The subject has developed from what are fairly weighty academic debates about how research should be carried out. Whilst these issues are unquestionably relevant at higher levels of academia, the relevance for undergraduate dissertation students is less apparent. Owing to the highly academic nature of the discipline, the language associated with the subject can be fairly weighty and certainly distracts from the concepts being considered. It is also the case that most businessresearchmethods have been ‘adopted’ from the social sciences, and as such many aspects remain considerably underdeveloped in a business discipline context. Ethnography is an excellent case in point. Few, if any, texts explain satisfactorily the relevance of this methodology to undergraduate business students. A further barrier is that there is a distinct reluctance to admit this lack of development, hence such ideas and concepts are presented as the finished article, whilst in reality they are not. 3.3 Widespread and differing views A third problem is that everyone has an opinion and in many cases an entrenched view on what should be taught in a researchmethods course. This ranges from the diehard positivist to the deep-rooted constructivist and all points in between. The problem is exacerbated for the RM lecturer because the ‘products’ of their labours are served up across a wide range of colleagues through honours dissertation supervision. The student can therefore become further confused as project supervisors advise differently on research issues.
My main criticism is that while the authors claim to present ‘real world examples’ and, as I’ve mentioned, draw on realistic scenarios, walking the reader through a particular approach, they could do more to bring their teachings to life through connecting with business problems and cases. It would be good to see, for example, synopses of real research projects in order to understand typical research questions associated with a particular method. Telling a ‘rich’ story of how a specific business problem was interpreted or understood using qualitative research would strengthen the pedagogy of the book, giving the reader more tangible illustrations to refer to. It would also help position this otherwise intrepid introductory text as an important contribution to the businessresearchmethods canon.
The research process is usually presented as a sequence of between seven and ten distinct stages all of which must be completed for any piece of research to be credible (see Table 1 for a typical list) (Saunders et al, 2015). It is easy to get lost in the welter of detail required to successfully carry out the individual steps. By taking each step separately, BusinessResearchmethods text books (Saunders et al, 2015; Bryman and Bell,2015; Easterby-Smith et al, 2018), lectures, classes and workshops tend to support this outcome. But it is not a linear process. Researchers will iterate between these steps, perhaps revisiting various stages many times, as their understanding of the research problem develops and changes as a result of the findings from other steps such as data analysis and writing up. As table 1 shows, choices are involved at every step, but these are not independent of each other. The final decisions must ensure that the work carried out at each stage forms part of an integrated whole, both supporting and consistent with work carried out at all other stages. It is by writing up the work as it progresses that the researcher develops a more profound understanding of the contribution of each step. This deepening understanding may be one of the triggers for a rethink of work carried out at other perhaps previous stages. The process of writing up is critical to the project (Saunders et al, 2015) - for the researcher in progressing the work and for the ultimate audience in explaining what has been done, why it has been done and what has been found out. Writing skills are tested at every stage of the research process.
herself in the position of the participant or 'subject' and attempts to understand how the world is from that person's perspective. As this process is re-iterated, hypotheses begin to emerge, which are 'tested' against the data of further experiences e.g. people's narratives. One of the key differences between quantitative and qualitative approaches is apparent here: the quantitative approach states the hypothesis from the outset, (i.e. a ‘top down’ approach), whereas in qualitative research the hypothesis or research question, is refined and developed during the process. This may be thought of as a ‘bottom-up’ or emergent approach, as, for example, in Grounded Theory (Charmaz, 1995).This contrast is part of the epistemological positions that shape our assumptions about the world. King and Horrocks summarise some of these main differences in position as being either realist, contextual or constructionist. They compare these to assumptions about the world, the knowledge produced and the role of the researcher (Table 1). These authors, along with others, such as Colin Robson, advocate adopting a pragmatic approach to qualitative research. As Robson observes, “Pragmatism is almost an ‘anti-philosophical’ philosophy which advocates getting on with the research rather than philosophizing – hence providing a welcome antidote to a stultifying over-concern with matters such as ontology and epistemology.” (Robson, 2011, pp.30) 5 .
Methods of data research are becoming increasingly important in the legal domain. After explaining the concept of legal big data, to show that law is an area in which a lot of big data is available, this chapter discusses and illustrates several existing and potential applications of data researchmethods for lawyers and legal researchers. Particular opportunities exist with regard to (1) predictions, (2) searching, structuring and selecting, and (3) decision-making and empirical legal research. These methods constitute an important contribution to legal practice and legal scholarship as they may provide novel unexpected insights and considerably increase efficiency (less resources, more results) and effectiveness (more accurate and reliable results) of legal research, both in legal practice and legal scholarship. This may, among other things, result in improved legal services, new business models, new knowledge and a more solid basis for evidence-based policies and legislation. However, there are also several limits to and drawbacks of the use of these data researchmethods for law. From a methodological perspective, these include the lack of human intuition, an abundance of results that are not always relevant, limited insights in underlying causality, issues with repurposing, self- confirmation, self-fulfilling prophecies and reliability issues. It is concluded that, given the opportunities these developments provide for new business models for legal services and for legal research (both in legal practice and in legal scholarship), it is likely that these methods will be used on a larger scale in the near future and that new and additional methods will be developed. This will change to some extent the way legal work looks like and the job market for lawyers.
