Other studies that include the modal shift as a result of BRT or MRT implementation show similar results, with car and taxi modal shifts ranging between 4.4% and 18% and averaging at 10.9% (Alpkokin and Ergun, 2012; Breakthrough Technologies Institute, 2012; Deng and Nelson, 2013; Doll and Balaban, 2013; Instituto Nacional de Ecología, 2006; NYC Global Partners, 2012; Vincent and Callaghan, 2007). Most of these studies only study the modal shift from car. Hence, a comparison with the findings of this research may overestimate the effects of the Metro and Metrobús lines. However, the taxi is most likely often left out because of its low use. For example, taxi use is much more common in Mexico than in the U.S.A. due to differences in car ownership levels and taxi prices (both of which are higher in the U.S.A.). Compared with modal shifts in other studies, especially the Metrobús performs above average, but the Metro line performs below average (which the flag model also indicates). Another interesting observation is that the modal shift from car is highest for Los Angeles (Vincent and Callaghan, 2007), which is located in one of the most motorized countries. Hence, it seems that a higher motorization results in a higher car modal shift, because the likelihood of a transit passenger owning a car is higher. The modal shift of all transport modes shows reveals some additional insights in the two transit lines. First of all, for the Metrobús, no users used the system previously, while for the Metro this is 8.3% of the modal shift. Hence, only for the Metro travelers have changed their route, but not their mode. This is reasonable, because the Metro offers more routes than the Metrobús due to its larger network, making transfers more interesting. Secondly, the number of trips generated due to implementation is higher for Metro than Metrobús. Once again, this is sensible, because of the larger network the Metro offers. Hence, once the Metro system
There are several things concluded from the application of the concept of multimodal transportation in Rio de Jenairo. First, the main mode of transportation serves as a clear and feeders. The initial condition before the BRT transportation by bus to the small and medium size, then after the construction of exclusive lane BRT and bus transportation small- and medium are then used as a freight feeder or feeder transportation to the BRT lane. It takes a fairly long process, especially to reorder the route and time of arrival for each fleet. In addition, there exist small transportation as a mode of passengers for BRT, when viewed from the large scope of this BRT transportation can be a feeder for connecting to the MRT station and the airport.
Abstract Indonesia started to develope largely the MRT line, especially the BRT. A new BRT Corridor implementation need a Passenger Demand Prediction. Thus, a Special BRT Passenger Demand Modelling Method for a New BRT Line need to be developed. This attempt needs a sufficient knowledges on the Existing BRT User Trip Characteristics. Mamminasata BRT User Trip Characteristics Survey were executed on Corridor 2 and Corridor 3, during morning peak hour. The result indicates that the BRTs are used mainly for schooling (50%) and working (50%) trips, the BRT passengers are the previous public transport (76%) and motorcycle (24%) users. The trip origin zone is extended 3 km to the left and to the right of the BRT corridor, while the trip destination zone is extended 1.5 km to the left and to the right of the BRT corridor. The embarking connecting trip modes are dominated by motorcycle (51%), public transport (19%) and becak (18%), while the alighting connecting trip modes are dominated by walking trip (71%).
Transjakarta is a form of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). BRT systems are being built all over the world, but the most known are these in developing countries in Latin America and Asia. Generally, although capacity can be very high, the investment and operating costs of BRT are relatively low compared to urban rail transport such as LRT (Light Rail Transit) and MRT (Mass Rapid Transit). The following characteristics are typical of a BRT system (Wirasinghe e.a., 2013):
T HIS paper aims to economically valuate the variation in vehicular emissions from a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, which are estimated based on the variations they cause in hospitalization costs and working days lost due to diseases related to air pollution. Therefore, this study serves as a tool to assist the public administrators in the decision-making process of urban mobility and environmental health. Therefore, the object of this study is the environmental impact caused by the deployment of the BRT Transcarioca in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model was used to estimate the emissions; also a methodology to apply this model in BRT systems was developed. After determining quantitative values, vehicular emissions calculations were estimated in two situations: “before” and “after” the implementation of the corridor BRT Transcarioca. The calculations considered a 5% reduction in the number of
