As two kinds of IS development methods, although both MEASUR (Methods for Eliciting, Analyzing and Specifying User’s Requirement) and RUP (Rational Unified Process) provide their own BusinessModeling Method (BMM), each has obvious merits and demerits. In order to keep the merits and avoid the demerits at the same time, some researchers have correlated the two BMMs. In , Zhiwu Xie et al. pointed out that Ontological Dependencies (OD) in Ontology Charts (OC) derived from MEASUR can be modeled as either nested classes or inheritances in Unified Modeling Language (UML) Class Diagrams (CD) and agents’ norms derived from MEASUR for actions on business terms can be modeled in UML Activity Diagrams (AD). In [2-3], continuing the effort in , Rodrigo Bonacin and Yasser Ades et al. provided rules for transferring OC into UML CD respectively. However, until now, no research has been done to compare the two BMMs respectively from the semantics, pragmatics and social world of the semiotic framework and devise a MEASUR and RUP combined BMM, which keeps the merits and avoids the demerits of the two BMMs at the same time.
Osterwalder (2005) stated in 2005 that the concept of business models was relatively young. In 2011 Zott et al. (2011) wrote that the field of research was developed, but that researchers ‘do not agree on what a business model is’ and he also stated that ‘e-business, strategic issues and innovation and technology management were the main themes of interest’ (p.1020). On the other hand there were some emerging subjects within the concept of business models, namely (1) ‘there was widespread acknowledgement that the business model is a new unit of analysis that is distinct from the product, firm, industry, or network; it was centered on a focal firm, but its boundaries are wider than those of the firm; (2) business models emphasize a system-level, holistic approach to explaining how firms “do business”; (3) the activities of a focal firm and its partners played an important role in the various conceptualizations of business models that have been proposed; and (4) business models seek to explain both value creation and value capture’ (Zott et al., 2011, p.1020). Now, in 2014, researchers agree on the fact that businessmodeling contributes to an organization’s success and the field of research around business models has developed, but the concept is still surrounded by vagueness and that there is still little to no agreement about the compositional facets (Al-Debei & Avison, 2010). In the following sections the concept of a business model is further explained. Different authors with their different opinions, definitions and components will be discussed. At the end of this chapter, the business model of the Trefhoek is given.
The third research question was “What business model design method can be used for Urban Strategy?”. Review of academic literature revealed that research on design methods and tools for business models is scarce. Most studies on business models focus on classification of business models and on defining the components of business models. There is no consensus in literature on these classifications and components, but even if there was, this would not automatically result in business model design methods. As of yet most academic literature seems to be missing the important element of a business model design method. The only hands-on method for business model design that could be found was a book called “Business Model Generation” by Alex Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur. The workshop methodology needed to answer the main research question was based on guidelines from this book and a tool called the business model canvas.
Business applications using IT need typically several different perspectives: IT system perspective, business process perspective and business value perspective. The business process perspective aims for business processes description, information flows needed to accomplish the business targets and the process sequences and workflows. Corresponding business process models represent the operations inside the company. Here are the main issues control and data flow, resource handling and co-ordination of cross-operational processes. Resulting business process models depict the sequence of operations inside the company and process states, what is the main advantage of this perspective. On the other side, the value chain perspective illustrates the value flows among process participants inside and outside the company. Value chain based models represent the actual aim of the business – value exchange between the company and the environment. Distinctly from business process, value chain based models do not depict sequences in which these exchanges take place. The main advantage of value chain models is that they capture cross-concern activities and repeated business patterns as the value exchange always has some common features. Both perspectives can be modeled using well known approaches, but they seem difficult to interconnect. Combination of both perspectives leads to a generic company model using a general control circuit as a template. However, business process does not include a process or value factors only. A company can be seen as a social system, too. A social part of the business system brings some local intelligence into consideration. In this paper we analyze shortly business and value chain perspectives of businessmodeling and propose to include the local intelligence part by means of agent approach. The paper is structured as follows. Firstly the process models are generally described. The comparison of process and value chain perspective is presented in the following section. The agent paradigm and one of well known platforms namely the JADE framework is presented. Simple example of agent oriented simulation based on a part of generic company model in the next section shows the possibilities of agent approach. In the last part a general discussion and future research possibilities are presented.