Abstract: The research performance of business scholars on the island of Ireland is evaluated based on their number of publication, number of citations, h-index and the same divided by the numbers of years since the first publication. Data were taken from Scopus. There is a large variation in both life-time achievement and annual production. Almost half of the 748 scholars have not published in an academic journal. Men perform better than women. More senior people perform better. There are distinct differences between disciplines, with accountancy performing poorly. On average, scholars in Northern Ireland perform better than scholars in the Republic. However, Trinity College Dublin has the top rank among the eleven business schools; Queen’s University Belfast and University College Dublin share the second place; and NUI Galway and the University of Ulster share the fourth spot. Irish business schools specialize in particular research areas so that mergers would lead to schools can support a broader range of cutting-edge education.
In practice this means the acquisition frequency of order of kilohertz for common laboratory conditions in air turbulence, for liquids the frequency could be considerably lower. For time-resolved methods the event data acquisition is supposed, the unevenly acquired LDA data is not suitable, and then only temporal statistics could be performed. The resolution in space (i.e. size of interrogation area) and in time (i.e. acquisition period) should be in equilibrium. The same size of structures should be resolved in both domains. The structures of subgrid scales, if present, will produce the data noise, which could not be used for analysis. The spatio-temporal data could be scalars (temperature, concentration) or vectors (velocity vectors with 2 or 3 components).
this discipline, with its large number of scholars, has gradually taken a greater importance as compared to the Economic History itself, as was pointed out by Franco Amatori and Geoffrey Jones, in an analysis dedicated to progress of the theme of “history of business enterprise and business systems” in recent decades (see F. Amatori, G. Jones, Business History around the World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). In this regard, should be highlighted the strong autonomy of the History of Japanese firm, noting that: «Keiichiro Nakagawa, the scholar behind the formation of the Business History Society of Japan in 1965, envisioned that the new association would foster dialogue between business and economic historians. In practice, however, participants adopted the methods and approaches of those U.S. business historians who had distanced themselves from economic history» (N. R. Lamoreaux, D. M. G. Raff, P. Temin, Economic Theory and Business History, 2006, p. 9, <http://www.international.ucla.edu/economichistory/naomipage/lrt,%20bus%20hist,%202%20aug%2 02006.pdf>, now in G. Jones, J. Zeitlin (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Business History, New York- Oxford (NY): Oxford University Press, 2008). In Germany, according to tradition, the discipline has developed in the form of company history or entrepreneurial biography, or in a combination of these two disciplines. As noted: «business historians had mainly came out of political and social history, and they worked to make Chandler’s paradigm less abstract—for example, by opening up the “black box” of management and examining the social origins, training, and methods of operation of the professionals who staffed company hierarchies, as well as the role played by large German banks in financing and directing major enterprises (…). They were also preoccupied
At first glance ResearchMethods may look like a technical course alongside the more abstract sociological subjects you have encountered thus far. In some sense, this is true –being able to do research is indeed a practical skill! However, an introduction to researchmethods must encompass more than practical know-how. This is because the domain of social research speaks to key issues around the production of truth. In fact methodology speaks to the heart of academic life, looking at the systems which scholars have come up with over time to gather information about people and social organisation. As you will come to see –methodology is itself a very complex field with many abstract questions which arise from the diverse ways in which new knowledge is produced. Research is an integral part of what C. Wright Mills called our “intellectual craftsmanship”. It is in this spirit that social researchmethods will be introduced!
Accounting and reporting for business combinations has become the centre of our attention because, although theoretically it should not aﬀ ect decisions about a purchase or a sale of a company, understanding of reporting can facilitate an agreement on the price of the transaction including the decision as to what information will be provided to business owners. The strategy and the timing of M&A will be most aﬀ ected by the accounting method used for the creation of statements on the ﬁ nancial situation and performance of the company before the business combination, at the time of the combination and ﬁ nally in the periods a er the combination. One of the aims of the study and the subject of this paper is to evaluate the inﬂ uence of accounting approaches to business combinations on the reported ﬁ nancial situation of participating companies. In order to ascertain the diﬀ erences in accounting approaches and their economic consequences, an analysis of US, international and Czech accounting standards will be conducted.