Traffic problems in urban areas increase due to rapid growth of population and with the increase in numbers of vehicles which result into excessive delays, travel times and reduction in speeds on urban road network. In order to reduce these problems there is a need for sustainable public transport system. The of promotion of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a veritable option directed at improving the Service delivery in the public passenger transport particularly as it affects the most predominant form of transport mode in Ahmedabad – road transport. The essence is to relieve congestion, enhance mobility, time savings to passengers,reduction in accidents and improve the environment especially with regard to pollution in the Keshavbaug To Anjali area. There are incremental benefits and costs to a number of economic agents: government, private transporters, passengers, general public and unskilled labour. The impact analysis of Keshavbaug To Anjali BRT Corridor done in this study tries to measure all these benefits and costs from project covering a total distance of 4.1kms in Western
It is important to note the similarity between the sequential rehabilitative nature of the MRT program and social control theory. Social control theory implies that it is the attachment bond that exists before the belief in the moral order. Consequently, they grow together. MR T works on the pre-existing bond by trying to heal it, while at the same time trying to change negative beliefs that oppose the moral order. Both elements are incorporated as early as step one and healing damaged relationships is the topic of Step 5. The main question of this study is found here. Does the MR T program focus enough time, effort and influence on the need for repairing relationships with significant others. If the relationship with the significant other does not improve, or is not positive, can we logically think that the client could continue increasing their step attainments and thus increase their moral reasoning? Social control theory, as pointed out in the literature above explains at great length the need for a positive, healthy
than its regional growth rate. Similarly, a lagging age group is one for which the group’s growth rate within the BRT shed is less than its growth rate at the re- gional level. An assumption that was made for the purpose of this analysis is that if BRT has no effect on a region’s age group composition, it would be the same after implementation of BRT as it was before implementation. There may be factors other than introduction of BRT that are more difficult to quantify. It should be noted that in the case of Cleveland, Kansas City, and other BRT cities, BRT was accompanied by changes in land policies that encouraged the 18 - 24 and 25 - 34 age groups to live close to BRT. However, this action resulted in dis- placement of other age groups away from the BRT shed due to higher rent, noise, etc. The BRT Influence column in Table 2 shows that the growth of vari- ous age groups in the BRT shed was due to the introduction of the BRT. Moreo- ver, according to the AAA, from 2007 to 2011 the number of cars purchased by the 18 - 24 and 25 - 34 age groups fell by almost 34 percent
In Los Angeles, the Wilshire BRT demonstrates the benefits of implementing a bus priority corridor. In 2000 the overall investment in the Wilshire BRT was $235 million. The Wilshire BRT is an improvement over the previous Metro Rapid bus line #720 extending 13.7miles/22km from Wilshire in Los Angeles to Downtown Santa Monica. These improvements include high capacity vehicles, enhanced stations on the route, signal priority and dedicated bus-lane and smart card prepayment systems. Since the introduction of the Wilshire BRT there has been a 27% reduction in travel times and a 50% increase in vehicle capacity. It is anticipated that the introduction of a smart card prepayment, will decrease boarding times, and therefore decrease dwell time by 50-65% (6).
The evaluation indicator system of the operation of the BRT system should be comprehensive, integrated, systematic, and scientific, and is of objectiveness, functionality, and equality, and is able to provide guidance to the evaluation and can be compared with other indicators as well.
The TransMilenio system has not been fully imple- mented yet. As of September 2016 (Fig. 3), the net- work was composed of 12 trunks and was extended for 113 km, with 147 stops; the service had a commercial speed of 26 km/h, and the daily passengers were approxi- mately 2,4 million (TransMilenio 2016). However, the TransMilenio was not simply intended to improve urban mobility issues. According to the mayor Peñalosa, the TransMilenio was supposed to be “the place where the vice-president of a large corporation or the doorman of a building would feel good. A place where they would meet as equals in an environment that respected human dig- nity” (Ardila-Gómez 2004, p. 332). In Peñalosa’s vision, the construction of the BRT network contributed to a more democratic urban space: “the TransMilenio sys- tem built ‘democracy’ into the urban fabric because the system is citywide and buses are symbols of equality” (Cesafsky 2017, p. 15). The TransMilenio was then con- ceived not as a modal alternative exclusively for the poor or the rich, but rather as an opportunity for social inclu- sion, within a wider strategy of urban regeneration. The system intervened on the quality of public transport ser- vice, put forward the idea of everyday mobility as a key element for a more democratic access to the city, and contributed to an overall improvement of the image of Bogotá. However, several components determine how TransMilenio contributes to an improved urban access, as the next section explains.
