There is no need for physical structuring of a solar array as long as an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is con- cerned. For several decades, ANN technology has had a wide scope of endless possibilities in electrical power engineering field. In order to predict the optimal operating point of solar PV arrays, the development in ANN technology has led to the design of adaptive controllers. The most widely used technology to train a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is through Back Propagation (BP). But, it continues to suffer from limitations such as slow training. In the conventional method , due to the arrival at local minima, it leads to a sub optimal solution. Therefore modelling and fitting for a system may not be obtained from the results. The proposed technique de- scribes a Radial Basis Function-Neural Network (RBF-NN). RBF network acts as a universal approximator and also retains good generalization properties. This configuration keeps the computation fairly economical. In this model, the distance between input and output vector determines the activation of the hidden unit. It has a strong tolerance to input noise which enhances the stability of system. In this paper, there is no risk of encountering local minima problem. One of the most popular and robust methods for reducing Mean Square Error (MSE) for higher order adaptive algorithms is the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method. RBF network yields a considerably better outcome in comparison to the other systems that utilize MLP networks trained by LM method. Genetic algorithm attributes to the optimization technique that replicates the exact process of natural evolution. The simulation of evolution of species is carried out through natural selection that optimizes the strategy for developing best indi- viduals from the progenies. For selecting the number of hidden nodes, hidden layers and network patterns, Genetic Algorithms are used. Until the individual criterion is met, concepts such as inheritance, selection, crossover and mutation are proposed with the aim to find the finest solution to a problem. The GA creates a primary population and then appraises this population by teaching each chromosome a Neural Network. In the search for the finest network considerations, it then improves the population through manifold generations. In this, the number of hidden layers is optimized with the help of Genetic assistance. The RBF-NN is sufficiently trained using a hybrid genetic assisted LM algorithm. Since the algorithm can automatically adjust its network structure, the use of GA-RBF optimization algorithm can be seen as an adaptive system.
In this paper, a new fuzzy logic based resonant pole inverter is designed for BLDC motordrivesystems which is easy to implement in industries. PI controller has also been implemented for comparison with the proposed fuzzy based control scheme With the development of power electronics technique and Permanent magnet material, permanent magnet brushlessDCmotor (BLDC) with trapezoidal back electromotive force(BEMF) have been widely used in many applications of variable-speed drives, which have the advantages of higher power/weight and higher efficiency. In the traditional control scheme, the armature winding on the stator of BLDC is commutated electronically by a six-step inverter that switches according to the signals of rotor position. These signals usually can be obtained from Hall Effect sensors. Moreover, the Hall Effect sensors obtain a lower resolution for the rotor angle which can cause torque ripple and degenerate its performance. In order to improve the control performance of BLDC drive
3.1 Permanent Magnet BrushlessDc Motors (PMBLDCM) PMBLDCM are widely used in many applications such as motors, sensors, actuators, etc. Permanent magnet motors with trapezoidal back EMF and sinusoidal back EMF have several advantages over other motor types. Most notably, they are lower maintenance due to the elimination of the mechanical commutator and they have a high-power density which makes them ideal for high-torque-to weight ratio applications. Compared to induction machines, they have lower inertia allowing for faster dynamic response to reference commands. Also, they are more efficient due to the permanent magnets which results in virtually zero rotor losses. Permanent magnet brushlessdc (PMBLDC) motors  could become serious competitors to the induction motor for servo applications. The PMBLDC motor is becoming popular in various applications because of its high efficiency, high power factor, high torque, simple control and lower maintenance. The major disadvantage with permanent magnet motors is their higher cost and relatively higher complexity introduced by the power electronic converter used to drive them. The added complexity is evident in the development of a torque/speed regulator. The magnetization directions and intensities are analyzed using finite element analysis with a detailed magnetization procedure for ferrite bonded magnets used in inner-rotor type BLDC motors . The effect of stator resistance on average-value modeling of electromechanical systems consisting of BLDC motor and 120-degree inverter systems, including commutation current has been presented. It is shown that the model becomes more accurate both in time and frequency domains for the motors with large stator resistance typically operate with small commutation angle.