A business process is a logical ordering of people, procedures and technology into work activities designed to transform information, materials and energy into a specified result  . On the other hand, process model or definition is used to describe the process by means of automation is composed of process modeling and enactment phases. In general, three businessmodeling approaches and methodologies might be accepted: business process modeling developed by Prof. A.W. Scheer and is based on four views related to any business process: functional, process, data, organizational and product-process view, while that approach is denoted as standardized approach , approach of increasing the level of automation of business process modeling (BPM) by representing the various spheres of an enterprise using ontology languages and semantic WEB services frameworks, which denoted as semantic approach  and approach, which is closed to extraction of business rules (BR), while two approaches have been used to extract BR from process specifications written in form of text in natural language (TNL –text in natural
development in information technology including industrial informatics. Enterprise Systems integrate business processes and align IT to support business strategy and workflow technology is essential and is threaded through the very core of the system architecture. Business process is one of the main tool to develop workflow technology. Business process specifies various business logics and handles different business operations. Thus, business process modeling  plays important role in operating modern enterprises. However, business process is time consuming process which often involves selecting concrete activities to be performed such as determining their execution order and dealing with the exceptions that may occur. Business process is complex process. Besides, in modern commerce, both frequent changes of custom demands and the specialism of the business process require the capacity of modelingbusiness processes for enterprises in an effective and efficient manner. Existing processes improving businessmodeling use workflow mining and process retrieval and require much manual work.
It can be observed from Figure 10 that the strategic elements (objectives) are used as a base element for the cluster analysis and relevant colour coding. The tactical/execution elements such as Processes, Initiatives and Epics are mapped on the Y-axis with the Capabilities mapped on the X- axis. These views help to highlight the links and gaps between the objectives and their execution. It is observed that other than a few capabilities, which have 1-2 objectives aligned, the rest of the capabilities have 4-6 epics, initiatives and processes, as shown in Figure 10. It means that these are the areas (epics, initiatives) that Vitality is currently investing in; however, these areas seem not to be aligned or linked to any objectives, and thus this provides the insights which indicate the non- strategic alignment of the current investments. This business analytics-enabled approach to BA modeling offered an interesting insight and highlighted a potential gap between strategy and execution (epics, initiatives). This may drive actions such as stopping the certain initiatives which are not aligned to strategic objectives. Thus, this indicates the adaptive nature of the BA as enabled by the analytics and evidence.
The activity of modeling a business process usually predicates a need to change processes or identify issues to be corrected. This transformation may or may not require IT involvement, although that is a common driver for the need to model a business process. Change management programmes are desired to put the processes into practice. With advances in technology from larger platform vendors, the vision of business process models (BPM) becoming fully executable (and capable of round-trip engineering) is coming closer to reality every day. Supporting technologies include Unified Modeling Language (UML), model-driven architecture, and service-oriented architecture.
There is a cost for these posted deals however. In order to encourage new customers to visit their places of business, merchants must first offer their wares at discounted rates. These coupons often offer a savings to the consumer at the expense of the merchant. The remaining profits can be further reduced by up to half by the distributors as a publishing fee. This can leave as little as 25% for the merchant to claim on its original product or service. To try to alleviate the cost of publishing the deals, eBay has proposed an online marketplace. This marketplace would be an online auction house where merchants could post a deal they would like published and the coupon distributors would bid on the right to sell the deal to the public. Currently, online coupons are only profitable for merchants approximately 67% of the time . This marketplace would save the merchants money and make these deals more popular and accessible to consumers. The name for this proposed marketplace where local merchants sell discounted goods and services is eBay Local.
69 The need of this study is generated by the environment, and the knowledge used to carry out the study is provided by the knowledge base . The environment is composed of people, organizations and technologies (existing or planned). People have different roles and capabilities within organizations. The roles that are considered within the scope of this study are EM practitioners, i.e., external consultants that carry out an EM activity as part of a knowledge sharing or business development project , in order to deal with one or several dimensions of a business and IT alignment problem within an enterprise. The other aspect of this research is the knowledge base, which is composed of Foundations and Methodologies. Foundations are existing theories and studies in the field, whereas Methodologies provide guidelines that can be used to Justify and Evaluate the central artifact of the study. Applying the chosen foundations and methodologies enables us to achieve rigor in research. The foundations used in this study are existing theories and studies in the EM, BITA domains and other related areas, which are described in detail in Section 3. The methodologies used during this study are systematic and focused literature reviews and interviews. The details regarding the interviews are presented in Section 2.1, and those regarding the literature reviews are included in Section 2.2.