(10) The validity of (9) is demonstrated in Figure 1 for un- coded BPSK systems. Based on (9), one readily concludes that the optimal diversity order for MIMO diversity systems is M × N. Therefore, if we keep M +N fixed (a measure of sys- tem cost), even distribution of the number of transmit and receive antennas (more precisely a smallest | M − N | ) maxi- mizes M × N, thus minimizing the system SER at high SNR. On the other hand, when comparing two MIMO MRT/MRC systems with the same diversity order M × N, the one with smaller α (MRT/MRC) yields larger coding gain and thus smaller
ITDP gives evaluation scheme for BRT system; very few such marking schemes are available at present. BRT Standards is one of them. In this particular system various parameters of BRT systems are given different situations possible in different cases and accordingly marks were allotted to it. There are six main headings and under these heading some sub points containing marks for it. A separate provision of deduction of marks is also in marking scheme. Following are the points the points to be considered
A 14-year-old female presented with a mass in her neck since one year ago. A palpable, firm, immobile, and lobulated mass about 3.5×4×5 cm was detected in the posterolateral part of right side the neck. The mass did not have pulsatile pattern or bruit. Skin on the mass had no changes. Her neck mass had got bigger every time. Physical examinations of the patient were unremarkable except for the neck mass. There was no obvious history of fever, bone pain, sweating, or weight loss, and her swallowing and breathing was normal. There were no significant lymphadenopathies in other sites. She had no significant past medical history. Her blood tests were normal, including complete blood count, clotting profiles, renal and liver function tests. Ultrasonography of the mass revealed a solid soft tissue mass about 4×5×5 cm in with 3-4 adherent lymph nodes. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a soft tissue mass in the right side of nasopharynx, prominence in posterior parapharyngeal wall, with multiple heterogenous lymphadenopathies (Figure I). No metastasis to the lung or other visceral organs was detected in the CT scans. No distinct area with increased uptake was noted at bony structures in whole body scan by Tc-99 MDP. She had a normal reactive bone marrow pattern. A fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the mass was performed prior to definitive wide excision. The excised tumor consisted of a large, lobulated, well-circumscribed mass (3×3.8×3.5 cm) with two adherent lymph nodes. Histological examination of the mass diagnosed a malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT). The mass was composed of cohesive sheets of large atypical cells with marked nuclear polymorphism and prominent nucleoli surrounded by eosinophilic cytoplasm and exhibited frequent mitosis. Adherent lymph nodes tissue was also infiltrated by these atypical cells. Immunohistochemistry were positive for vimentin, desmin, and cytokeratin (focally), but they were negative for CD45, CD117, S-100, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and smooth muscle actin. No consistently effective regimen for MRT has yet been reported and we decided to initiate adjuvant chemotherapy.
This project was restricted by resources, and it was un- able to produce a thorough life-cycle record of all stages. Although this MRT line was in the final stages of con- struction and is running just before the end of 2013, a future study could include issues based on the data cre- ated in this project and data integration pattern for new constructions. Chronological scans should be conducted after interior finishing and at least one year after the start of operation for post-occupation response. As stated in the methodology, the recursively defined as-built repre- sentation and related framework will contribute to future nearby construction works, and lead to a better start in Figure 13. Overlapping BIM model with the maps of street
BRT basics are the element that are set forth for defining a corridor as BRT. Various factors are considered in BRT basics such as “dedicated right of way; busway alignment; off-board fare collection; intersections treatment and platform level boarding etc”. A proposed BRT corridor must achieve atleast 4 points on both busway alignment and dedicated right of way and must achieve a minimum 20 points across all five categories to be identified as BRT. Rwp-Isl Metrobus Service achieved 38/38 points in BRT basics as it fulfilled all the criterias. These criterias are explained one by one in following paragraphs.
This current study is based on a previous comparative LCA study (Hugo et al., 2012), which tested one proposed and two existing South African BRT trunk-route stations regarding the CF and EE intensity of their construction material use. The study set out to establish an objective conclusion by generating a single comparable figure for all the different designs. Although it may have disregarded qualitative aspects, by setting delimitations and assumptions beforehand, it objectively collates different subjects enabling their comparison (Fay, Treloar & Lyer-Raniga, 2000: 32, 36; Rai et al., 2011: 2271-2273). Using the BRT trunk-route stations as modular units provided a unique opportunity for a comparative LCA study of different designs (Hugo et al., 2012). From the previous study undertaken by Hugo et al. (2012) an existing BRT station, MyCiti station, was benchmarked as the most CF- and EE-efficient solution. In addition, the preceding study also established a set of guidelines to improve the CF and EE efficiency of future design.
makers in the implementation of tailored local controls to halt the spread of the disease. The three methods used in this study have demonstrated the importance of accounting for spatial differences in risk factors for bTB, and have shown some consistency in the identification of certain factors. We have demonstrated that GWR is a useful approach for exploring bTB data and improves on least- squares linear regression by identifying regional differ- ences in the factors associated with bTB spread. However, interpretation of these differences is difficult as relation- ships often varied spatially between negative and positive associations, and the approach does not lend itself to pre- dictive models which are likely to be of more value to policy makers. Methods such as BRT may be more suited to such a task and we have demonstrated that GWR and BRT can produce comparable outputs. Finley (2011) con- cludes that other methods (such as Bayesian spatially- varying-coefficients (SVC)) may be better at predictive models but that GWR is less computationally intensive and is a useful tool for descriptive and exploratory data anal- ysis, as demonstrated in this study.