The concept of the proposed system is to have closed loop control system of the BLDC motor. The electrical energy is generated by using solar photovoltaic array which converts energy of light into electrical energy. This signifies the adoption of renewable energy for the system. The solar photovoltaic array is followed by the Buck –Boost converter. The Buck Boost converter is a Dc-Dc converter. The output voltage magnitude of a buck-boost converter is either greater or lesser than the input voltage magnitude. The output of the buck boost converter is supplied to the driver circuitry. The driver circuitry is used BLDC motor. The Hall signals generated from the hall sensors of the motor is supplied to the controller which then controls the driver circuitry of the motor.
The major function of this proposed research is to control the speed of the brushlessDCmotor with sensor less control for four-switch three phase inverter. This proposed system is simplified the topological structure of the conventional six-switch three phase inverter. In this proposed method, a new structure of four-switch three phase inverter  with reduced number of switches for system is introduced to reduce the mechanical commutation, switching losses that occur in the six-switch method. The proposed inverter fed brushlessDCmotor used in sensorless control schemes which is used for sensing positioning signals. To improve sensor less control perfor- mance, four-switch electronic commutation modes based proportional intergral controller scheme is implemented. In this four-switch three phase inverter reduction of switches, low cost control and saving of hall sensor were incorporated. The feasibility of the proposed sensor less control four-switch three phase inverter fed brushlessDCmotordrive is implemented, analysed using MATLAB/SIMULINK, effective simulation results have been validated out successfully.
The closed loop simulation design of PBLDC system is given in the Fig.1. The total system is a closed loop control scheme with rotor position is constant typically 60 degrees electrically for a six-step commutation. The proposed BLDC drive topology consists of BLDCM, multilevel inverter, PWM pulse generator circuit, and rotor angle sensor which detects its position in degrees. The rotor position or angle is measured using a Hall Effect sensor and its corresponding back emf generation is described in Table I. It contains an electronic commutator, so that the power input waveform to the winding is in sequence with the proper rotor position. The logic and switching are achieved using electronics for commutation to convert the information about the rotor position to the correct excitation for the stator phases. The relating norm among the BLDC drive and the hall-effect position sensor is evocative of the miniaturized magnetic position encoder, which are developed on 3-ph hall position sensor. A permanent magnet is placed at corner of the revolving shaft and magnetic sensor underneath it. This forms a parallel magnetic field is created by the magnet to the surface of the sensor. Magnetic sensor gives sensitive directions to the surface. Using closed loop mechanism motor performance is improved, where three signals are required with a phase shift of 120o as it has three signals. The 3-ph winding of BLDCM uses in each phase one Hall position sensor providing three overlapping angles with 60° phase position. Depending on decoded signal, the desired firing pulses are produced by a PWM which are given to the inverter. This voltage source inverter provides excitation the stator winding making the motor to run at desired speed and torque.
ABSTRACT: The use of a permanent magnet brushlessDCmotor in low power appliances is increasing because of its features of high efficiency, wide speed range, and low maintenance. The international Power Quality standard IEC 61000-3-2 recommends a high power factor and low total harmonic distortion of ac mains current for Class-A applications, which includes many household equipments. The conventional scheme of a brushlessDCmotor fed by a diode bridge rectifier with a high value of dc-link capacitor draws a non sinusoidal current from AC mains which are rich in harmonics causing the distortion of supply current to be high, which results in low power factor. The Improved Power quality based sensorless control of brushlessDCmotordrive uses a power factor correction based Cuk converter to feed the brushlessdcmotordrive. The prime advantage of making the BLDC motor sensorless is that the weight mounted on the rotor shaft can be drastically reduced. The susceptibility of the sensors to external environment factors and consequent variations in the machine performance can also be avoided. Also there is reduction in the cost of the overall system due to the absence of sensors. The entire performance has been evaluated using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Ehsan Boloor Kashani was born in Kashan, Iran in 1985. He received the B.Sc. from Azad University of Najaf Abad, Isfahan, Iran in 2010 with honors, and M.Sc. from University of Kashan, Iran in 2012 and he Studying Ph.D. at the university of Kashan. His research interests are digital design implementation, ac and BLDC motor drives, power electronics, photovoltaic energy and DSP based control systems and industrial control systems engineering.
Abstract —This paper describes an optimal regenerative braking control scheme for a permanent magnet brushlessDCmotor to achieve goals of the electric brake with energy regeneration. During the braking period, the proposed method only changes the switching sequence of the inverter to control the inverse torque so that the braking energy will return to the battery. Compared with the presented methods, the proposed solution simultaneously achieves dual goals of the electric brake and the energy regeneration without using additional converter, ultra capacitor, or complex winding- changeover technique. Since the braking kinetic energy is converted into the electrical energy and then returns to the battery, the energy regeneration could increase the efficiency of BLDCM drive.
