In recent years, as researchers have steadily intensified their study on antitumor mechanisms, Bruceajavanica has been gradually arousing the interest of pharmacologists. However, various properties of Bruceajavanica, including its water solubility, stability, and bioavailability are inadequate for it to be an effective treatment of cancer. Therefore, how to solve these problems and improve the curative properties of this medicinal plant are likely to become hot topics in the future. Some points are particularly important and should be noted. First, there is a need for further research on the active ingredients of Bruceajavanica and the activated monomer mechanism. Second, it is necessary to separate and purify the active ingredients and the monomer. Third, we need to study the distribution and metabolism of the active ingredients in vivo. Last is the need to develop new nanoparticulate formulations for clinical use. With further investigation, Bruceajavanica, one of the most active traditional Chinese medicines with significant antitumor activity, could be more widely used in the clinic and helpful to human health.
The seeds of Bruceajavanica L. were introduced by a col- league Mr. Zabidi Mohd Majid, obtained from a rural area in Sekinchan, Selangor. The specimen was scientifically identified by a botanist and the voucher specimen was de- posited at the Herbarium of Rimba Ilmu, University of Malaya. Crude extract of the seeds was prepared accord- ing to Himratul-Aznita et al. . The seeds (100 g) were cleaned in running water and oven-dried at 60-65°C for two days. The dried seeds were homogenized into small pieces prior to extraction using distilled water at a ratio of sample to water of 1:10. The homogenate was boiled at high temperature to one-third of the original volume. The decoction was filtered through a filter paper (Whatman No.1) to remove debris before it was further boiled to a final volume of 100 ml. The decoction was concen- trated by freeze drying (EYELA FDU-1200, Tokyo) overnight. The powder obtained was sealed in a sterile Falcon tube and stored at 4°C. Stock solution of the ex- tract was prepared in sterile distilled water at concen- tration of 200 mg/ml. Following centrifugation (Jouan A14, France) for 10 min at 10,000 rpm, the stock was then diluted to concentrations required for the experi- ment. The extract was sterilised by filtration using 0.2 μm nylon syringe filter (Milipore, USA).
Figure 2 Dose-response growth curves of BJ extract in nsclc h1975 cells. The increased concentration of aqueous BJ extracts after 12 hours of treatments reduced viable H1975 cells. The trypsinized cells were counted for the numbers of viable cells using trypan blue exclusion assay. The percentages of viabilities were obtained by comparing cell numbers at each concentration with water control that was assigned as 100%. The data are the average of quadruplicate for each experiment. The results are presented as mean ± sD of three independent experiments. *P,0.05 and **P,0.01. Abbreviations: BJ, Bruceajavanica; NSCLC, non-small-cell lung cancer; SD, stan- dard deviation.
Abstract: Being effective and relatively safe, the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Bruceajavanica (BJ) has been valuable in curing patients in East Asia and its nearby regions for years. Recent reports suggested that the medicinal herb possesses broad antitumor activity against various cancer cells. This study evaluated whether low concentrations of BJ aqueous extract inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells. Experiments including flow cytometry and Western blot analysis established the development of apoptotic cell death after treatment. Further experi- ments evaluated the growth of the enriched spheroids. BJ not only reduced the expression of stem cell markers but also eliminated tumor spheroids by apoptotic death. The findings suggest BJ is a promising supplement to the current therapy regimen and highlight the opportunity of BJ as a practical avenue to suppress the growth of the stem cells in liver cancer.
water was developed for docetaxel intravenous administration. A formulation with higher drug content, lower viscosity, and smaller particle size was developed. The droplet size distribu- tion of the dispersed phase of the optimized microemulsion was 13.5 nm, determined using a dynamic light scattering technique. The small droplet size enabled the microemulsion droplets to escape from uptake and phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system and increased the circulation time of the drug. The zeta potential was −41.3 mV. The optimized microemulsion was pale yellow, transparent, and non-opalescent in appearance. The value of the combination index was 0.58, showing that there was a synergistic effect when docetaxel was combined with Bruceajavanica oil. After a single intravenous infusion dose (10 mg/kg) in male Sprague Dawley rats, the area under the curve of the microemulsion was higher and the half-time was longer compared with that of docetaxel solution alone, and showed superior pharmacokinetic characteristics. These results indicate that this preparation of docetaxel in emulsion is likely to provide an excellent prospect for clinical tumor treatment.