Constraint automata are used especially in verifying those business processes that involve orchestration. In orchestration, a central co-ordinator is present between the various web services making up the business process. The formal language used to represent the BPEL before converting into automaton is called Reo which guaran- tees possibilities for both model checking and veriﬁcation . Reo consists of primitive connectors consisting of two ends. One end can be source which will be the sender of messages and the other will be sink which will be the recipient. A constrain automata is based on timed data streams in which each element is a pair. Each pair is made of data and time. The time will give information regarding whether the data is being sent or received. The constraint automata has a set of states, initial state, set of ﬁnal states and set of transition relations. The state of the automaton changes over time. At each point of time, there may be a data item in a port of the component. Based on the characteristics of this data item, a transi- tion ﬁres and the state changes accordingly. Any basic or structured activity in BPEL can be mapped onto Reo cir- cuits where each component has a start port and an end port. A tool has also been designed to automatically con- vert BPEL speciﬁcation to Reo circuits and from there to automaton. Further veriﬁcation can be performed on the obtained automaton to study the possible occurrences in the course of the business process in detail.
FAST and this planning activity were partially funded through U.S. Small Business Administration Cooperative Agreement No. SBAHQ-01-R-0013. SBA’s funding is not an endorsement of any products, opinions, or services. All SBA funded programs are extended to the public on a nondiscriminatory basis. The FAST program is sponsored in part by the Colorado
Agile methods have seen widespread adoption in industry, with estimates that more than 80% of development projects now use an agile approach. While agile methods are becoming increasingly popular, they have also a number of limitations, such as their focus on small projects, co-located teams and non- critical software projects. Lero researchers investigate how agile methods can be tailored to address the needs of our industry partners.
As a result of the increasing demand, various institutions providing clinical research have already opened up in India providing both full-time and part-time courses in clinical research. An example is Institute of Clinical Research in India (ICRI) which, through its collaboration with Cranfield University, provides both M.Sc and management courses in clinical research. Many foreign companies are making inroads into India to tap this market. For example, Clinfosource, a provider of e-training for clinical trials, is scouting for pharma companies and universities for partnerships. According to the company, the course content addresses FDA regulations, ICH GCP guidelines, ethical considerations and practical applications.
whose mechanism of action is mainly in the following areas : (1) Bidirectional regulation effect on central nervous system; (2) removing of oxygen free radicals and anti- oxidation; (3) stimulation of the respiratory center, improve blood pressure, improve ventilation; (4) improve vascular permeability, enhancement of cerebral blood flow, protect neurons; (5) improving endothelial dysfunction, prevent thrombosis and improve coronary circulation. Therefore, Xingnaojing injection is for first-aid ill patients critically with significant effect, the popularization and application of essential drugs can be used as rescuing emergency poisoning. Acute CO poisoning : Someone using Xingnaojing combined with naloxone in treatment of acute CO poisoning. The result of the treatment group is with 30 patients curing 19 cases, effective 8 cases, invalid 3 cases, the total efficiency is of 90%; control group of 30 cases and 10 cases are cured, effective 10 cases, invalid 10 cases, the total efficiency rate is of 67%, the difference between two groups are statistically significant (P<0.05). Research has shown that, it is poisoning effect better than conventional western medicine routine + Xingnaojing injection in treatment of acute alcohol. In the conventional treatment under the same condition, XNJI has the similar effect with naloxone .
The family of methods that have most usually been adopted by action researchers embrace some core features, but can vary greatly according to the individual nature of the research enquiry and the skills and needs of its participants (this will be explored in greater depth in later sections of the paper). Some studies are led by researcher or practitioner-led enquiries, whilst others are generated by ‘activist’ communities thems elves. Whoever leads, however, there should be an emphasis on partnership, collaboration and empowerment through participation (Todhunter, 2001). The spectrum of involvement will generally differ according to the pre-existing capacities of the actors involved, as well as the specific circumstances of the project. Cornwall (1996) identifies six main stages of involvement from ‘co - option’ at the lowest level of engagement (where communities are only token representatives but have no real power or input as to the design of the research process), through ‘ compliance ’ where tasks are given to participants but outsiders decide the agenda and direct the process), through ‘consultation’ (where communities are asked their opinions but outsiders decide the appropriate course of action, to ‘cooperation’, ‘co - learning’ and ‘collective action’ (where there is gradually greater involvement of communities along the spectrum and eventually communities enact their own agendas).
Review and presentation of one qualitative method not discussed during the course (7‐9 pages + extended bibliography) (20%) or Review and presentation on how qualitative methods are used within in a given research tradition compared to others (e.g., Phenomenology, Symbolic Interactionism, Dramaturgy and dramatism, Hermeneutics, Gidden’s structuration theory, Institutional Theory, Sociomaterial Practice Theories (20%) Final paper: proposal of a qualitative research project (10 pages max.) (40%)
Writing your research question leads to selecting an appropriate research design, which in turn leads to data collection. But before you can analyze the data you worked so hard to collect, you need to convert the information from data collection forms to a “dataset”. Today that means entering the information into a computer spreadsheet or database, usually with a software package. This activity is commonly, and sometimes pejoratively, called “data entry”. But there is more to data entry than simply typing numbers on a computer keyboard!