---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - A brushlessDC (BLDC) motor has several application in medical, industrial, aeronautical field. A configuration of Luo converter with high frequency isolation for feeding brushlessDC (BLDC) motordrive with power quality improvements at AC mains is presented. A low frequency switching of the voltage source inverter (VSI) is used for reducing the switching losses associated with the six solid-state switches of VSI (Voltage Source Inverter). This is obtained by electronic commutation of BLDC motor and adjusting the DC bus voltage of the VSI for speed control. The isolated- Luo converter is designed in discontinuous inductor current mode (DICM) for voltage control and power factor correction is achieved inherently at the AC mains using a single voltage sensor. Performance of drive is evaluated for improved power quality at AC mains for varying speeds and supply voltages. The simulation of the circuit is done in PSIM and results are obtained.
Abstract—BLDC motor is a synchronous motor that commonly used in various application either industrial or domestically. In this paper Single Input Fuzzy PID Controller (SIFPIDC) were used as a speed controller for brushlessDCmotor (BLDC) drive. A simplified FLC has been developed by reducing the number of rules to solve the problems of lengthy design time cycle. SIFPIDC has simple generation and tuning process and provides an exceptional response for cases of large signal disturbance. The control structure of BLDC motordrive is fed up by 3 phase inverter and has 2 closed loops, where the inner loop is to control the current while the outer loop to control the speed of the motor. Simulation is done by using MATLAB/Simulink with fuzzy control and its input values are modelled using fuzzy toolbox. The Simulation result is observed through speed response, torque ripple, torque output under normal condition and fuzzy logic condition. SIFPIDC is as expected to produce a response which is similar to the conventional PID controller.
applications such as in battery operated vehicles, wheel chairs, automotive fuel pumps, machine tools, robotics, aerospace and in other various industrial applications because of their superior electrical and mechanical characteristics. The conventional controllers fail to give the desired performance in the BLDC motor control systems due to non-linearity arising out of the variations in the system parameters and the change in load. This paper presents a comparative study between PID and Fuzzy controller for the speed control of the BrushlessDCmotor. MATLAB/SIMULINK is used to carry out the simulation.
If the driver power is turned on first when connected as shown in the figure below, or the external control device power is turned off with the driver power turned on, current will be applied, as indicated by the arrows in the diagram. This may cause the motor to run. When the power is turned on or off simultaneously, the motor may run temporally due to differences in power capacity. The external control device power must be turned on first, and driver power must be turned off first.
Windings in the stator can be arranged in both star and delta pattern. The star configuration at low RPM gives high torque while the delta configuration gives low torque at low RPM. Each winding is constructed with numerous coils interconnected with each other and these windings are distributed over the stator to generate the required number of poles. We can also divide BLDC motors in two types according to the stator windings variant i.e. trapezoidal motors and sinusoidal motors. This di ff erence is created on the basis of the interconnection of the coils in the windings to give di ff erent type of back EMF. Sinusoidal motors are smooth rotating motors which make them popular for applications which require quiet operation and low vibration but these type of motors need additional cost of windings and also the compli- cated algorithm to control. The lamination in stator can be slotted or slotless as shown in the Figure 1.5. A slotted core has high inductance which reduces the speed range of the BLDC motor. Therefore slotless core is more suitable for high speed requirements but they increase the cost as slotless core needs more winding to compensate for the air gap.
In each of the commutation sequence one of the winding is positively energized, second one is negatively energized and the third winding is kept as non-energized. The net effect produced by the interaction of permanent magnet rotor and stator causes the production of mechanical torque, and that leads to the rotation of BLDC motor. The peak torque occurs when these two fields are at 90° to each other and falls off when they overlap each other. To keep the motor running, it is necessary to keep the magnetic field produced by the windings to shift in position, when the rotor move to catch up with the stator field. BLDC motors are usually operated with three Hall Effect position sensors as it is necessary to keep the excitation in synchronization with the rotor position. While considering different factors like reliability, mechanical packaging and cost, and it is desirable to run the motor without position detecting sensors, and it is commonly known as sensorless operation. To determine the instant at which the commutation of motordrive voltage drive should occurs is decided by sensing the back-EMF voltage on an undriven motor terminal during one of the drive phases. Advantage of sensorless control is the cost and complexity of installation of Hall position
The A4936 is a complete 3-phase brushlessDCmotor pre-driver, supplying up to 28 V output for direct, high-current gate drive of an all N-channel power MOSFET 3-phase bridge. The device has three Hall-element inputs, a sequencer for commutation control, fixed off-time pulse width modulation (PWM) current control, and locked-rotor detection.