According to Liang et al , a total of 83 endophytic fungi strains were isolated from the root, stem, leaf and fruit of Bruceajavanica. 34 strains were obtained from the stem,32 strains were obtained from the leaf, 15 strains were isolated from the root and 2 strains came from the fruit. These 73 strains which had been identified attribute to 5 orders, 6 families and 12 genera. The other medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii isolated endophytic fungi such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Guignardia sp., Glomerella cingulata, Pestalotiopsis spp., Phomopsis spp. and Phyllosticta sp. .
The most commonly distributed antioxidant groups found in plants are flavonoids which are characterized by a ring structure known as benzo- y-pyrone, which is distributed in most fruits and vegetables . Flavonoids contain an aromatic ring which lets them to take over and donate electrons from free radicals . Flavonoids have been proven to protect lipids against oxidation. In the proposed work, the total flavonoids content in Bruceajavanica seed extracts was assessed using linear quercetin standard curve (R2=0.996). The flavonoids content found were little in total compared to the total phenolic content.
Aim: BruceaJavanica oil emulsion (BJOE) has already been commercialized to treat various malignancies. The authors verified BJOE for its therapeutic effects on rhabdomyosarcoma (R1) in rats using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microangiography and histopathology. Methods: Rats were implanted with R1 in both flanks and subjected to intratumoral injections of BJOE or normal saline on day 0 and 7 for intra-individual comparisons. Therapeutic responses were compared between treated and control tumors at a 3.0 T MRI on day 0, 7 and 14 using T2-, T1-, and diffusion- weighted imaging that generated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with b values of 0, 50, 100, 150, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 s/mm 2 . Volumes of necrotic and viable tumors were measured and
34 as antiplasmodial, antitrypanosomal, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities (Bagheri, Hajiaghaalipour, Nyamathulla, & Salehen, 2018; Bawm et al., 2008; Cai, Luo, Sun, & Corke, 2004; Hout et al., 2006). However, most of the reports focused only on the roots and fruits of the plant. Data on the preliminary screening and antioxidant activity in different plant parts of Bruceajavanica (L.) such as leaves, twigs and barks has not yet been extensively recorded so far. Thus, this research is carried out to investigate the presence of the secondary metabolites, antioxidant activity and the phenolic content in different plant parts of Bruceajavanica (L.).
3.3.1. DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity Assay. The present method to determine DPPH radical scavenging activity is based on the formation of the DPPH-H nonradical form in the presence of hydrogen donating antioxidants in the extracts that can be detected at 517 nm. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of B. javanica seed extracts were tested at different concentrations against the BHA as a standard. As shown in Table 1, the highest DPPH scavenging activity was observed in EAF (IC 50 = 33.65 ± 3.04 𝜇g/mL) and it was approximately 5.5-fold lesser when compared to the BHA (IC 50 = 5.95 𝜇g/mL). The WF (IC 50 = 184.58 ± 7.31 𝜇g/mL) exhibited 31-fold less activities than that of standard, respec- tively. Hexane and chloroform fractions exhibited the lowest effect to reduce DPPH free radical, where maximal inhibi- tions were found 22.24% and 33.92% at the concentration tested (2 mg/mL). As noted in Tables 1 and 2, only the extracts in more polar organic solvent contained high level of TPC, TFC, and TET and exhibited potent efficiency to DPPH, suggesting that polyphenolic compounds may be the main contributor to scavenging DPPH free radicals in the Bruceajavanica seed.
