides and derived from As- cophyllum nodosum has been reported to have a positive effect on the immune function and health of lambs when fed at ⬍ 1% of their diet dry matter (DM) (5). Moreover, goats fed A. nodosum extract at 2% of their diet DM exhibited greater heat tolerance and reduced transport-induced oxidative stress (6). When Tasco was included in beef cattle diets at 2% of the DM, a higher marbling score and a higher meat quality grade were also observed (7). Previous research also has shown that Tasco reduces E. coli O157:H7 shedding in steers (8). However, despite all of these studies, the impact of Tasco on the rumen microbiome is unknown.
was high during macroalgal ensiling trials (Herrmann et al., 2015; Milledge and Harvey, 2016a, 2016b). While effluent may contain useful compounds and could be viewed as a resource, its production is uncontrolled and it is also a potential pollutant. It would be preferable to remove water in a more controlled manner before ensiling in an analogous approach to that used in the production of grass silage. Macroalgal water content is typically 74 – 89% (Herrmann et al., 2015). However reductions of only 1-2% water content between fresh and ensiled biomass have been reported for macroalgae (Herrmann et al., 2015; Milledge and Harvey, 2016b). Decreased water content improves costs and reduces energy consumption for drying where processes require dried and / or pelleted feedstock (Milledge et al., 2015). Ensiled seaweed feedstock that can be readily compacted and easily stored and transported is viewed as an economic proposition as a contributor to sustainable transport fuels such as drop-in HGV diesel and aviation kerosene (via gasification and Fischer-Tropsch technologies) (Milledge and Harvey, 2016a).
Gunung Kidul, the Special District of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Commercial cellulase (with an activity of 30 U/g), available cellulose, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, phenol, sodium sulphite, sodium hydroxide, potassium sodium tartrate, sulphuric acid, acetic acid, sodium acetate trihydrate, and casein were obtained from Sigma Co., (St. Louis, MO, USA). Glucose, cellobiose, cellohexose, agar, and dextrose were obtained from Merck KgaA (Darmstad, Germany). Potatoes were obtained from a local supplier. The culture of Saccharomyces cereviceae (JCM 3012) was obtained from The Food & Nutrition Culture Collection (FNCC), Food and Nutrition Centre, Gadjah Mada University. Physical and Chemical Preparation of Seaweed