ABSTRACT: Brushlessdc motors have been widely used in industrial automation and consumer appliances because of their higher efficiency and power density. BLDC motor has permanent magnets in rotor assembly to generate steady state magnetic field, due to this it is advantageous compared to induction motors. This paper presents a power factor correction (PFC) based bridgeless-canonical switching cell (BL-CSC) converter fed brushlessDC (BLDC) motordrive. The proposed BL-CSC converter operating in a discontinuous inductor current mode is used to achieve a unity power factor at the AC mains using a single voltage sensor. The speed of BLDC motor is controlled by varying the DC bus voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding four switch BLDC motor via a PFC converter. It is an adequate try on reducing the cost. Therefore, the BLDC motor is electronically commutated such that the VSI operates in fundamental frequency switching for reduced switching losses. Moreover, the bridgeless configuration of CSC converter offers low conduction losses due to partial elimination of diode bridge rectifier at the front end. The proposed configuration shows a considerable increase in efficiency as compared to the conventional scheme. The performance of the proposed drive is validated through experimental results obtained on a developed prototype.
The permanent magnet brushlessDC (BLDC) motor is employed to drive a centrifugal water pump coupled to its shaft. The BLDC motor is selected because of its merits [7,9]useful for the development of suitable water pumping system. This electronically commutated BLDC motor [9- 11] is supplied by a voltage source inverter (VSI) which is operated by fundamental frequency switching resulting in low switching losses [12-15]. Suitability of the proposed SPV array fed water pumping system subjected to various operating and environmental conditions is demonstrated by satisfactory simulated results using MATLAB/Simulink environment.
Abstract:- Among numerous motors, brushlessdcmotor (BLDCM) is preferred in many low and medium power applications including household appliances, industrial tools, heating ventilation and air-conditioning(HVAC),medical equipments, and precise motion control systems. BLDCM is preferred because of its high torque/inertia ratio, high efﬁciency, ruggedness, and low-electro-magnetic interference (EMI) problems. The stator of the BLDCM consists of three-phase concentrated windings and rotor has permanent magnets. It is also known as an electronically commutated motor (ECM) since an electronic commutation based on rotor position via a three- phase voltage source inverter (VSI) is used. Therefore, the problems associated with brushes, such as sparking, and wear and tear of the commutator assembly are eliminated.
Extensive research has been carried out on the torque ripple reduction for BLDC machines with ideal trapezoidal back EMF. Generally, the phase currents of a BLDC machine are controlled to follow rectangular waveforms which are considered to be ideal for the two-phase conducting mode of the BLDC machine. During commutation, the torque generation is mainly contributed by current in the non-commutated phase. The unequal rising or falling rate of the incoming and outgoing phase currents results in a dip in the non-commutated phase current, which in turn, distorts the electromagnetic torque generation. BLDC machine rarely has the ideal trapezoidal back EMF due to many factors such as the stator winding function, magnetization direction of rotor permanent magnets and imperfections in machine manufacturing. If the phase currents are still controlled to follow rectangular waveforms for a BLDC machine with non-ideal trapezoidal back EMF, the torque will not be constant anymore and it will contain various harmonic components. The torque ripple can cause the mechanical vibration, acoustic noise and bearing damage, hence, reduce the life of the machine. In  current slopes during commutation interval is controlled by a proper duty ratio control by measuring the dc-link current. A dead beat current controller is used to enhance the current control performance. This method prolongs the commutation and is a complex topology. Commutation torque ripple can be minimized by PWM_ON_PWM switching . PWM mode is used in the first 30 degrees and last 30 degrees while keeping turn-on mode in the middle 60 degrees. The dc-link voltage can be controlled to keep the incoming and outgoing phase currents changing at the same rate during commutation . To get the desired dc-link voltage a SEPIC circuit is used to control the inverter input. In  commutation torque ripple of the brushlessdc machine is eliminated with minimum commutation time by speeding up the slow one between incoming and outgoing phase currents.