Overall, we had provided evidence that the BJEE has caused cytotoxic effects toward HT29 colorectal cancer cells. The obtained results from this study also revealed that the extract induced apoptosis in HT29 cells through the caspase activation via the ROS production, and p53, Bax, and NF- κ B involvement. In addition, contributions of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways could be concerned in the induction of apoptosis via elevation of caspase-8 enzyme level and inhibition of NF- κ B translocation from cytoplasm to the nucleus. The association of mitochondrial-intrinsic events guided by mRNA and upregulation of p53, Bax, and cytochrome c might have triggered mitochondrial dysfunc- tion via increased level of caspase-9 activity. These results of the study indicated that B. javanica is a promising plant in the fight against cancer. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies on the probable active compounds of this plant responsible for the above activities are still required to be investigated.
The genus Brucea consisting of six species is a member of the Simaroubaceae family and believed to have origi- nated in tropical Africa and tropical Asia. It is a dominant species in this genus, and most commonly found in Ma- laya Peninsula . The compounds isolated from this species showed wide spectrum of biological effects  and gained increasing interest for further study. Bruceine D and E, isolated from B. javanica seeds, exhibited blood glucose lowering effect in both nondiabetic mice and STZ-induced diabetic rats at lower dose (1 mg/kg b.w.) during 0-8 h screening . However, chemical entities re- sponsible for potential inhibitory effect of this plant against GP- α and α -glucosidase enzymes are yet to be identified. Therefore, this study reports the effect of frac- tions from B. javanica seed extracts for GP-α and α- glucosidase inhibition to select the most potent inhibitor and evaluates antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of active fraction in T2D rats.
for 24 h before use. The culture medium was replaced with the fresh medium containing BJO for 72 h. Cell number was determined using an MTT assay kit. In all, 20 μ L MTT (Sigma Chemicals) at a concentration of 5 mg/mL was added into each well and cultured for another 3 h, and the supernatant of each well was discarded and replaced with 100 μ L DMSO (Sigma Chemicals). Finally, all absorbance values were read on a universal microplate spectrophotometer (Donghua Electronics, Nanjing, China) at 492 nm. Marketed javanica oil emulsion injection was chosen as the negative control. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) was calculated by GraphPad Prism software (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). All experiments were made in triplicate.
icity power comes from its toxic substances that contained in the biological compounds of Makas- sar fruits. The substance can be toxic through the absorption of the gastrointestinal tract or through the skin of the larvae (26). Brusatol isolated from B. javanica (L.) Merr. has insecticidal and antifeed- ant properties against instar 3 larvae of Spodoptera exigua (7). The active material contained in B. ja- vanica (L.) Merr. extract has larvicidal effect against Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Cram- bidae) (24, 25). Extract of B. javanica (L.) Merr. can inhibit feeding, decrease the rate of growth and inhibit laying C. pavonana imago (25). Bruceine A isolated from the seeds of B. javanica (L.) Merr can inhibit the growth and develop- ment of Ae. aegypti larvae to become pupa/adult (9) .
Ocimum lamiifloium Hochst. ex Benth and Brucea antidysenterica Mill are among the most common trad- itional medicinal plants used in Ethiopia. O. lamiifolium belongs to the family Lamiaceae. It is traditionally used to relieve pain, wound, fever, malaria and inflammatory disorders in Ethiopia . It is also used for treat- ment of intestinal disorders, eye disease and cough . Brucea antidysenterica (Simaroubaceae) is simi- larly used in traditional medicine for multiple pur- poses. Different parts of the plant are widely used against malaria, helminthic infections, fever, dysentery and other disorders [11, 12]. Despite its wide applica- tion in the traditional healthcare domain only few or- ganized and thorough scientific investigations have been undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants. In vivo and in vitro studies conducted on fruit extracts of Bruceajavanica, a species closely related to Brucea antidysenterica, demon- strated antiplasmodial activity of the plant attributable to quassinoid constituents . Study also shows that the or- ganic leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum, a species found under the genus where Ocimum lamiifolium belongs, sup- pressed parasitaemia of Plasmodium berghei in mice by 88.07 % at a dose of 100 mg/Kg body weight . Essen- tial oil of Ocimum gratissimum demonstrated significant antimalarial activities in the four-day suppressive in vivo test in mice . In vitro test conducted on three qui- nones isolated from Ocimum basilicum, another related species, showed antiplamodial activity with an IC50 value of below 1 μg/ml . The present study, therefore, aimed at assessing the antimalarial activity of the crude extracts of the seed of B. antidysenterica and leaf of O. lamifolium against P. berghei in Swiss albino mice.