The circles represent events, which indicate notable occurrences during the ordering process. For instance, the ordering process is started when an order is received. The envelope inside the event element indicates that the event is triggered by receiving an actual message (e.g. a letter or e-mail). There is also an event present at the border of the ‘Process Order’ task. A boundary event represents a deviation or exception which can occur during the execution of the task. In this particular case, the event represents that the customer who placed the order is not known by the business. The symbol inside the event means that this is an Error Event and the bold face of the event means that the process ends when the event occurs. End Events with specific types can lead to follow-up actions, assuming the process in figure 9 is used as a sub-process in another diagram. Another use of events can be seen after the invoice has been sent. An Intermediate Message Event is used to represent the event of receiving payment, whereas an Intermediate Timer Event is used to represent a fourteen day delay. What this means is that when payment is not received within fourteen days, the order is escalated. Intermediate Events are events which do not start or end a process and are represented by a double border.
We consider the typical example of an order process as a short use case for semantic business process models: when an order arrives in a company, the sales assistant checks the given prices and forwards the order to the customer service who enters the positions in the ERP software and automatically forwards the order to the warehouse department. There, the availability of the articles is checked and feedback is given to the customer, if some parts are available or not. Otherwise, everything is packed and labelled and all documents are finalized for the express agent to deliver them. The resulting process model looks like in Figure 4.
c) Formal confirmation techniques. To begin with, we get the vindictive conduct from the perspective of pernicious customers as indicated by the pernicious conduct display. Next, we break down the made EBPN with a malignant conduct arrangement, furthermore, infer the connection diagram of the pernicious conduct succession and lawful advances. Finally, by utilizing EBPN's dynamic properties, we determine whether an on the Online shopping business process can withstand malevolent conduct designs. Utilizing the proposed approach, fashioners can distinguish issues right on time in a plan procedure and right them before the framework acknowledgment, and dodge misfortunes caused by their Solution method. Therefore, one can create more dependable frameworks speedier and at bring down expenses with the proposed technique.
Abstract Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is a new research orientation for developing software, and has multi-tenancy architecture and customization features, which are very suitable for performance and benchmark test of OLTP transactions. And Bank Intermediary Business (BIB) is the most important business of Bank financial system. This paper focuses on establishing the SaaS-based BIB performance and benchmark architecture and proposes the SaaS-based BIB Database Model (SaaS-BIB-DM), the architecture layer (SaaS-BIB-AL), the data flow view (SaaS-BIB-DF) and the representative transaction model (SaaS-BIB-TM). The database is further extended with the SaaS hybrid two-layer partition methodology and the performance is proved to be better than that in three-tier C/S architecture. And the specific SaaS-based BIB architecture which we proposed is 4-level SaaS-based architecture. Based on the analysis the state-of-art of BIB and SaaS, the paper further investigates future trend of SaaS-based performance testing architecture and benchmark.
As it was mentioned before, in SOA projects the main focus is on business needs. These business needs can be expressed in the form of managerial business rules that aggregate different business rules that affect the structure and behavior of the system. One of the most common managerial objectives of service-oriented business is customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction can be described as a function of many interrelated factors. For our e-commerce company, customer satisfaction can be a function of factors such as the website usability, its functionality, availability and interactivity, the time needed to deliver the products, the system response during customer interaction, and the system capacity for processing orders, among others. It results clear that even though all these factors contribute to the fulfillment of our general business rule, not all of them can be dealt with at the same level of the service-oriented architecture. For the purpose of this paper, we will focus on one of these business rules that lead to customer satisfaction: the ability of the system to process the orders placed by the company’s customers. Again, this ability depends of several factors including our in-home database services, the performance and availability of the company’s servers and the response of external services, among others.
The bankruptcy prediction literature tends to ignore ownership struc- ture and implicitly assumes companies are stand-alone entities. On the European Continent this assumption does not hold because many companies are linked through business groups. As these groups likely actively use internal capital markets, the predictive power of classic bankruptcy predictors (such as liquidity, performance, leverage or effi- ciency) may be different for group companies as compared to stand- alone firms. We show that the univariate performance of liquidity, past performance and current performance ratios is better for stand-alone companies and that sales generating efficiency predicts failure better for group members. Optimised multivariate models confirm these results: sales generating efficiency is only included in a sub-sample consisting of group member companies, while liquidity is only sig- nificant for stand-alone firms. By estimating separate models for the sub-samples of companies, global fit in terms of r 2 improves by up