diuretic and demulcent. The decoctions of the A. javanica are used to remove swelling and powder of this plant is applied externally to ulcers in domestic animals. The seeds are used to relieve headache. Flowers and roots of Aerva javanica possess medicinal properties against kidney problems and rheumatism. Paste made up of inflorescence and leaves is used externally to heal the wounds and inflammation of joints. Decoction of plant is used as a gargle for toothache. The leaves of plant are used for fodder to goats and whole plant is used as a fuel . The whole A. javanica plant is used for the purpose of chest pain, ascaris and diarrhea with blood . The presence of carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenoids and flavonoids has been reported earlier in Aerva javanica .
4.2.5 Effect of B. javanica recruitment on woody species diversity and evenness Analysis of species diversity and evenness indicated that existence of B. javanica in the vegetation types tended to reduce species diversity while the species evenness increased. This finding corroborates the facilitation model of succession which suggests that succession begins when there is available space for colonization and some species for instance native species only modify the environment facilitating their replacement by other species which are physiologically and morphologically adapted to the environment culminating into a one climax community (Long & Lakela, 1971; Namuta, 1982). In the case of Kakamega forest, severe disturbance of the rainforest caused by anthropogenic activities such as selective logging for timber production and charcoal making alters the resource pools in degraded sites and reduction in canopy cover could have facilitated the establishment of B. javanica and its increased abundance reduces regeneration of other tree species hence reducing species diversity. Recruitment of the species in Old growth secondary forest however led to a slightly higher diversity index since its relative abundance was too low to cause a shift in Shannon Weiner diversity index. This study projects that species diversity in this vegetation type will reduce in future with the continued recruitment and maturity of the species and this is supported by recent findings which stated that long-lived pioneers of this forest were being replaced by shade tolerant species (Farwig et al., 2009).
Lippia javanica is widely distributed throughout Kenya where it is used extensively in traditional herbal preparations. An infusion of the leaves is commonly used as a decongestant for colds and coughs including diabetes, however, its efficacy profiles have not been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extracts of this plant in white male alloxan-induced albino mice. The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous leaf extracts was orally and intraperitoneally bioscreened in alloxan induced diabetic mice at different doses of 25 mg/kgbwt, 48.4 mg/kgbwt, 93.5 mg/kgbwt, 180.9 mg/kgbwt and 350 mg/kgbwt. The treatment effects were then compared with the controls. Phytochemical composition was assessed using standard procedures. The extract showed hypoglycemic activity at dose levels of 25, 48.4, 93.5, 180.9 and 350 mg/kg body weight in a dose independent manner. The extracts contained tannins, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, alkaloids, and free or bound anthraquinones. The observed hypoglycemic activity could be associated with the phytochemicals present in this plant extract. In conclusion the results showed that the plant extracts were effective in reducing blood sugar levels and revealed the presence of vital phytochemicals which possess antidiabetic activities. The study therefore, confirmed the traditional use of these herbs and established their efficacy data that can guide proper use of these plants in the management of diabetes mellitus. Consideration should be made to carry out the same studies using higher animals or subject the plant to organic solvent extraction and compare activities of both aqueous and organic fractions.